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ItemThe Classical German Idea of the University, or on the Nationalization of the Modern Institution (CPP RPS 1/2006)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2006) Kwiek, MarekThe aim of the paper is to provide a philosophical and historical background to current discussions about the changing relationships between the university and the state (and the university and society) through revisiting the classical “Humboldtian” model of the university. This historical detour is intended to show the cultural rootedness of the modern “idea of the university”, and its close links to the idea of the modern national state. The background is provided by the discussion of such German philosophers and scholars as Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Friedrich W.J. Schelling (the founding fathers of the University of Berlin) in the 19th century, as well as the controversy between Karl Jaspers and Jürgen Habermas in the 20th century. The paper consists of the following sections: the university and society: basic questions; the modern university, the nation-state, and “retrospective constructions; the three main principles of the Humboldtian university; the nationalization of European universities: serving the nation; the national aspect of the German Bildung; the pursuit of truth vs. public responsibilities of the modern university; the (foundational) idea of the university vs. its embodiments (the exposition of the Jaspers/Habermas controversy); the university and the state: a modern pact; the renewal of the university vs. the regeneration of the nation; knowledge for its own sake and Wilhelm von Humboldt; Humboldt‟s university vs. the “Humboldtian” university; the University of Berlin: new weapons to continue the struggle lost in the battleground; Humboldt and the role of Bildung; the rebirth of the German nation through education (Johann Gottlieb Fichte)?; giving birth to a new world and the Heideggerian overtones; the state, the university, and academic freedom (Friedrich Schleiermacher); philosophy and education (Friedrich W.J. Schelling); and conclusions. ItemThe University and the Welfare State in Transition: Changing Public Services in a Wider Context (CPP RPS 2/2006)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2006) Kwiek, MarekThe paper relates current transformations in higher education in European economies to current transformations of the public sector in general, and changes in higher education to changes in other public services provided within traditional European welfare states. In particular, it links ongoing discussions about the future of the welfare state under the pressures of globalization and changing demographics to discussions about the future of public investment in higher education and to the wider question of the production and reproduction of the university. It discusses the position that the World Bank is taking with respect to both the state, public sector reforms and higher education reforms, both in general and for transition economies, and highlights the contrast between its publications on the future of the welfare state and the future of public higher education. The World Bank has been particularly involved in both the conceptualization and implementation of reforms of major public services, especially but not only in developing and transition countries: the reforms of education, healthcare, and pensions. Further, the paper discusses the state‟s changing fiscal conditions and major competitors to higher education among welfare (and other) services, especially in the European transition countries. It links the question of the reformulation of the pact between the nation-state and the modern university to the issue of the renegotiation of the postwar welfare contract in general. The paper finds it useful to view higher education in the context of changing welfare state policies as higher education is a significant part of the public sector and welfare state services, in general, have been under severe pressures, both on the theoretical and practical levels. Finally, tentative conclusions are given. ItemAcademic Entrepreneurship vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures at European Universities (CPP RPS 5/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Paper Series, 2007) Kwiek, MarekThe paper is discussing academic entrepreneurship in the context of changes in university management and governance ongoing in European universities. The comparative perspective of the paper is provided by the EU EUEREK research project: “European Universities for Entrepreneurship: Their Role in the Europe of Knowledge” (2004-2007, 6th Framework Programme), comprising seven European countries, and it draws heavily from ideas and research results of Burton Clark, Michael Shattock and Gareth Williams. It is intended to view transformations in university governance and