Browsing Studia Metodologiczne by Issue Date
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- ItemProblemy metodologiczne w badaniach nad związkiem pomiędzy religijnością a zdrowiem(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Pawlikowski, JakubThe article presents the most important methodological problems, which appear in the research on the relationship between religiosity and health. It describes matters concerning the definition of religiosity, and spirituality and the research methods used in measuring them (indicating those that would be most appropriate for the Polish society). Finally, the article discusses the difficulties concerning the cause-and-effect relationship between religiosity and health, and the difficulties connected to creating a theoretical model explaining the mechanisms of influence of religiosity on health.
- ItemAspekty normatywne i metodologiczne ekologii stosowanej - na styku nauki i polityki(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Dereniowska, MałgorzataThe urgency of environmental protection generates a growing demand for scientific information. The science-policy interface raises new challenges for the conventional model of the role of science. Consequently, the methodological status of some ecological concepts is under transformation. The normative characteristics of these concepts entail serious practical consequences, raising doubts about their possible misuse to legitimize political interests. This paper analyzes the above problem in relation to the concepts of ecosystem health, ecological stability, and integrity. The aim is to illuminate value-based components and investigate the relationship between the scientific and extrascientific components of these concepts.
- ItemDemokratyzacja debaty publicznej nad medycyną niekonwencjonalną(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Nowak, Andrzej W.Article discusses problem of public debate on alternative medicine. Following B. Latour author claim that our public sphere still can be described by so called „modernist constitution”. Latour holds that distinction between political representation belonging to society and epistemological representation belonging to nature is one of the modern constitution’s most important dichotomies. In article author claims that discussion with alternative medicine should not be conducted from theoretical position (philosophy of science), because is still entangled in modernist presumptions. Instead author propose „lowering the tone” (S. Shapin) and focuses on social practice. Author suggest that we should try to think about alternative medicine outside of „modernist constitution”. Social Studies of Science shows clearly that if we succeed in this task,alternative medicine can be a useful allies in a process of democratization of science and medicine.
- ItemRedukcjonistyczne i organicystyczne intuicje w wyjaśnianiu karcynogenezy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Juś, MarcinTwo competing theories of carcinogenesis are functioning in biomedical sciences: the mutation theory (SMT) and the tissue theory (TOFT). The first part of the article presents the basic assumptions of both theories and summarizes the philosophical debate between its proponents. This debate is analyzed in the works of Ch. Malaterre  and J. A. Macrum . According to these authors, the genetic theory presupposes reductionism and the tissue theory – organicism. The second part of the article analyzes the debate in question in the light of some general views about reduction developed by T. Jones  and K. Paprzycka . I suggest that from the philosophical point of view we have no reason to think that the reduc-tionist explanation of carcinogenesis is exhaustive or that it is the only appropriate explanation.
- ItemZałożenia epistemologiczne wykorzystania teorii zbiorów przybliżonych w ocenie i selekcji informacji klinicznych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2013) Rzepiński, TomaszThe purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most basic intuitions that are connected with using rough set theory when evaluating clinical data. Furthermore, the article examines the espistemological assumptions that have to be made when the method is applied in formulating decision algorithims in clinical practice.
- ItemCzy życie może być oparte na arsenie? Błędy w badaniach nad bakteriami GFAJ-1(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mmickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2013) Rzymski, Piotr; Poniedziałek, BarbaraLife constitutes of six essentials elements: carbon, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus. However, “shadow biosphere” theory assumes the existence of alternative life pathway that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life. Paper by Wolfe-Simon et al. (2011) published in high-profiled journal Science described bacterial species GFAJ-1 with ability not only to maintain life processes in high extracellular concentrations of arsenic but also to substitute phosphorus with arsenic in DNA. This report caused a number controversies related to applied methodology and interpretation of obtained results. Case of Wolfe-Simon et al. publication demonstrates the important role which is played by criticism against obtained results as well as concern for correction of applied methods.
