Browsing by Author "Kwiek, Marek"
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ItemA Generational Divide in the Polish Academic Profession. A Mixed Quantitative and Qualitative Approach(2017-09-10) Kwiek, MarekIn a recently changing Polish academic environment – following the large-scale higher education reforms of 2009–2012 – different academic generations have to cope with different challenges. Polish academics have been strongly divided generationally, not only in terms of what they think and how they work but also in terms of what is academically expected from them following the reforms. This article explores intra-national cross-generational differences based on a combination of quantitative (surveys, N = 3704) and qualitative (interviews, N = 60) primary empirical evidence used according to the mixed-methods approach methodology and its ‘sequential’ research design. This article explores the major dimensions of the intergenerational divide between younger and older academic generations (and how they are related to both post-1989 developments and recent reforms). It shows the power of research at a micro-level of individuals, complementing the traditional research at aggregated institutional and national levels. Implications for Central European systems are shown. ItemAcademe in transition: Transformations in the Polish academic profession(2003) Kwiek, MarekThe period since 1989 has been an extremely dynamic one in Polish higher education. New opportunities have opened up for the academic community, along with new challenges. Suddenly, the academic profession has arrived at a stage that combines far-reaching autonomy with rather uncertain individual career prospects. In recent years, a number of new laws have been proposed that were intended to change the whole structure of recruitment, promotions, remuneration, working conditions, and appointments of academic faculty. All this has occurred admidst the strains and tensions resulting from changes in the broader society. The sudden passage from the more or less elite higher education system to mass higher education with a strong and dynamic private sector has transformed the situation of the academic community beyond all recognition. The transition has resulted in a new set of values and changes in position, tasks, and roles for academe in society. Today, the future of the Polish academic profession remains undetermined. The positive changes were accompanied by the chronic underfunding of public higher education. Polish academics have learned to accommodate themselves to the permanent state of uncertainty in which they are forced to operate. The present paper analyzes the current situation from the perspective of global changes affecting the academic profession. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurialism and Changing Governance in Universities. Evidence from Empirical Studies(2015) Kwiek, MarekEntrepreneurial universities are increasingly important points of reference for international and European-level policy discussions on reforming higher education systems, and especially on a shift in its financing towards more self-reliance and its secure sustainable development in competitive environments. The chapter analyzes academic entrepreneurialism as emerging from recent European comparative (theoretical and empirical) studies. It outlines the theoretical (and ideological) “modernization agenda” of European universities promoted by the European Commission. Case studies of selected European institutions show that the modernization processes in question (and their emphasis on academic entrepreneurialism widely understood) have already been in progress in numerous institutions in different systems across Europe. Case studies analyzed in the chapter also stress the pivotal role of changing governance at most entrepreneurially-oriented European universities. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)(2013) Kwiek, MarekIn this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the difference in the sense of the term of academic entrepreneurialism related to the public and private sectors across Europe. An extended analysis will be devoted to differences in how academic entrepreneurialism operates in both sectors in practice. This chapter is structured as follows: following this introduction, part two discusses the phenomenon of increasing diversification of the financial base and new sources of revenues of entrepreneurial universities, focusing on the fact that over the past two decades in OECD countries, increases in funding for higher education and research occurred in all sources other than the core, traditional and guaranteed government support (whose role has been decreasing gradually for several years). Therefore, the principle of competition plays a key role in entrepreneurial educational institutions: even state funding is becoming more competitive than ever before but, most importantly, all other revenue sources are becoming almost fully competition-based. The third part examines the role of Burton Clark's “strengthened steering core” in entrepreneurial private institutions, and in the fourth part another feature of the entrepreneurial university is addressed, that is the “expanded developmental periphery” (i.e. new scientific