management in the context of the European Commission‟s recent emphasis on the vital role of changes in institutional governance in its “modernisation agenda for universities”. It starts (section 2) with a general discussion of the EC‟s prioritization of areas of transformation of European universities in which governance structures figure prominently. Then in section 3 it discusses the role of (academic, reputational, and financial) risk-taking at entrepreneurial institutions which is viewed as their core feature, and shows the role of risk management in both public and private institutions. The next section discusses the unavoidable clash of old academic and new managerial values at entrepreneurial universities and the institutional ways to deal with it. Tensions between the university center and base academic units are discussed in section 5 and the context is provided by the traditional academic idea of collegiality. A move away from (but not getting rid of) collegiality in university management at public entrepreneurial universities studied is emphasized. Different governance and management structures are reported in small private institutions – they can be simplified to the extreme and the phenomenon is related to their fundamental financial uncertainty, studied as an example of the survival culture developed in the last fifteen years especially in European transition economies. The pivotal role of strategic committees and strong management groups is shown. Section 6 discusses entrepreneurship as a phenomenon appearing at both (not too) centralized and (not too) decentralized institutions and, in more detail, “earned income” policies found at the core of transformations of the University of Warwick from 1980s onwards and the crucial role of strategic committees in changes in resource allocation models and in resulting changes in university‟s priority research areas. Section 7 discusses the spread of academic entrepreneurship across institutions and highlights the difference between most entrepreneurial university units in Western Europe (research in natural sciences and technology in public universities) and in most EU transition countries (teaching-related entrepreneurship in social sciences and economics in both public and private institutions). Finally, tentative conclusions are given. ItemHigher Education and the Nation-State: Global Pressures on Educational Institutions (CPP RPS 4/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Paper Series, 2007) Kwiek, MarekThe two dimensions of the state in transition under the influence of globalization are changes in the welfare state and changes in the nation-state. And both dimensions of the state are closely linked to higher education, especially to its elite segment, the institution of the university: which — in Europe — has been mostly state-funded as part of the well-developed post-war Keynesian welfare state apparatus, and which has been closely related to the modern construct of the nation-state. We are developing here the theme of the modern contract between the nation-state and the university and trying to see how the processes of globalization — via affecting the state — affect the public sector in general, and public universities in particular. Global pressures on both institutions are discussed, following a historical detour showing the modern link between them. The discussion of the global transformations of the public sector is then followed by tentative conclusions. ItemOn Accessibility and Equity, Market Forces, and Entrepreneurship: Developments in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe (CPP RPS 7/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2007) Kwiek, MarekThe paper explores four interrelated issues: access and equity, the role and the legitimacy of the emergent market-driven private sector in higher education, the relationships between reforming public services in general and changing public and private higher education, and entrepreneurialism of the emergent private sector in higher education. The four issues are especially closely related in those transition countries in which the market orientation of public institutions is strong, and in which new private institutions have considerable share in student enrolments. ItemA Changing Policy Toward the British Public Sector and its Impact on Service Delivery (CPP RPS 6/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2007) Antonowicz, DominikIn the evaluation of innovative models of public service, it is worth beginning with an examination of the intellectual background and the principles of political agendas which have underpinned the concept of British public service in recent years. This chapter will present the differences and similarities in defining the role of the state and also the consequences for public service management which stem from them. There are three major sets of principles which constitute the government’s