- ItemO pojęciu bioetyki. Refleksja nad jej genezą i statusem metodologicznym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Paś, AndrzejAbstrakt Gdy dokonamy analizy problematyki stosunkowo nowo powstałej dyscypliny, jaką jest bioetyka, to jednocześnie zauważymy, iż w swoim przedmiocie badań (zachowanie moralne człowieka) pokrywa się ustaleniami metodologicznymi z etyką. Jednakże wydaje się, iż w tej kwestii istnieje dosyć zasadnicza rozbieżność. Skoro bioetyka ma sięgać do podstaw życia biologicznego człowieka, to musi ująć w swojej analizie całą gamę rozwoju zachowania społecznego, którego finalnym „rezultatem” jest kategoria osoby ludzkiej- interpretowana jako istota bioetyczna.
- ItemZłożoność i różnorodność pojęć choroby(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Sak, JarosławThe article discusses methodological problems of philosophical reflection on the concept of disease its complexity and diversity. Presentation of different aproaches is intended to justify the arguments put forward in the first part of the article. According to my account philosophical concepts of disease should be analyzed based on three teoretical perspectives: anthropological, epistemological and axiological.
- ItemWykonawcze teorie konfabulacji i ich krytyka(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Reuter, MagdalenaConfabulations are ill-grounded beliefs. One of the types of confabulation are memory confabulations. A lot of contemporary theories of confabulations are based on executive processes. It is said that confabulations are consequence of dysfunction of two systems: (1) epistemic system and (2) executive system (Hirstein, 2005). Dysfunction of the second system means that belief or mental representation is not corrected. Philosopher Dalla Barba argues with executive theories of confabulation, because he claims that acceptance of the thesis about existence of unconscious monitoring processes leads to homunculus paradox. He proposes new explanation of memory confabulations in categories of temporal consciousness and knowledge consciousness. In the article I argue that not all of the cognitive scientists think that the concept of homunculus is inadequate to the description of the brain functioning. In this connection Dalla Barba’s critique not necessarily reveals actual weaknesses of executive theories of confabulations.
- ItemPojęcie choroby psychicznej w fenomenologicznej perspektywie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Kapusta, AndrzejThe article presents ongoing discussions on the concept of mental illness, especially its phenomenological approach. The point of departure is Karl Jaspers’ Allgemeine Psychopatologie - important inspiration for the critics of the contemporary psychiatric classifications and biomedical explanations (biological, psychological) that, in general, ignores essential dimensions of morbid experience and don’t regard illness as an action failure of “ordinary doing”. Present-day dispute over the nature of mental illness with such names as Szasz, Boorse, Fulfors reveals a diversity of mental symptoms and its normative character. In spite of the possibilities of multilevel analysis of human’s psychopathology we consider patient’s feelings and experience. Svenaeus’ understanding of mental disorder is presented to demonstrate existential and experiential dimensions of disorder. The analysis of embodied (inspired by Merleau-Ponty’s research) aspects of disorders attempt to overcome the limits between mental and somatic elements of psychiatric disorder.
- ItemOd objawu do działania. Problemy metodologiczne procedury diagnostyczno-terapeutycznej w medycynie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Banasiak, MariuszThe purpose of this article is to identify the main methodological problems arising in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. I will discusse the issues relating to the characteristics of diagnostics tests, measurements scales, algorithms for clinical decision making and the fundamental postulates of EBM concept.
- ItemRóżnice między informacją a wiedzą w kontekście zarządzania(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Stępnik, AndrzejThe aim of this article is to analyze the differences between information and knowledge with reference to management. The text presents certain negative practical consequences of overcoming these differences as well as important relations between information management and knowledge management, which should be practiced in an efficient organization.
- ItemFormy życia naukowego w świetle definicji pojęcia „organizacji uczącej się”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kazibut, RadosławContemporary studies in the sciences, in particular in the laboratory sciences, are conducted by entire teams that are composed of scientists, engineers and technicians. Competent management of such organizations largely determines the success of research. In this article an attempt is made to analyze the evolution of the organization of laboratory science research within a framework that was developed by discussing the subject of a “learning organization”.