and administrative units that attract to universities an increasing proportion of external funding). The fifth part on the “stimulated academic heartland” shows that academic entrepreneurialism can be found across all academic disciplines, while the sixth part discusses the critical role of emergent, institution-wide culture of entrepreneurialism. Finally, findings on the entrepreneurial nature of private institutions in the comparative context of public institutions to which the category has been traditionally referred are presented: paradoxically, the private sector in Europe (based on empirical research on Portuguese, Polish, Spanish and Italian private institutions) turns out to be far less entrepreneurial than could be expected. Conclusions are less paradoxical in the case of Central and Eastern Europe: small islands of academic entrepreneurialism – viewed by Burton Clark, Michael Shattock and Gareth Williams as institutions (or their parts) taking academic and financial risk in their research, in search of prestige and external funding – can be found almost exclusively in the public sector. The private sector, focused on teaching rather than research in an overwhelming number of institutions, funded in 90-95 percent by tuition fees paid by students, is not a sector where academic entrepreneurialism in a sense adopted so far in the research literature can be found. While traditional (research-based) academic entrepreneurialism is found across Western European systems, private institutions in Central and Eastern Europe tends to exhibit entrepreneurial features only in teaching-oriented activities. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (CPP RPS 11/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Kwiek, MarekIt seems very difficult to analyze private universities in Europe in the context of entrepreneurialism in the form the concept has emerged in the basic literature and available case studies. The private sector in higher education, in general, from the point of view of both numbers of institutions, share of enrolments in the sector, and study areas offered, has been a phenomenon of the transition/accession countries. At the same time, the conceptual framework currently used to analyze “entrepreneurialism” in higher education seems somehow restricted in use to public sector institutions. Very few scholars ever refer to private institutions in their discussions of entrepreneurship. On European grounds, not only experiences with private higher education have been very limited – but also the emergent concepts related to entrepreneurialism derived from analytical work on the public sector and rarely touched on the private sector. The present paper is based on the conceptual work on “entrepreneurial” and “proactive” universities (by Burton Clark), “self-reliant” and “enterprising” universities (by Michael Shattock and Gareth Williams) and Barbara Sporn’s notion of “adaptive” universities. In empirical terms, it is based on case studies of entrepreneurial universities, both from Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe. We have a closer look at entrepreneurialism of private institutions studied within the EU 6th Framework Programme EUEREK European Universities for Entrepreneurship – Their Role in the Europe of Knowledge project in the context of what Clark, Shattock, Williams and Sporn suggest mostly for the study of public institutions. Therefore a context of entrepreneurialism in the form of Clarks’ five elements: a strengthened steering core, an expanded developmental periphery, a diversified funding base, the stimulated academic heartland, and the integrated entrepreneurial culture is revisited, and referred to the private sector, followed by conclusions. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurialism vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures in European Universities (Chapter 5)(2013) Kwiek, MarekIn this chapter we will discuss a historically relatively new phenomenon in European higher education systems: academic entrepreneurialism – especially with regard to governance and management. Entrepreneurial universities seem to be increasingly important points of reference for international and European-level policy discussions about the future of higher education. Entrepreneurial institutions, functionally similar although variously termed, currently seem to be an almost natural reference points in both national discussions on reforming higher education systems, and especially a shift in its financing towards more financial self-reliance, as well as in EU-level discussions on how to secure the sustainable development of public universities in increasingly hostile financial environment and increasingly powerful intersectoral competition for public subsidies of higher education with other state-funded public services. An important point of reference of this chapter is the future role of universities from the perspective presented and promoted for more or less a decade (throughout the 2000s and beyond) by the European Commission, especially in the context of the transformation of university management and university governance. The second part of the chapter presents changes as suggested by the European Commission (in the framework of broad discussions on