Browsing Geologos, 2016, 22, 2 by Issue Date
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ItemAnalyses of permeability and porosity of sedimentary rocks in terms of unconventional geothermal resource explorations in Poland(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2016-08) Sowiżdżał, Anna; Semyrka, RomanPetrophysical investigations are fundamental to natural resource exploration. In order to recognise the geothermal potential of sedimentary rocks in central Poland, 259 samples were collected from prospective deep-lying geothermal reservoirs. Parameters measured include bulk density, skeletal density, effective porosity, permeability, average pore diameter and specific surface. Results indicate that at great depths (mostly > 3,000 m below surface) sedimentary rocks show low values of porosity (mainly less than 5%) and permeability (only sporadically in excess of 1 md). These values call for a petrothermal use of reservoirs, for which an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) was developed. Reser- voirs suited for the EGS are Carboniferous and Lower Triassic sandstones in the central part of Poland (Mogilno-Łódź Trough region and a small part of the Kujawy Swell and Fore-Sudetic regions). In addition, Carboniferous limestones in this area are potentially prospective. ItemFactors influencing temporal changes in chemical composition of biogenic deposits in the middle Tążyna River Valley (Kuyavian Lakeland, central Poland)(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2016-08) Okupny, Daniel; Rzepecki, Seweryn; Borówka, Ryszard Krzysztof; Forysiak, Jacek; Twardy, Juliusz; Fortuniak, Anna; Tomkowiak, JulitaThe present paper discusses the influence of geochemical properties on biogenic deposits in the Wilkostowo mire near Toruń, central Poland. The analysed core has allowed the documentation of environmental changes between the older part of the Atlantic Period and the present day (probably interrupted at the turn of the Meso- and Neoholocene). In order to reconstruct the main stages in the sedimentation of biogenic deposits, we have used stratigraphic variability of selected litho-geochemical elements (organic matter, calcium carbonate, biogenic and terrigenous silica, macro- and micro-elements: Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni). The main litho-geochemical component is CaCO 3 ; its content ranges from 4.1 per cent to 92 per cent. The variability of CaCO 3 content reflects mainly changes in hydrolog- ical and geomorphological conditions within the catchment area. The effects of prehistoric anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the River Tążyna, e.g., the use of saline water for economic purposes, are recorded in a change from calcareous gyttja into detritus-calcareous gyttja sedimentation and an increased content of lithophilous elements (Na, K, Mg and Ni) in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) has enabled the distinction the most important factors that affected the chemical composition of sediments at the Wilkostowo site, i.e., mechanical and chemical den- udation processes in the catchment, changes in redox conditions, bioaccumulation of selected elements and human activity. Sediments of the Wilkostowo mire are located in the direct vicinity of an archaeological site, where traces of intensive settlement dating back to the Neolithic have been documented. The settlement phase is recorded both in li- thology and geochemical properties of biogenic deposits which fill the reservoir formed at the bottom of the Parchania Canal Valley. ItemDepositional conditions on an alluvial fan at the turn of the Weichselian to the Holocene – a case study in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2016-08) Zieliński, Paweł; Sokołowski, Robert J.; Fedorowicz, Stanisław; Woronko, Barbara; Hołub, Beata; Jankowski, Michał; Kuc, Michał; Tracz, MichałPresented are the results of research into the fluvio-aeolian sedimentary succession at the site of Postolin in the Żmigród Basin, southwest Poland. Based on lithofacies analysis, textural analysis, Thermoluminescence and Infrared-Optical Stimulated Luminescence dating and GIS analysis, three lithofacies units were recognised and their stratigraphic suc- cession identified: 1) the lower unit was deposited during the Pleni-Weichselian within a sand-bed braided river fun- ctioning under permafrost conditions within the central part of the alluvial fan; 2) the middle unit is the result of aeolian deposition and fluvial redeposition on the surface of the fan during long-term permafrost and progressive decrease of humidity of the climate at the turn of the Pleni- to the Late Weichselian; 3) the upper unit accumulated following the development of longitudinal dunes at the turn of the Late Weichselian to the Holocene; the development of dunes was interrupted twice by the form being stabilised by vegetation and soil development. ItemTexture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2016-08) Moretti, Massimo; Tropeano, Marcello; van Loon, A.J. (Tom); Acquafredda, Pasquale; Baldacconi, Rossella; Festa, Vincenzo; Lisco, Stefania; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Vincenzo; Scotti, RosaBeach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecologi- cal investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion. ItemIsotope characterisation of deep aquifers in the Gwda catchment, northern Poland(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2016-08) Kotowski, Tomasz; Satora, StefanWe present the results of isotope measurements (δ 18 O, δ D, δ 13 C DIC and 14 C) and chemical analyses (TDS, TOC, HCO 3– , SO 42– , Cl – , NO 3– , NH 4+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ Na + and K + ) conducted on groundwater samples collected from deep Cenozoic aqui- fers. These aquifers are the basic source of drinking water at numerous localities within the study area in northern Po- land. Most of the δ 18 O determinations are characterised by low variability (i.e., > 70 per cent of δ 18 O are between –9.5‰ and –9.2‰). In most cases tritium activity was not detected or its content slightly exceeded the uncertainty of measure- ment (from ±0.3 T.U. to ± 0.5 T.U.). On average, 14 C activity is twice higher than that under similar conditions and in hydrogeological systems. The δ 13 C DIC values fall within the –13.6‰ to –12.8‰ range. A slight variability is observed when considering all isotope and chemical data within the study area and under these hydrogeological conditions. In general, the results of isotope and chemical analyses seem to be homogeneous, indicating the presence of closely similar groundwaters in the system, irrespective of geological formation. It is likely that there is a significant hydraulic connec- tion between shallow and deep aquifers in the Gwda catchment, which indicates the potential for seepage of pollutants from shallow Pleistocene to deep Miocene aquifers. This can endanger the latter by e.g., high concentrations of NO 3– , SO 42– and Cl – ions from shallow aquifers within the Gwda catchment.