- ItemZwinne podejście do zarządzania procesem badawczo-rozwojowym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Bonecki, MateuszThis paper analyzes the evolution of research and development management methods. The so-called agile approach to project management is considered to have a great influence on knowledge-work organization and new product development methods. It is argued that agile organizations shape their R&D processes in accordance with the theory of complex adaptive systems and the principles of empirical process modeling in order to improve their responsiveness to market conditions or changing client requirements. Organizational agility is therefore conceived here as a function of interdisciplinary processing and the use of cross-domain knowledge about relevant factors that are present in a project’s external environment.
- ItemPomiar kapitału intelektualnego w przedsiębiorstwie – aspekty metodyczne(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Skrzypek, ElżbietaIn the new economy, efficient knowledge-based resource management of intangible assets can be an important source of a company’s market success. Increasingly, it is being noted that there are differences between the book value and market value of assets. The value of intellectual capital is the source of this difference. The aim of this article is to analyze the methods of measuring intellectual capital in a company and point out that the measurement of intellectual capital is an important element of the management process. It is becoming necessary to measure intellectual capital because its role as a factor in a company’s success is growing. This measurement is done at the macroeconomic (KAM, KEI, KI) and microeconomic levels (BSC, Scandia Navigator, IC Rating and Intangible Assets Monitor). A system of indicators, both quantitative and qualitative ones, is used to measure intellectual capital on enterprise level in order to show the level of and changes in its components. The methods of measuring intellectual capital should be chosen based on their capacity to increase a given company’s potential. The analyses that were carried out for the purpose of this article are theoretical in character and are based on the existing scientific literature as well as the author’s own reflections.
- ItemInstrumentalna i wiedzotwórcza wartość wiedzy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kaczmarczyk, LechJohn Dewey’s pragmatic theory of knowledge supports the assertion that both the instrumental value of knowledge and knowledge-creation have common philosophical underpinnings. An analysis of this issue can help bridge the gap between the typical economic approach to knowledge and those approaches that are represented by contemporary epistemology and philosophy of science. The universal concept of the value of knowledge that is proposed here allows one to carry out further research on using contemporary epistemology in knowledge management practice.
- ItemO sposobach i problemach reprezentacji wiedzy w nauce o zarządzaniu wiedzą(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Zeidler, PawełThe paper presents a preliminary analysis of methodological issues relating to the representation of knowledge that is managed in an organization. The problem of adequate ways of representing that knowledge and the concept of knowledge representation itself are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the issue of the representation of tacit knowledge which plays an extremely important role in an organization and gives it a competitive advantage. The analyses are carried out based on the assumption that models are the most convenient way of representing knowledge and are used to solve problematic situations that arise in the course of an organization’s activity.
- ItemStudia metodologiczne 32/2014 - spis treści(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014)
- ItemMetafora smogu informacyjnego a procesy informacyjne(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Szynkiewicz, MariuszThe author of this article investigates an epistemological problem that is related to information overload and the data smog metaphor in particular. The paper is focused on two aspects of data smog: the quantitative aspect, which concerns information dispersal, and the qualitative aspect, pertaining to the value of information.
- ItemIdentyfikacja problemów w infobrokerstwie systemowym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Boruszewski, JarosławThe purpose of this article is to provide adequate characteristics of problem identification in systemic information brokerage. A systemic information broker is an interdisciplinary professional who is responsible for creating pertinent content in an organization and who respects the accepted standards of record keeping. According to John Dewey’s theory of inquiry, problem identification is a stage between a felt difficulty and the formulation of the problem. The author of this article proposes a twolevel description of problem identification. At the macro level, problem identification is understood as identifying the respected way of thinking in an organization and, more specifically, as identifying the divergence between the respected way of thinking and one’s declared way of thinking. At the micro level, problem identification involves identifying keywords. Once identified, keywords are used to formulate problems in the form of how-questions.