policies toward public service in modern British politics: the post-war settlement underpinned by social economics, the New Right based on a neo-liberal set of values and the New Labour approach which aimed to combine social values with market mechanisms. Each of them has had a great impact on the development of public service and has contributed, at least to some extent, a valuable input. ItemGlobalisation: Re-Reading its Impact on the Nation-State, The University, and Educational Policies in Europe (CPP RPS 3/2007)(Center for Public Policy Research Paper Series, 2007) Kwiek, MarekThe paper re-reads the complex and changing relationships between the university and the nation-state, and between national and supranational (EU-level) educational policies in Europe. It is focusing on long-term consequences of globalisation-related pressures on European nation-states with respect to national educational policies. It assesses the indirect impact of globalisation on European universities (via reformulating the role of the nation-state in the global economy), and a direct impact of Europeanisation – as a regional response to globalisation – on universities (via new EU-level discourse on the changing role of universities in knowledge economy). New educational policies promoted at the EU-level are viewed as de-linking the nation-states and public universities. The paper re-reads the changing institution of the nation-state and its changing educational policies in the context of globalisation (sections 2 and 3) and in the specific, regional context of Europeanisation (section 4). It follows from presenting three major positions taken in the literature with respect to transformations of the nation-state under globalisation to presenting the process of de-linking traditional universities and the nation-state and its practical dimension at the EU level at which the role of universities is viewed from the perspective of larger social and economic agenda (called the Lisbon strategy for growth and jobs). The major lesson to be drawn from this re-reading exercise is that there are complex and often contradictory relationships between globalisation as a process affecting the nation-states, changing national educational policies, and national and EU-level policies – which all transform the future role(s) of European universities. In sum, current challenges European universities face, and current policy solutions European governments suggest, are best viewed in the overall context of globalisation. National governments are responding to both globalisation and Europeanisation: policies and strategies they produce, instruments they use, and contradictions they cope with are best re-read in this context. ItemPolish Higher Education and Global Changes – the Neoinstitutional Perspective (CPP RPS 12/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Antonowicz, DominikThis working paper offers general account of changes in higher education in Poland after abolishing the communist system in 1989. It aims to draw a research framework for further, more complex research project that is designed to provide understanding to changes of higher education Poland. There has been much of discussion on the subject both inside and outside the academia as the Polish higher education has recently experienced a wide range of deep and quite rapid changes. Notwithstanding a flourishing discourse, it remains fairly unclear in which direction the Polish higher education is heading to and what kind of social forces, political principles or cultural values can possibly drive it there. Even some doubts arose if there is any particular end toward which the higher education sustainably develops. Also some serious claims have been expressed about the Polish higher education being chaotically dragged by spontaneous organized interest groups. ItemThe Two Decades of Privatization in Polish Higher Education: Cost-Sharing, Equity, and Access (CPP RPS 8/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Kwiek, MarekPoland, via privatization, found its own way of expanding its higher education system in the last twenty years. The emergence of powerful market mechanisms in public higher education and the emergence of the private sector itself in Poland can be viewed as the two different faces of the same process of the privatization of higher education. In existing literature, Polish higher education in general has been discussed in a highly dichotomous manner: either public institutions, or private institutions, or both as opposite to each other). The radical distinctiveness of the public sector from the private sector has been a constant point of reference in both research and policy analyses. But both sectors can also be looked at as following the same road of privatization if the phenomenon of privatization as applied to higher education is taken more widely. The paper is divided into 8 sections: the general theme of