Browsing Przestrzenie Teorii, 2013, nr 20 by Issue Date
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ItemOdejście „człowieka ferdydurkicznego”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Jarzębski, JerzyGombrowicz’s life can be divided into two parts. During the first period of his life, Gombrowicz is preoccupied with the “Ferdydurke Man”, i.e. a funny character who is tortured by Form, which he tries to overcome but which he finally succumbs to by falling into inauthenticity. This man, though incoherent, is understandable both for the author and the reader because he comes from the world they both live in and epitomizes their own problems, which makes readers laugh. The second period of Gombrowicz’s life begins with a scene in Venice in 1938. He meets young Italian pilots who are ready to destroy the city if Mussolini gives such an order. This is when new and “savage” young people take the place of the “Ferdydurke Man”. They are a product of their time – they do not think independently and they constitute a breeding ground for totalitarian ideologies. Gombrowicz tries to understand this generation and presents a picture of the world these young people are building for themselves in consecutive dark literary works. Item„Ślub” w manierze performatywnej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Krajewska, AnnaBy approaching Ślub (The Marriage) as an epistemological dilemma of a human being who has been caught in a trap of the stage, the author proposes to reread and interpret a new W. Gombrowicz’s drama from a performative perspective. While relating to the title of Tadeusz Kantor’s cricotage Ślub w manierze konstruktywistycznej i surrealistycznej (A Wedding in the Constructivist and Surrealistic Style), the author aims to demonstrate the multi-faceted performative impact of Gombrowicz’s drama within the context of the dissolution of the principles and referential forms of metatheater. ItemAdaptacja jako przekład intersemiotyczny(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Hendrykowski, MarekFilm adaptation is carried out by means of montage. This process is based on adjusting the obtained material and piecing together fragments which will be used once again and which an adapter has taken from the original work. It is montage, i.e. a selection and combination of moving pictures, which constitutes a new textual whole which is equivalent to the prototype, that forms a semiotic basis for and the essence of the adaptation process. The term “translation” can only be used in reference to film adaptation when we do not deal with full identicalness, but rather with functional similarity which does not allow one to fully equate a linguistic translation with screen adaptation. ItemThere is no such thing as Society. „Ferdydurke” w neoliberalizmie, postmodernizm i płeć(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Majewska, EwaIn this article Ferdydurke is discussed as a forerunner of the logic of late capitalism with all its repercussions, as identified by Frederick Jameson. Gombrowicz’s novel is seen as an early prognosis of neoliberal ideology, with its demands for effectivity and productivity as well as negation of social and affective bonds. Margaret Thatcher’s aphorism: “there is no such thing as society” is a pretext for a critical analysis of Ferdydurke, including the feminist critics of the European vision of the subject built on fear of the Other. This feminist analysis of Ferdydurke reveals several problems with the notion of body – theories of Julia Kristeva (on abjection) and Lynda Nead (on the female nude) are employed to demonstrate this argument. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this analysis is that queer disruptions of the binary logic of gender oppositions do not necessarily produce anti-patriarchal results. ItemGrzechy Gombrowicza przeciwko wolności. O projekcie etycznym wpisanym w „Ferdydurke”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Chwin, StefanGombrowicz’s way of thinking about freedom changed over years. He did not simply follow the ideas formulated in the 1930s. In the world presented in Ferdydurke Gombrowicz described the ontological foundations of freedom as significantly weaker than the ontological foundations of enslavement. The structure of this world was based on a strong juxtaposition of the protagonist as a lone “partisan of freedom” who feels uneasy about the constraints imposed by Form and the majority of society which is comfortable about being limited by Form and does not crave for individual freedom because it is much more afraid of falling out of Form. World War II was a turning point in the evolution of Gombrowicz’s philosophy of freedom. Before 1939 he considered the value of freedom to be unquestionable and he did not talk about its dark sides. After the war Gombrowicz also began to see freedom as a tragic gift. In his play The Marriage he showed how an individual’s pursuit of absolute freedom can turn into tyranny. The