the Bologna Process and the Lisbon Strategy). Next we analyze academic entrepreneurialism, as emerging from recent European comparative (theoretical and empirical) studies in this area, especially a three-year international research project EUEREK (“European Universities for Entrepreneurship: Their Role in the Europe of Knowledge”). In the third part, academic entrepreneurialism is linked to risk management at European universities and legal and institutional conditions that favor its formation are studied. Increased risk is associated with an increase in uncertainty currently experienced by the vast majority of European education systems. In the fourth part, we study a clash of traditional academic values with managerial values in the functioning of academic institutions, and we address the issue of academic entrepreneurialism in the context of traditional academic collegiality, various ways of minimization of tensions in the management of educational institutions. And in its sixth part, we pass on to the discussion of complex relationships between academic entrepreneurialism and centralization and decentralization of the university power. In the seventh part, we discuss the location of academic entrepreneurialism in different parts of educational institutions. Conclusions come back to a wider vision of higher education as it appears in the documents of the European Commission and shows their convergences and divergences with academic entrepreneurialism as studied through empirical material throughout the chapter. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurship vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures at European Universities (CPP RPS 5/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Paper Series, 2007) Kwiek, MarekThe paper is discussing academic entrepreneurship in the context of changes in university management and governance ongoing in European universities. The comparative perspective of the paper is provided by the EU EUEREK research project: “European Universities for Entrepreneurship: Their Role in the Europe of Knowledge” (2004-2007, 6th Framework Programme), comprising seven European countries, and it draws heavily from ideas and research results of Burton Clark, Michael Shattock and Gareth Williams. It is intended to view transformations in university governance and management in the context of the European Commission‟s recent emphasis on the vital role of changes in institutional governance in its “modernisation agenda for universities”. It starts (section 2) with a general discussion of the EC‟s prioritization of areas of transformation of European universities in which governance structures figure prominently. Then in section 3 it discusses the role of (academic, reputational, and financial) risk-taking at entrepreneurial institutions which is viewed as their core feature, and shows the role of risk management in both public and private institutions. The next section discusses the unavoidable clash of old academic and new managerial values at entrepreneurial universities and the institutional ways to deal with it. Tensions between the university center and base academic units are discussed in section 5 and the context is provided by the traditional academic idea of collegiality. A move away from (but not getting rid of) collegiality in university management at public entrepreneurial universities studied is emphasized. Different governance and management structures are reported in small private institutions – they can be simplified to the extreme and the phenomenon is related to their fundamental financial uncertainty, studied as an example of the survival culture developed in the last fifteen years especially in European transition economies. The pivotal role of strategic committees and strong management groups is shown. Section 6 discusses entrepreneurship as a phenomenon appearing at both (not too) centralized and (not too) decentralized institutions and, in more detail, “earned income” policies found at the core of transformations of the University of Warwick from 1980s onwards and the crucial role of strategic committees in changes in resource allocation models and in resulting changes in university‟s priority research areas. Section 7 discusses the spread of academic entrepreneurship across institutions and highlights the difference between most entrepreneurial university units in Western Europe (research in natural sciences and technology in public universities) and in most EU transition countries (teaching-related entrepreneurship in social sciences and economics in both public and private institutions). Finally, tentative conclusions are given. ItemAcademic Generations and Academic Work: Patterns of Attitudes, Behaviors and Research Productivity of Polish Academics after 1989(2015) Kwiek, MarekThis paper focuses on a generational change taking place in the Polish academic profession: a change in behaviors and attitudes between two groups of academics. One was socialized to academia under the communist regime (1945-1989) and the other entered the profession in the post-1989 transition period. Academics of all age groups are beginning to learn how tough the competition for research funding is, but young academics (“academics under 40”), being the target of recent