Browsing Środkowoeuropejskie Studia Polityczne, 2018, nr 4 by Issue Date
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ItemCzech and Polish understanding of democracy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Pająk-Patkowska, Beata; Pospíšilová, JaroslavaThe paper attempts to analyze the results of the European Social Survey Round 6 (2012, 2013), focusing on the section related to how democracy is understood in Poland and in the Czech Republic. The most interesting issue encompassed the differences in how democracy is defined in the two countries and the outcomes these differences produce in terms of the perceived legitimacy of the system, as well as demographic factors that correlate with differences in the understanding of democracy in both surveyed groups. Statistical analyses carried out in the paper indicated the presence of different definitions of democracy formulated in Poland and in the Czech Republic (the Czechs gave stronger emphasis to the liberal aspect of democracy, whereas Poles stressed its social aspects more). Nevertheless, the relationship between the definition of democracy and the perceived level of legitimacy of the democratic system (for dispersed and specific legitimacy alike) were found to be relatively weak, as was the case of the relationship between the understanding of democracy, system legitimacy and sociodemographic factors. The only factor found to be significant for the perceived level of legitimacy of the democratic system concerned the level of satisfaction with one’s own material situation. ItemПозиция ЕС относительно неподписания Украиной Соглашения об Ассоциации в 2013 году как предпосылка украинского кризиса(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Сорока [Soroka], Светлана [Svitlana]It took the European Union several years to negotiate the Association Agreement with Ukraine, the signing of which was planned for November 2013. Although the Agreement might have had an adverse impact on the Ukrainian economy and society, the government pursued European integration and did not stress these aspects. The Europe-oriented standpoint of President Victor Yanukovych secured support from the majority of Ukrainians. The refusal to sign the Association Agreement triggered social outrage, a sentiment encouraged by the European Union (which was interested in bringing Ukraine into the EU’s sphere of influence). In this way, harsh criticism from the EU of Ukraine’s failure to sign the Agreement became the precursor to the Ukrainian crisis which subsequently ensued. ItemФормирование медиа системы Украины после распада СССР(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Нестеряк [Nesteriak], Юлия [Yuliia]The main features and tendencies in the formation and development of the modem media system in Ukraine after the collapse of the Soviet Union are examined in the article. In particular, the factors influencing the transition from the Soviet model of the press to the model of polarized pluralism are analyzed. The author also identifies the conditions necessary for the stable and progressive development of the media system to emerge in Ukraine, which include the development of public broadcasting, guaranteeing the independence of the media in various dimensions, the development of media pluralism, the strengthening of the mechanisms of self-regulation of the media, raising standards and increasing the diversity of forms of journalist education. ItemEurope and the Syrian Refugees: Challenges and Opportunities of a Dilemma(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Taffal, AsadSince the beginning of the war in Syria, massive numbers of Syrian citizens have fled their homeland to escape death and secure a better life for themselves and their children overseas. The Syrian refugees have sought asylum in many countries, although Europe was their main destination. These vulnerable families crossed rivers, mountains and plains and faced every danger imaginable to reach Europe; many died along the way. Heading toward the unknown, the refugees had little to no expectation of what they were going to face where they were heading. But for them, going back is not an option. On the other side of the equation, the European countries were also under substantial pressures to receive and deal with the refugees. The European countries’ reaction and response to the refugee movement varied significantly, with some countries, such as Germany, welcoming and receiving large numbers of Syrian refugees, and others, such as France, the Czech Republic and the UK, being more reluctant to openly welcome them. In this article, the European states’ approach to dealing with the Syrian refugee crisis and the challenges they currently face will be discussed and explained in light of the events on the ground. This article deals with the issue of the relationship between the Syrian refugees and the European countries in terms of the efforts that Europe has made to help these refugees, as well as the impact that the refugees have had or will have on various aspects of life in Europe. ItemA Case-Specific Instance of Media Capture: the Gorilla Case of Slovakia(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Školkay, AndrejThis article discusses an instance of case-specific self-inflicted partial media capture, acknowledging the chilling effect of legislation consistent with partial state capture. In general, this case illustrates the ethical and legal dilemmas in the reporting of a specific type of large-scale corruption in the media, which involves the denial of