coping with financial austerity in various segments of public services and the wider economic contexts accompanying the privatization of higher education; “the policy of non-policy” as a guiding thread in the expansion of both public and private sectors and its positive impact on equitable access to higher education; the two decades of growth of the private sector; financing higher education in Poland in brief; internal privatization as a response of the underfunded public sector; cost-sharing – the different roles of tuition fees in (nominally free) public and private sectors; academic survival strategies in the public sector in the times of financial distress and their implications on the Polish academic profession; and conclusions. ItemThe Changing Attractiveness of European Higher Education in the Next Decade: Current Developments, Future Challenges, and Major Policy Options (CPP RPS 9/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Kwiek, MarekThe paper focuses on the different senses of the attractiveness of European systems and institutions for students, academics, the labor market and the economy, drawing attention to emergent tensions between different university stakeholders. Universities need to be attractive to increasingly differentiated student populations but also need to be attractive workplaces and provide attractive career opportunities for academics. Both public and private institutions are under multi-faceted pressures to change today. In the times of the imminent reformulation of current welfare state systems in most parts of Europe, attractive systems will be able to balance the negative financial impact of the gradual restructuring of the most generous types of welfare state regimes in Europe on public funding for higher education. Ironically, the more successful public entrepreneurial universities are today, the bigger chances of letting them follow this entrepreneurial direction in the future are. The promotion across Europe of a more substantial inflow of both private research funds and student fees can be expected. The possible redefinition of higher education from a public good to a private good is a tendency which may further undermine the idea of heavy public subsidization of higher education as the economic rationale for higher education is changing. The expected developments may fundamentally alter relationships between university stakeholders, with the decreasing role of the state (especially in funding), the increasing role of students and the labor market. The expected differentiation-related developments may alter the academic profession in general, and have a strong impact on the traditional relationships between teaching and research at European universities. The major policy issues include the following: (i) how to combine the attractiveness of European universities to different stakeholders whose expectations from increasingly differentiated higher education get substantially changed: (ii) how to meet the needs of students, the labor market and the economy without fundamentally transforming university traditional values; (iii) how to combine the (necessary) restructuring of higher education systems towards meeting new (mostly economic) needs with the traditional values associated with academic teaching and research; (iv) how to attract the best talent to the academia amidst the deteriorating job satisfaction and changing working conditions of the academic profession; (v) how to view the traditional unity of academic teaching and research in universities in the context of the prioritization of research areas and the concentration of research funding; (vi) what is the wider impact of changing public and political mood (increasingly regarding the university as private good) on the future of cost-sharing (student fees) and academic entrepreneurship in research funding; (vii) to what extent higher education policies in Europe are becoming part and parcel of much wider social (political, ideological and philosophical) public sector policies, and how the uniqueness of the university sector vis-à-vis other public services could still be maintained in the future; and (viii) how can the “European dimension” be saved as part of the attractiveness of European higher education to other regions of the world in the context of market-related changes to universities worldwide which are global in nature, similar in kind, and not specific to Europe. The paper draws from both research and policy literature and puts European higher education in both global and transition countries‟ contexts. ItemOn the Post-Schumpeterian “Competitive Managerial Model of Local Democracy” as Perceived by the Elites of the Local Government of Wielkopolska (CPP RPS 10/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Juchacz, Piotr W.From the perspective of political philosophy the question of the rule of law at the local government level is inextricably linked with