policy initiatives, need to learn faster. Current reforms present a clear preferred image for a new generation of Polish academics: highly motivated, embedded in international research networks, publishing mostly internationally, and heavily involved in the competition for academic recognition and research funding. In the long run, without such a radical approach, any international competition between young Polish academics (with a low research orientation and high teaching hours) and their young Western European colleagues (with a high research orientation and low teaching hours) seems inconceivable, as our data on the average academic productivity clearly demonstrate. The quantitative background of this paper comes from 3,704 returned questionnaires and the qualitative background from 60 semi-structured in-depth interviews. The paper takes a European comparative approach and contrasts Poland with 10 Western European countries (using 17,211 returned questionnaires). ItemAcademic top earners. Research productivity, prestige generation, and salary patterns in European universities(2018-03-11) Kwiek, MarekThis article examines highly paid academics—or top earners—employed across universities in ten European countries based on large-scale international survey data regarding the academic profession. It examines the relationships between salaries and academic behaviors and productivity, as well as the predictors of becoming an academic top earner. While, in the Anglo-Saxon countries, the university research mission typically pays off at an individual level, in Continental Europe, it pays off only in combination with administrative and related duties. Seeking future financial rewards solely through research does not seem to be a viable strategy in Europe, but seeking satisfaction in research through solving research puzzles is also becoming difficult, with the growing emphasis on the ‘relevance’ and ‘applicability’ of fundable research. Thus, both the traditional ‘investment motivation’ and ‘consumption motivation’ to perform research decrease, creating severe policy implications. The primary data come from 8,466 usable cases. ItemAcademic vs. biological age in research on academic careers: a large-scale study with implications for scientifically developing systems(2022-04) Kwiek, Marek; Roszka, WojciechBiological age is an important sociodemographic factor in studies on academic careers (research productivity, scholarly impact, and collaboration patterns). It is assumed that the academic age, or the time elapsed from the first publication, is a good proxy for biological age. In this study, we analyze the limitations of the proxy in academic career studies, using as an example the entire population of Polish academic scientists and scholars visible in the last decade in global science and holding at least a PhD (N = 20,569). The proxy works well for science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) disciplines; however, for non-STEMM disciplines (particularly for humanities and social sciences), it has a dramatically worse performance. This negative conclusion is particularly important for systems that have only recently visible in global academic journals. The micro-level data suggest a delayed participation of social scientists and humanists in global science networks, with practical implications for predicting biological age from academic age. We calculate correlation coefficients, present contingency analysis of academic career stages with academic positions and age groups, and create a linear multivariate regression model. Our research suggests that in scientifically developing countries, academic age as a proxy for biological age should be used more cautiously than in advanced countries: ideally, it should be used only for STEMM disciplines. ItemAcademic Work, Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction(2013) Kwiek, Marek; Antonowicz, DominikIn this analysis of changing academic work, working conditions and job satisfaction in Europe, we present the academics’ assessment of facilities, resources and personnel.Subsequently, an overview will be provided about the academic workload and allocation of time between the four major types of academic activities: teaching, research, service and administration. A further section will discuss job satisfaction and academics’ income. This chapter provides a general picture of the variety of views and activities in 12 European countries, where differences between junior and senior academic staff and between academics at universities and at other higher education institutions are presented, whenever relevant. As will be shown below, the facilities and resources are predominantly assessed positively by European academics, with the least positive scores for research funding. Hence, the ratings of those at universities are more positive than of those at other higher education institutions. We also note substantial differences in the assessments of junior and senior academics. ItemAcademic Work, Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction (CPP RPS 48/2013)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2013) Kwiek, Marek; Antonowicz, DominikIn this analysis of changing academic work, working conditions and job satisfaction in Europe, we