all accusations by most sources and a controversial stand by state authorities and politicians on the issue, forcing the media to primarily report rumors or contradictory claims and denials (after controversial files regarding the corruption were made public anonymously on the internet) or desist from reporting altogether (before the files were made public on the internet, due to possible libel threats). The findings question the normative expectations expressed in democratic theory related to the role of the media as a watchdog, in the specific context of large-scale corruption in post-communist states. Moreover, this paper suggests the need to re-examine the methodological aspects of quantitative content analysis of media coverage of corruption. This paper has also attempted to update the emerging theory on media capture with the term partial case-specific media capture. ItemInterrelation between Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) and Social Capital: Conceptual Framework(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Dvalishvili, TinatiniThis article tracks the definitional debates on social capital to demonstrate the many-sided nature of it. Referring to the relational nature of social capital, this paper regards it as an output of cross-border cooperation. The basis of social capital is social interaction, and cross-border cooperation facilitates and reinforces it in equal measure across national borders. Therefore, this article considers cross-border cooperation as one way to generate formal/informal, linking, bonding, bridging, transnational and other varieties of social capital. ItemРоссийская провинция: практики преодоления дефицита власти(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Скиперских [Skiperskikh], Александр Владимирович [Aleksandr Vladimirovich]In this article, the author, addressing different aspects of Russian culture, tries to understand how the institutions of power can function in the Russian provinces, and how they can be perceived by society. Power is distributed unevenly, which results in its deficit. From the author’s point of view, modern practices may have an important cultural basis, involving a special relation to the province, which has traditionally been reflected in political discourse. The author believes that in the Russian provinces, there is an objective power deficit in institutions, which speaks, on the one hand, of a certain disregard for the province, and, on the other hand, testifies to the strength of the resistance to local initiatives and the legal nihilism that has become part of the philosophy of the Russian provincial. This in turn affects a fairly critical attitude towards the political power. A person is no longer capable of trusting the authorities and seeking support from them. The policy of the federal government in modern Russia gives rise to serious gaps between the center and the provinces, which can lead to a specific perception of power itself, and also lead to the formation of anarchic attitudes. ItemСистемная трансформация посткоммунистических стран Центральной и Восточной Европы: российские и украинские исследования в ХХI ст.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Брусиловская [Brusylovskaya], Ольга [Olga]The research topic follows, firstly, from the fact that there is a need to examine the scientific schools of the 21st century. Secondly, the general tendency towards the re-ideologization of political science requires a critical interpretation of the state of affairs in the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Thirdly, in Ukraine and in the countries that are its allies, the theoretical analysis of historiography should be particularly helpful in offering a more clear definition of the former and current ideological positions of the aggressor country (the Russian Federation). The article compares the Russian and Ukrainian schools of political science, which have explored the impact on CEE of such actors as the EU, NATO, the USA, and Germany, as well as the economic, political, and ideological components of the systemic transformation. ItemПроблемы реформирования местного самоуправления и территориальной организации власти в Украине: правовой и социально-территориальный аспекты(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2018) Емельянов [Emelyanov], Владимир [Vladimir]; Шульга [Shulga], Анастасия [Anastasia]The article discusses some legal and socio-territorial problems of reforming local government and the territorial organization of power in Ukraine, especially in the context of the formation of self-governing territorial communities. The need to make appropriate amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine regarding the planned reform, and to adopt the new Law On Local Self-Government, is emphasized. The article describes the criteria for the competencies of territorial communities while focusing on their compliance with future plans for the formation of the territories of communities. The number of united communities by region of Ukraine from 2015 to March 2018, their respective areas, and the number of inhabitants are analyzed. A general rating of the regions of Ukraine regarding the process of the formation of united communities is derived. The level of coverage by united communities of the territory of the districts of Ukraine is analyzed. The author of the article concludes that the process of forming self-governing territorial communities should be approached comprehensively and a number of measures are proposed to solve these problems.