the issue of the legitimisation of local authorities and their relation to the political community they represent. The observations of this paper are based on the following empirical and theoretical foundations: – firstly, selected empirical data obtained through a survey of local government authorities in Wielkopolska, carried out by a group of Poznań-based sociologists, presented in a report entitled Znajomość i przestrzeganie prawa przez samorządy a rozwój regionalny w Wielkopolsce [Awareness of and respect for the law among local government authorities and the regional development of Wielkopolska]1, as well as theoretical conclusions drawn on the basis of the study by its organisers; – secondly, the results of qualitative studies in the form of individual in-depth interviews conducted with heads of communes and city and town mayors of three counties of Wielkopolska, presented in a report entitled Wielkopolscy burmistrzowie i wójtowie o sobie i swoich gminach [City and town mayors and commune heads of Wielkopolska reflect on themselves and their communes]. We will contain our discussion, however, to a consideration of the obtained results, which on the one hand show a participation of citizens in the political life of local communities, on the other hand present the relation between the local government and civil society, as perceived by the representatives of highest local government authorities taking part in the survey (city and town mayors, heads of communes and chairpersons of commune councils). ItemAcademic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (CPP RPS 11/2008)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2008) Kwiek, MarekIt seems very difficult to analyze private universities in Europe in the context of entrepreneurialism in the form the concept has emerged in the basic literature and available case studies. The private sector in higher education, in general, from the point of view of both numbers of institutions, share of enrolments in the sector, and study areas offered, has been a phenomenon of the transition/accession countries. At the same time, the conceptual framework currently used to analyze “entrepreneurialism” in higher education seems somehow restricted in use to public sector institutions. Very few scholars ever refer to private institutions in their discussions of entrepreneurship. On European grounds, not only experiences with private higher education have been very limited – but also the emergent concepts related to entrepreneurialism derived from analytical work on the public sector and rarely touched on the private sector. The present paper is based on the conceptual work on “entrepreneurial” and “proactive” universities (by Burton Clark), “self-reliant” and “enterprising” universities (by Michael Shattock and Gareth Williams) and Barbara Sporn’s notion of “adaptive” universities. In empirical terms, it is based on case studies of entrepreneurial universities, both from Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe. We have a closer look at entrepreneurialism of private institutions studied within the EU 6th Framework Programme EUEREK European Universities for Entrepreneurship – Their Role in the Europe of Knowledge project in the context of what Clark, Shattock, Williams and Sporn suggest mostly for the study of public institutions. Therefore a context of entrepreneurialism in the form of Clarks’ five elements: a strengthened steering core, an expanded developmental periphery, a diversified funding base, the stimulated academic heartland, and the integrated entrepreneurial culture is revisited, and referred to the private sector, followed by conclusions. ItemCreeping Marketisation: Where Polish Public and Private Higher Education Sectors Meet (CPP RPS 13/2009)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2009) Kwiek, MarekThe paper intends to discuss changes in Polish higher education related to processes of its marketization. The wider context for transformations in Polish higher education system is the transition from command-driven, communist economy to market-driven, open economy and from a communist authoritarian bureaucracy to a parliamentary democracy. Consequently, “market” and “marketisation” have additional meanings in a country which opened to both as late as in 1989, as opposed to other countries studied in the present volume. It discusses funding mechanisms with respect to institutions, teaching and research (section 2); distinct processes marking the turn towards marketization – increasing financial self-reliance of academic institutions (section 3) and external privatisation (growth in the number of private sector providers) and internal privatisation (finance-driven cost-recovery mechanisms in public sector institutions), in section 4; finally, it discusses market forces in the context of Polish educational policies (section 5) and provides concluding remarks (section 6). ItemEUropean (Legal) Culture Reconsidered (CPP RPS 14/2009)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2009) Cern, Karolina M.; Juchacz, Piotr W.All in all, the starting point of any considerations should be the clearest part of the whole. So, let us begin with two pretty obvious statements. The first one is that from an empirical point of view there are different legal laws; this means that national legal systems differ from one another. We can talk of Swiss law, German law, Polish law, American law and the like; we can also discuss two different types of legal law: common law or statute law. There is no doubt they are all diverse. The second statement applies to a theoretical level (not just empirical): Each theorist announces principles he thinks applicable to any legal system, yet each is actually best understood as describing a national legal system – English in the case of Hart, American in the case of Dworkin, German in the case of Habermas. ItemUniversities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe (CPP RPS 21/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekThis chapter explores the question of knowledge production in the four Central European economies, all OECD members (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) in the context of the knowledge economy, economic competitiveness and research intensity. I argue that, today, they are not “knowledge economies” to the same extent as their more affluent and technologically advanced Western European counterparts. Therefore one of the major themes of the chapter is an ongoing East/West divide in knowledge production resulting from a high path dependency for the economy, society, as well as higher education and research and development systems in the region. I also argue that the communist legacy in Central European countries matters substantially: it matters for their economies, in transition to market economies; it matters for their societies, in transition to what are sometimes termed “postcommunist welfare states”; and it matters for both educational and research and innovation systems crucial for knowledge production. The three areas (economies, societies, and higher education and research systems) are closely interlinked and an assessment of knowledge production requires an analysis of their interrelations. ItemTransfer dobrych praktyk: Europa i Polska (CPP RPS 19/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekObecne transformacje, którym pod wpływem potężnych presji wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych (globalizacyjnych, europeizacyjnych, demograficznych i innych) poddawane jest instytucja państwa, na dłuższą metę nie pozostaną bez wpływu na instytucję uniwersytetu, który w tradycji europejskiej od dwustu lat – od czasów rodzenia się Europy państw narodowych – pozostaje z nim w ścisłym związku. Wydaje się, że instytucja uniwersytetu (w Europie Zachodniej) już od przynajmniej dwudziestu lat godzi się z kierunkami swojej ewolucji w kierunku zgodnym z transformacjami swojego otoczenia społecznego i ekonomicznego (umownie nazywanymi np. przechodzeniem do społeczeństwa i gospodarki opartych na wiedzy albo przechodzeniem do epoki globalnej) – uznała je za prawomocne i konieczne. Powszechna zgoda uniwersytetów europejskich na kierunki swojej ewolucji wynika między innymi z faktu, iż w ramach nowego, rodzącego się globalnego porządku (ale i w ramach rodzącego się, coraz silniej zintegrowanego porządku europejskiego), wbrew wszelkim przeciwnościom kulturowym, społecznym i ekonomicznym, uniwersytety europejskie starają się za wszelką cenę utrzymać swoją tradycyjnie kluczową rolę w społeczeństwie, a dodatkowo starają się odgrywać coraz większą rolę w gospodarce: stają się wręcz jej kluczową częścią. Tym bardziej kluczową, im bardziej gospodarka ta opiera się na wiedzy. Zarazem gospodarka napędzana wiedzą potrzebuje silnych, innowacyjnych, patrzących w przyszłość (a nie zapatrzonych w swoją znamienitą historię) uniwersytetów: potrzebuje ich wykształconych absolwentów w ramach tradycyjnej misji kształcenia, ich zaawansowanych badań naukowych w ramach tradycyjnej misji badawczej oraz ich silnych związków z bliższym i dalszym otoczeniem społecznym i gospodarczym, w ramach mniej tradycyjnej, trzeciej misji (która przyjmuje różne formy: od amerykańskiego modelu service to the society po różne wersje trzeciej misji w Europie: od misji regionalnej po misję innowacyjną. ItemZarządzanie polskim szkolnictwem wyższym w kontekście transformacji zarządzania w szkolnictwie wyższym w Europie (CPP RPS 15/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekNaszym podstawowym punktem odniesienia są tradycyjne, europejskie uniwersytety – funkcjonujące dzisiaj w kontekście masowych systemów szkolnictwa wyższego; interesują nas tu przede wszystkim najbardziej elitarne instytucje tych systemów i ich transformacje; interesują nas studenci tych elitarnych instytucji i ich kadra akademicka, chociaż