will present the academics’ assessment of facilities, resources, and personnel. Subsequently, an overview will be provided about the academic workloads and allocation of time between the four major types of academic activities: teaching, research, service, and administration. A further section will discuss job satisfaction and, related to it, the academics’ income. The chapter provides a general picture of the variety of views and activities in 11 European countries, where differences between junior and senior academic staff as well as between academics at universities and at other higher education institutions will be presented, whenever relevant. As will be shown below, the facilities and resources are predominantly assessed positively by European academics, with the least positive scores for research funding. Thereby the ratings of those active at universities are more positive than those active at other higher education institutions, and we note substantial differences as well in the assessments of junior and senior academics. Assessments are by and large most positive in five countries: Finland, Norway, Switzerland, the UK and the Netherlands. Self-declared hours spent on academic work vary as well between European countries, between junior and senior academics, and between academics at universities and other higher education institutions. The longest hours spent at work in higher education institutions (when classes are in session) are reported on average of all academics in Ireland, Italy and Poland and the shortest in the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal. The weekly mean time ranges from 27 hours per week (junior staff in Norway) to 52 hours per week (senior staff in Germany). Senior staff works longer hours than junior staff in all countries analysed. ItemAccessibilité et équité, lois du marché et entrepreneuriat : développements dans l’enseignement supérieur en Europe centrale et de l’Est(OECD, 2008) Kwiek, MarekAccessibilité et équité, lois du marché et entrepreneuriat : développements dans l’enseignement supérieur en Europe centrale et de l’Est ItemAfter Philosophy: The Novelist as Cultural Hero of Modernity? On Richard Rorty's New Pragmatism(New York: Berghahn Books, 1998) Kwiek, MarekRichard Rorty’s approach to literature is consistently – to use his own opposition – ‘solidarity-related’; what he calls the ‘other side’, literary self-creation, remains programmatically and intentionally undiscussed. One gets the impression that literature, and the novel in particular, is being burdened with an (‘unbearable’) heaviness of responsibility. Does the novel in Rorty’s reflections appear as a source of multifarious metaphors, of whole worlds born out of a writer’s imagination? Is there in it another dimension, where mundane obligations no longer bind the human being and where one can give rein to usually hidden desires and passions? The answer is in the negative. ItemAgents, Spectators, and Social Hope Richard Rorty and American Intellectuals(2003) Kwiek, MarekRorty wrote his "Achieving Our Country" as a philosopher, intellectual,academic and citizen, and each of these perspectives lead to a different emphasis in reading his book, and to a different story (and ‘storytelling’ is one of the themes of the book). The emergent pictures vary: the philosopher tells a story of the growing isolation and cultural sterility of analytic philosophy in the United States of America after the Second World War; the intellectual tells a story of the political bareness and practical uselessness of (the majority of) American leftist intellectuals in the context of the emerging new global order at the turn of the 21st century; the academic tells the story about humanities’ departments at American universities, especially departments of literature and cultural studies, and their students, and contrasts their possible future fate with the past fate of departments of analytical philosophy and their students; and, finally, the citizen tells a story about the nationhood, politics, patriotism, reformism (as well as the inherent dangers and opportunities of globalization). Rorty plays the four descriptions off against one another perfectly and Achieving Our Country represents him at his very best: Rorty is passionate, inspiring, uncompromising, biting and very relevant to current public debates. Owing to the intelligent combination of the above perspectives, the clarity and elegance of his prose, and (although not revealed directly) the wide philosophical background provided by his new pragmatism, the book differs from a dozen others written in the 1990s about the American academy and American intellectuals. It also sheds new and interesting light on Rorty’s pragmatism, providing an excellent example of the application of his philosophical views. One has to note that, generally, it is almost impossible to think of any piece written by Rorty outside of the context of his philosophy, and "Achieving Our Country" is no exception to this rule. ItemAn Abundance of Doctoral Students But a Scarcity of Doctorates(2020) Kwiek, MarekThe massification of doctoral studies in Poland has not led to an equivalent increase in doctoral degrees. While the number of doctoral students increased steadily through the 1990s and 2000s, the