philosophy of freedom that he had formulated in Ferdydurke excluded such a possibility. In order to understand the meaning of the philosophy of distancing oneself from Form, as articulated in Ferdydurke, one should find out whether Gombrowicz directed his moral guidelines from the 1930s relating to practicing freedom only to people who lived in the interwar period, i.e. when the temperature of social tensions was moderate, or thought that it was also possible to distance oneself from Form in extreme situations, for example, during violent social conflicts, war, and occupation. ItemGombrowicza gra w gęby albo gra gąb(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Dybel, PawełThe essay concentrates on the opening scenes of Ferdydurke in which Gombrowicz introduces the reader to the world of his fiction. I try to demonstrate that the way in which the author creates the novel’s hero, who is situated between the immature world of youth and the mature world of adults, gives us the key to understanding his writing as a whole. This is because all the protagonists of Gombrowicz’s novels and dramas are constructed in a very similar way – they always distance themselves from the “game of mugs” that is played at the social level. ItemHirsch o interpretacji. Analiza krytyczna(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Szahaj, AndrzejThe main aim of the article is to reconstruct and critique E.D. Hirsch’s position in the debate about the necessary conditions and results of any interpretation. The author of this article seeks to demonstrate the difficulties connected with the intentionalist approach to the theory of interpretation which is typical of E.D. Hirsch and which unjustifiably privileges authorial intention. He also attempts to uncover the hidden assumptions of this approach by showing that, generally speaking, the dualist tendencies that are present in Hirsch’s theory cannot be justified. One of the objectives of this article is to propose an alternative approach to interpretation, which has been inspired by Stanley Fish and which emphasizes the integrity and monistic nature of interpretation as well as its constructivist and inevitably evaluative character. The author points to the fact that the arbitrarily established evaluation limits are unjustified as there is an element of evaluation on every level of interpretation and that the difference between understanding and interpretation cannot be validated. Also, one cannot interpret a text without each time referring to the social and cultural context. ItemWstęp(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Krajewska, Anna Item„Wielka bitwa paryska”. O pierwszym francuskim wydaniu „Ferdydurke”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Rodak, PawełThis article presents the story of the first French edition of Witold Gombrowicz’s Ferdydurke. The novel was published in October 1958 by the Julliard publishing house. The article is based on letters that Gombrowicz exchanged with Constantin Jelenski, a Polish essayist living in Paris and a great promoter of his work, as well as on Gombrowicz’s publishing-related correspondence with Maurice Nadeau, René Julliard and Pierre Javet. The article shows that Gombrowicz was a writer who paid great attention not only to the form of his works, but also to the way in which they reached the reader. Therefore, he attempted to influence, as much as possible, the manner in which his books would be published. He sought to establish a new way of presenting the writer to the reader that would fall outside the rules and conventions of world literature. The article shows why he succeeded in Poland and Argentina, but not in France, where he did not have followers. ItemDokuczliwy skrzyp hermeneutycznego koła – komentarz do artykułu Andrzeja Szahaja(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Szajnert, DanutaThis essay is merely an additional commentary on the article entitled “Hirsch o interpretacji. Analiza krytyczna” (“Hirsch on interpretation. A critical analysis”). I do not focus here on Szahaj’s detailed objections to the concepts proposed by the author of Validity in Interpretation. I concentrate instead on the idea that forms the basis for such objections, i.e. radical, cultural interpretative constructivism. As a skeptical intentionalist, I cannot fully share his opinion and, therefore, I draw attention to views according to which the constructivist paradigm is becoming conventionalized and exhausted (especially in the humanities) and to the possible ways in which it can be overcome. ItemLinoskoczek nad otchłanią normalnej nienormalności(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Zaleski, MarekThis article presents a discussion of a pervert and neurotic pattern of behavior that is displayed by both a narrator and a novel’s characters. In Ferdydurke one can find ideas which were popular in medicine and psychoanalysis at that time, i.e. such as that normality is a social construct. We value what is “normative” in our social milieu for the sake of self-preservation. The common belief that perversion is a sign of a pathological personality should be revised – perversion is only one of the many adaptive strategies that are used in the human world. If we accept Freud’s and Lacan’s belief that every sexual activity that serves a function other than reproduction is a perversion, then we can say that every language activity that serves a purpose other than communication is a perversion as well. Ferdydurke proves that we are all polymorphously perverse and neurotic creatures in our daily lives. ItemWiek interpretacji(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Vattimo, GianniGianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone) makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations. ItemSpis treści polski, angielski(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) ItemW poszukiwaniu utraconej bezczelności. „Ferdydurke” i cynizm(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Franczak, JerzyThis article is an attempt to interpret Witold Gombrowicz’s first novel in the context of cynicism, which is first conceptualized within the Foucauldian tradition as a practice of “frank speech” (parrhesia), and then, according to Peter Sloterdijk’s critical philosophy, as a form of modern consciousness based on inverted idealism. The opposition between an ancient subversive cynicism and its modern schizoid form allows one to analyze the complexity of Ferdydurke. In the course of interpretation it turns out that there are some intersecting planes: the protagonist searches in vain for lost insolence, but it is the author who manages to find it at the end of the novel. ItemGombrowicz a polski film fabularny(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Nowakowski, JacekThis article presents the influence that Witold Gombrowicz’s work has had on Polish cinema. It covers several generations of directors, for example, Andrzej Munk (born in the 1920s), Roman Polański and Jerzy Skolimowski (born in the 1930) as well as Agnieszka Holland, Piotr Szulkin and Marek Koterski (born in the 1940s and 1950s), and discusses the topic of film adaptations of his books (Jerzy Skolimowski’s Ferdydurke and Jan Jakub Kolski’s Pornografia [Pornography]). The article shows that Polish cinema uses Gombrowicz’s works most of all by taking up the issue of life’s authenticity and inauthenticity as well as to demythologize Polish tradition and history. As for esthetics, it employs Gombrowicz’s favorite style, i.e. the grotesque. ItemŁydczaność(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Gondowicz, JanIn Ferdydurke Witold Gombrowicz presented the secret of interpersonal relations by using anatomical metaphors. In this ironic lecture a calf plays as important role as buttocks (stuck to the face) – it is a symbol of seductive youth and, to a considerable degree, of an unaware, but intuitive infantility. This topic is covered in the novel as part of an episode about a fascinating teenage girl Zuta, who is one of most demonic characters in the 20th-century prose. This paper draws attention to the ambiguity of the self-emancipating strategy that Gombrowicz’s hero uses when he discovers this notion and in order to fight against it. A calf, which represents the temptation of modern, sterile and totalitarian sex appeal, refers – as a spiritual, form-shaping power – to the lack of self-confidence that contemporary people conceal, also from themselves. And that is the hidden origin – as Gombrowicz implies – of mass culture’s erotic blackmail. ItemO interpretacji(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Januszkiewicz, MichałThe article entitled “On interpretation” is an attempt to formulate a viewpoint on the issue of textual interpretation. It presents different ideas related to interpretation, including especially those that are concerned with a text’s meaning and with the way in which it is interpreted by the reader. The author proposes another interpretation method which he calls transactional. The primary concern is how to possibly justify the fundamental character of interpretation and interpretative activity while at the same time preserving and respecting the relative autonomy of an interpreted text. ItemNiewidzialne imperium albo o kłopotach w szkole(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Bielecki, MarianThe article presents an interpretation of “school” scenes from Gombrowicz’s Ferdydurke which was inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological method. The use of concepts such as ‘habitus’, ‘reproduction’, and ‘pedagogical authority’ allows one to see not only a satire on didactic ineptitude, but also a thorough and acute analysis of the functioning of the school as an institution in these scenes. From this perspective, the key function of school is not to teach, but to reproduce the structure of the social order and implement performative pedagogy which shapes this community’s members.