rzecz jasna nie da się tej problematyki wyabstrahować z problematyki całości masowych, i coraz bardziej się różnicujących, systemów edukacyjnych. Powyższe „nastawienie na wartości” kieruje nasze zainteresowanie w stronę tradycyjnych, publicznych uczelni badawczych (a nie, na przykład, uczelni kształceniowych), ponieważ transformacje polityki edukacyjnej w Europie powodują największe – i często najboleśniejsze – zmiany właśnie w tym sektorze. Kierujemy się zatem w stronę research university – i wcale nie idziemy dalej, w stronę nieosiągalnych w Polsce – world-class universities– który na naszych oczach poddawany jest niespotykanym dotąd w swojej historii presjom. Kierujemy zatem naszą uwagę badawczą na places of inquiry Burtona Clarka, research universities, które stają dzisiaj w obliczu „paradoksu rynku” Rogera L. Geigera, research universities ze złotego wieku 1940-1990 Clarka Kerra w kontekście jego multiversity, na research universities Charlesa M. Vesta z jego dyskusji o MIT, na uniwersytety funkcjonujące w obliczu presji komercjalizacji Dereka Boka, na reinvented research university Luca Webera i Jamesa Duderstadta czy American public research universities z ostatnich tomów dyskusji CHER – Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (zob. Clark 1995, Geiger 2004b, Kerr 2001, Vest 2005, Bok 2003, Weber and Duderstadt 2004, Geiger, Colbeck et al. 2007, Clancy and Dill 2009). Tak rozumiany uniwersytet jako instytucja – „trwały zbiór reguł i praktyk organizacyjnych, osadzony w strukturach znaczenia i zasobów, które pozostają stosunkowo niezmienne” (March and Olsen 2006b: 3) – jest osadzony w systemie innych instytucji edukacyjnych, i innych instytucji społecznych, i w takim otoczeniu jest tu pokazywany i analizowany. Piszemy z perspektywy elitarnej części systemu szkolnictwa wyższego i jego kadry akademickiej: ważymy racje wewnętrznych i zewnętrznych interesariuszy uniwersytetu, ale z Burtona Clarka „trójkąta koordynacji” (Clark 1983) wybieramy racje rynku i racje państwa w kontekście racji „oligarchii akademickiej”, czyli tradycyjnej profesji akademickiej, której badaniu poświęciliśmy (i nadal poświęcamy – w ramach różnych, najczęściej kilkuletnich, a ostatnio również szeroko empirycznych academic profession studies) kilka lat pracy. Stąd w wielu miejscach pojawia się napięcie niezrozumiałe ani dla adwokatów potężnej roli rynku, ani dla adwokatów potężnej roli państwa, którego jednym z wymiarów jest zmieniająca się atrakcyjność uniwersytetu jako miejsca pracy i atrakcyjność kariery akademickiej w kontekście miejsca pracy i kariery zawodowej dostępnych dzisiejszym tzw. (w badaniach statystycznych) profesjonalistom. ItemThe Public/Private Dynamics in Polish Higher Education. Demand-Absorbing Private Sector Growth and Its Implications (CPP RPS 20/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekThe paper links several interrelated processes in Central and Eastern European higher education: expansion through two types of privatization (external: new private providers, and internal, public universities charging fees in a nominally free public sector), severe fiscal constraints limiting further tax-based growth of higher education, and gradual denigration of the research mission of universities caused by almost two decades of their continuous focus on their teaching mission and by general underfunding of university research in the region. Long-term consequences of the unprecedented growth of the private sector in Poland in 1989-2010 are studied, with special emphasis on the consequences of accompanying processes of deinstitutionalization taking place in public universities: decreasing role of traditional academic institutional rules and norms and traditional institutional patterns of academic behavior in Polish universities. A new wave of reforms (2008-2010) is discussed, possibly leading to revised rules, norms and patterns of institutional behavior. Poland, with 33 percent of student enrolments in the private sector in 2009 (out of 1.9 million students), provides a unique case to study the two decades of demand-absorbing growth of private higher education with all its advantages and, as mostly discussed in the present paper, limitations (for advantages, see Kwiek 2007b, 2008c). The overall context of the paper is the emphasis on further expansion of higher education in Europe argued for by both knowledge economy theories and (repeatedly) by the European Commission policy documents, wishing to close the enrolment gap between the European Union and the USA. Finally, the paper presents conclusions and directions for further research. Experimenting with privatization in higher education, substantially increasing access to it in the last ten to fifteen years, were especially strong in Central European systems, Poland being the biggest system in the region and the most notable example. New “public-private dynamics” (Enders and Jongbloed 2007) emerges in Europe and