number of doctorates awarded did not follow suit. Many students entered doctoral programs, but only a minority were ever awarded the degree, as most either dropped out or completed the program but did not defend their dissertation. This disparity between entrants and doctoral degrees awarded is central to understanding the emergent tensions around doctoral education in the Polish context. Based on international comparative statistics, the current intake of 43,000 doctoral students combines overproduction of doctoral students and a scarcity of doctorates. In the Polish context, only one in four doctoral students are ultimately awarded a doctoral degree. It follows that the processes affecting the distribution of doctoral education differ from those that determine the distribution of doctorates. The emergent tensions reveal the fundamental difference between the changing higher education system in terms of teaching (where the Bologna Process places doctoral education) and research (where doctorates awarded belong). In Poland, there is the further difference of national statistics, as fields of study used to report doctoral student numbers differ from those used to report doctorates awarded. What has changed fundamentally during this time, however, is the gender composition of doctorate holders, with a gradually increasing share of female doctorates. While 31% of doctorates in 1990 were awarded to females, the percentage rose after a decade of change—to 42% in 2000, and to 53% by 2010. From a gender perspective, the turning point was 2008 when, for the first time in the history of Polish science, the number of female doctorates exceeded the number of male doctorates. Currently, reforms are accelerating and the expectation is that public funding for both higher education and for academic research will be higher. In the center of the reform package there is a concept of competition: between research teams, academic units and institutions, with a new model of academic research assessment to be applied in 2021. The concept includes also new doctoral schools competing for public subsidies and top minds. ItemAnti-Platonism of Rorty’s thought(1996) Kwiek, MarekFrom the perspective of subsequent books and texts by Richard Rorty it can be clearly seen that to have a look at his anti-Platonism and anti-essentialism, it is not enough to read either only Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, or only Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, Consequences of Pragmatism and both volumes of Philosophical Papers. For me it turns out that the impression given by various readings of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature in Reading Rorty - the first serious collected volume devoted to the American pragmatist - is totally misleading, or at least extremely one-sided. The book, it is claimed there, is merely criticism of traditional epistemology carried out on the grounds of American analytic philosophy not too interesting to a wider public (and, possibly, a loose project of philosophy as "conversation", some of them add). And yet it can only be seen retrospectively that the book provides most interesting philosophical "foundations" to later, often more metaphilosophical, literary and cultural ideas. To put it in a nutshell: one can find there the idea of solidarity and self-creation, there is the fundamental question about the place of philosophy in culture rather than merely that about the place of epistemology in philosophy; as well as there is a question about the future of the philosopher in culture, about mechanisms of production and collapse of his self-image, there is also the germ of the project of the "post-Kantian culture", "philosophy without mirrors" and criticism of merely cognitive - and derived from Plato - paradigm of human activity (and from there there is only a step towards discussions of suffering, pain, novels, redescriptions, recontextualization, private/public etc. - as a matter of fact, the whole "turn" seems to me to be a change of rhetoric to the one culturally better understood). ItemAppendix: Polskie szkolnictwo wyższe a transformacje uniwersytetów w Europie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2010) Kwiek, MarekPolskie szkolnictwo wyższe, o ile powiodą się planowane reformy, w 2020 roku będzie w pełni zintegrowane ze szkolnictwem europejskim. Dlatego jego cele i zadania w Polsce nie mogą ignorować tych celów i zadań europejskich systemów edukacyjnych, które wyłaniały się stopniowo w ostatniej dekadzie i które w skali całej Europy stają się coraz bardziej zbieżne. Najważniejsze systemy europejskie już mówią wspólnym głosem, a najbardziej słyszalny dzisiaj w Europie głos Komisji Europejskiej jest de facto głosem właśnie tych najważniejszych systemów. Idee zmian nie rodzą się w izolacji, ale wynikają z doświadczeń transformacji uczelni w najważniejszych gospodarkach Europy z ostatniej dekady (a w przypadku Wielkiej Brytanii – z ostatnich dwóch dekad). Nigdy przedtem w historii powojennej integracji europejskiej polityka edukacyjna państw Unii Europejskiej nie stawiała sobie tak zbliżonych celów, państwa te nie posługiwały się w swoich dokumentach tak bliskimi – i zarazem tak nowymi w porównaniu z poprzednimi dekadami – kategoriami (jak choćby zatrudnialność absolwentów, rozliczalność uczelni, mobilność kadry akademickiej czy samodzielność finansowa uczelni). Nigdy przedtem nie toczyła się również tak szeroka dyskusja z udziałem wszystkich państw UE na temat przyszłości szkolnictwa wyższego (a zwłaszcza uniwersytetów badawczych, research-intensive universities) na forum międzyrządowym i unijnym. ItemAre female scientists less inclined to publish alone? The gender solo research gap(2022) Kwiek, Marek; Roszka, WojciechIn solo research, scientists compete individually for prestige, sending clear signals about their research ability, avoiding problems in credit allocation, and reducing conflicts about authorship. We examine to what extent male and female scientists differ in their use of solo publishing across various dimensions. This research is the first to comprehensively study the “gender solo research gap” among all internationally visible scientists within a whole national higher education system. We examine the gap through mean “individual solo publishing rates” found in “individual publication portfolios” constructed for each Polish university professor. We use the practical significance/statistical significance difference (based on the effect-size r coefficient) and our analyses indicate that while some gender differences are statistically significant, they have no practical significance. Using a partial effects of fractional logistic regression approach, we estimate the probability of conducting solo research. In none of the models does gender explain the variability of the individual solo publishing rate. The strongest predictor of individual solo publishing rate is the average team size, publishing in STEM fields negatively affects the rate, publishing in male-dominated disciplines positively affects it, and the influence of international collaboration is negative. The gender solo research gap in Poland is much weaker than expected: within a more general trend toward team research and international research, gender differences in solo research are much weaker and less relevant than initially assumed. We use our unique biographical, administrative, publication, and citation database (“Polish Science Observatory”) with metadata on all Polish scientists present in Scopus (N = 25,463) and their 158,743 Scopus-indexed articles published in 2009–2018, including 18,900 solo articles. ItemAtrakcyjny uniwersytet? Rosnące zróżnicowanie oczekiwań interesariuszy wobec instytucji edukacyjnych w Europie (CPP RPS 35/2012)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2012) Kwiek, MarekKluczowym punktem odniesienia dla prezentowanych tu rozważań o spodziewanych transformacjach instytucji uniwersytetu w najbliższej dekadzie będzie (stosunkowo ulotna) kategoria atrakcyjności uniwersytetu. To wokół niej skupiają się najważniejsze wyzwania, przed którymi stają systemy edukacyjne i edukacyjne instytucje w Europie. Struktura tego tekstu wygląda następująco: wprowadzenie stanowi część pierwszą, w części drugiej skoncentrujemy się krótko na atrakcyjności szkolnictwa wyższego w perspektywie rosnącej potrzeby jego permanentnej adaptacji do zmieniającej się rzeczywistości społecznej i (może przede wszystkim) ekonomicznej. Wskażemy, że profesja akademicka w najbliższej dekadzie znajdzie się w oku cyklonu, ponieważ z jednej strony w społeczeństwach europejskich rośnie stopień komplikacji academic enterprise, czyli całości przedsięwzięcia akademickiego, a z drugiej strony, przede wszystkim z racji umasowienia szkolnictwa wyższego, zmienia się rola jego dotychczasowych interesariuszy. W części trzeciej zajmiemy się mechanizmami rynkowymi oraz nowymi wzorcami generowania uczelnianych przychodów, wychodząc z założenia, że otoczenie finansowe uczelni europejskich będzie się stawać w najbliższej dekadzie coraz bardziej nieprzyjazne, a same uczelnie będą przypuszczalnie zmuszone coraz częściej sięgać po nowe, stosunkowo nietradycyjne źródła przychodów – głównie po przychody z tzw. „trzeciego strumienia finansowania”, analizowanego jak dotąd przede wszystkim w odniesieniu do „uniwersytetów przedsiębiorczych” Burtona Clarka (Clark 1998, 2004). Wskażemy jednocześnie, że potencjalnie (i tylko relatywnie, w strukturze uczelnianych przychodów) malejące publiczne dofinansowanie uniwersytetów może zmienić naturę relacji państwo (społeczeństwo)/akademia, ponieważ prywatyzacja usług edukacyjnych przekształca nie tylko kulturę organizacyjną uniwersytetu, ale również jego podstawową misję. W części czwartej poruszymy kwestię przyszłości tradycyjnego dla uniwersytetów kontynentalnych splotu kształcenia i badań naukowych w kontekście zmieniających się oczekiwań coraz potężniejszych interesariuszy: państwa, studentów i gospodarki/rynku pracy. W centrum tych zmian po raz kolejny stanie profesja akademicka oraz pojawi się kluczowe pytanie o atrakcyjność akademickiego miejsca pracy w warunkach potencjalnie ewoluujących misji instytucji akademickich. Część piąta skoncentruje się na napięciach, sprzecznościach i nowych formach zróżnicowania instytucji edukacyjnych, do jakich prowadzi masowość systemów edukacyjnych. Natomiast w części szóstej znajdzie się rekapitulacja najważniejszych zagadnień związanych z atrakcyjnością europejskich uniwersytetów w następnej dekadzie z perspektywy polityki edukacyjnej.