the paper focuses on those systems which have used privatization processes for the expansion of their higher education in the context of increasingly competitive public funding for all public services generally, not only for higher education (and focuses on Poland in particular). Especially, it intends to study the long-term consequences of the expansion through privatization for the system as a whole and for the public sector institutions. ItemFinansowanie szkolnictwa wyższego w Polsce a transformacje finansowania publicznego szkolnictwa wyższego w Europie (CPP RPS 16/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekPubliczne nakłady na szkolnictwo wyższe (oraz na badania naukowe prowadzone na publicznych uniwersytetach) zależą od ogólnej sytuacji finansów publicznych i ogólnej filozofii (i ideologii) wydatkowania budżetowego. Poziom finansowania szkolnictwa wyższego można porównywać w liczbach bezwzględnych i poprzez odniesienie do poziomu PKB. Jeśli pominąć nienajgorsze odniesienia w stosunku do poziomu PKB, i skupić się na wydatkach w liczbach bezwzględnych (choć wciąż odniesionych do parytetu siły nabywczej), to nakłady na szkolnictwo wyższe w krajach Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej w porównaniu z krajami starej UE są ciągle stosunkowo małe, chociaż rosną wraz ze wzrostem zamożności naszego regionu: podczas gdy w największych systemach edukacyjnych (Francja, Niemcy i Wielka Brytania) całkowite publiczne i prywatne wydatki na jednego studenta wynoszą (wedle parytetu siły nabywczej) 11.000-15.000 USD (w Norwegii 16.200, Danii 15.400, Szwecji 17.000, a Szwajcarii nawet 22.200) – dla krajów naszego regionu wynoszą one około 5.000 USD (Polska 5.200) i poziom nieco wyższy osiągają tylko dla Słowacji 6.000, Czech 8.000 i Węgier 6.400. W skrócie zatem, całkowite wydatki na jednego studenta w większości krajów naszego regionu są niemal trzy razy niższe niż w największych systemach edukacyjnych Europy, z wyjątkiem Czech, Słowacji i Węgier, gdzie są dwa razy niższe (OECD 2009b: 202). Natomiast jeżeli chodzi o publiczne nakłady na badania naukowe, sytuacja krajów transformacji wygląda o wiele gorzej; zwłaszcza w przypadku finansowania ze źródeł prywatnych. Prognozy na przyszłość sugerują, że trudne otoczenie finansowe dla szkolnictwa wyższego i badań naukowych finansowanych przez państwo w krajach naszego regionu w najbliższych latach trwać będzie nadal (jak realistycznie zauważył Bank Światowy już dziesięć lat temu, „surowe ograniczenia finansowe nie są tymczasowe. Ministerstwa edukacji staną w obliczu poważnych ograniczeń fiskalnych wobec presji wydatkowych w dającej się przewidzieć przyszłości”, World Bank 2000a: 43). Fundusze strukturalne UE, które Polska aktualnie przeznacza na naukę, w pewnej mierze poprawiają ogólny bilans finansowania szkolnictwa wyższego i nauki, ale fundusze te, po pierwsze, będą w Polsce dostępne tylko przez kilka kolejnych lat, po drugie, są przeznaczane przede wszystkim na potrzeby infrastrukturalne, a nie badawcze, a po trzecie w drobnej części przeznaczonej na badania naukowe obejmują tylko wybrane dziedziny uznane za strategiczne (przede wszystkim tzw. bio-infotechno). ItemUniversities and Their Changing Social and Economic Settings. Dependence as Heavy as Never Before? (CPP RPS 22/2010)(Center for Public Policy Research Papers Series, 2010) Kwiek, MarekThe present paper is divided into two main parts: the first part outlines transformations of wider social and economic contexts in which European universities operate, especially the Europeanization and globalization processes, transformations to European welfare state regimes and public sector reforms, both ongoing and envisaged for the future. The second part focuses on ongoing and future transformations of universities as institutions heavily dependent on transformations already in progress in knowledge-driven economies. The paper forges a strong link between large-scale shifts and the small-scale (in this case, academic) shifts, assuming that universities as large-scale (academic) enterprises, requiring huge ongoing public and private investments, are not isolated islands unaffected by shocks resulting from wider social and economic transformations. More importantly, these shocks – called by various names in the last two decades (from global age to knowledge-economy to post-national society to second modernity to postindustrial welfare states, among others) may lead universities to unprecedented social prominence of which, as social institutions, they could not even dream of in decades past. Universities, embedded in changing social and economic settings, seem to be offered new opportunities today – but not without accompanying costs leading to farewell to (some of) their traditional “business as usual” modes of operation. New opportunities may also mean fundamental shifts in the way in which the academic profession views themselves, and is viewed by the society.