Browsing Studia Metodologiczne by Title
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- ItemAspekty normatywne i metodologiczne ekologii stosowanej - na styku nauki i polityki(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Dereniowska, MałgorzataThe urgency of environmental protection generates a growing demand for scientific information. The science-policy interface raises new challenges for the conventional model of the role of science. Consequently, the methodological status of some ecological concepts is under transformation. The normative characteristics of these concepts entail serious practical consequences, raising doubts about their possible misuse to legitimize political interests. This paper analyzes the above problem in relation to the concepts of ecosystem health, ecological stability, and integrity. The aim is to illuminate value-based components and investigate the relationship between the scientific and extrascientific components of these concepts.
- ItemCultures of Modelling: Rudolf Peierls on ‘Model-Making in Physics’(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Gelfert, AxelThe philosophical debate about scientific models has, over the past thirty years or so, reached a high degree of sophistication. Yet, in spite of efforts to seek common ground with scientific practice, there remains the suspicion that philosophical accounts are sometimes too ‘free-floating’, in that they do not adequately reflect scientists’ views (and actual uses) of models. The present paper deals with one such scientific perspective, due to physicist Sir Rudolf Peierls (1907-1995). Writing thoroughly from the perspective of a theoretician with a deep appreciation for experimental physics, Peierls, in a series of papers, developed a taxonomy of scientific models, which – in spite of some inevitable arbitrariness – exhibits surprising points of convergence with contemporary philosophical accounts of how scientific models function. The present paper situates Peierls’s approach within the philosophical and scientific developments of his time, engages (in an immersive way) with his proposed taxonomy, and argues that Peierls’s views – and others like them – warrant the recent philosophical shift from a focus on model-based representation to non-representational (e.g., exploratory) uses and functions of models.
- ItemCzy życie może być oparte na arsenie? Błędy w badaniach nad bakteriami GFAJ-1(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mmickiewicza w Poznaniu, 2013) Rzymski, Piotr; Poniedziałek, BarbaraLife constitutes of six essentials elements: carbon, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus. However, “shadow biosphere” theory assumes the existence of alternative life pathway that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life. Paper by Wolfe-Simon et al. (2011) published in high-profiled journal Science described bacterial species GFAJ-1 with ability not only to maintain life processes in high extracellular concentrations of arsenic but also to substitute phosphorus with arsenic in DNA. This report caused a number controversies related to applied methodology and interpretation of obtained results. Case of Wolfe-Simon et al. publication demonstrates the important role which is played by criticism against obtained results as well as concern for correction of applied methods.
- ItemDemokratyzacja debaty publicznej nad medycyną niekonwencjonalną(Wydawnictwo UAM, 2013) Nowak, Andrzej W.Article discusses problem of public debate on alternative medicine. Following B. Latour author claim that our public sphere still can be described by so called „modernist constitution”. Latour holds that distinction between political representation belonging to society and epistemological representation belonging to nature is one of the modern constitution’s most important dichotomies. In article author claims that discussion with alternative medicine should not be conducted from theoretical position (philosophy of science), because is still entangled in modernist presumptions. Instead author propose „lowering the tone” (S. Shapin) and focuses on social practice. Author suggest that we should try to think about alternative medicine outside of „modernist constitution”. Social Studies of Science shows clearly that if we succeed in this task,alternative medicine can be a useful allies in a process of democratization of science and medicine.
- ItemErosion of belief in “social rationality”: How game theory and social choice theory changed the understanding and modeling of social rationality(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Kaminski, Marek M.This article discusses how the developments in game theory and social choice theory profoundly transformed our understanding and modeling of social rationality in the social sciences due to the erosion of the concept of social optimum. I discuss the Prisoner’s Dilemma and relevant examples of social situations, analyze the difficulties that arise when games are repeated, and finally, check how the main results of social choice theory influenced our understanding of the “best” social outcome.
- ItemForeword: Culture(s) of Modelling in Science(s)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Boruszewski, Jarosław; Nowak-Posadzy, Krzysztof
- ItemFormy życia naukowego w świetle definicji pojęcia „organizacji uczącej się”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kazibut, RadosławContemporary studies in the sciences, in particular in the laboratory sciences, are conducted by entire teams that are composed of scientists, engineers and technicians. Competent management of such organizations largely determines the success of research. In this article an attempt is made to analyze the evolution of the organization of laboratory science research within a framework that was developed by discussing the subject of a “learning organization”.
- ItemFrom integration to modelling. On a neglected function of the methodology of humanities(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Boruszewski, Jarosław; Nowak-Posadzy, KrzysztofThe aim of this paper is two-fold: to engage the contemporary discussion about the nature of relations between different scientific disciplines, as well as to disentangle the concept of integration of sciences from superstructures of rival proposals. The authors start with a critical analysis of the Polish contribution to the discussion about the nature of integration of sciences from the second half of the XXth century. Such a step is followed by elaborating a refined account of integration and by disentangling the concept of integration from superstructures of rival proposals – unification and interdisciplinarity. On the grounds of such a refined account the authors deliver a reconstruction of a successful scientific integration. In doing this they introduce the idea of connective knowledge as generated by the methodology of humanities. After reconstructing the successful integration trial, in the concluding remarks their account of integration is specified and summarized.
- ItemIdentyfikacja problemów w infobrokerstwie systemowym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Boruszewski, JarosławThe purpose of this article is to provide adequate characteristics of problem identification in systemic information brokerage. A systemic information broker is an interdisciplinary professional who is responsible for creating pertinent content in an organization and who respects the accepted standards of record keeping. According to John Dewey’s theory of inquiry, problem identification is a stage between a felt difficulty and the formulation of the problem. The author of this article proposes a twolevel description of problem identification. At the macro level, problem identification is understood as identifying the respected way of thinking in an organization and, more specifically, as identifying the divergence between the respected way of thinking and one’s declared way of thinking. At the micro level, problem identification involves identifying keywords. Once identified, keywords are used to formulate problems in the form of how-questions.
- ItemImage(s) a informacja(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Strzelecki, JarosławThis article presents philosophical reflections on information. Bergson’s metaphysical category of image(s) is juxtaposed with the concept of information. This combination leads to the conclusion that any system (animate or inanimate one) remains “informationally” related to its environment in a metaphysical way.
- ItemInstrumentalna i wiedzotwórcza wartość wiedzy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kaczmarczyk, LechJohn Dewey’s pragmatic theory of knowledge supports the assertion that both the instrumental value of knowledge and knowledge-creation have common philosophical underpinnings. An analysis of this issue can help bridge the gap between the typical economic approach to knowledge and those approaches that are represented by contemporary epistemology and philosophy of science. The universal concept of the value of knowledge that is proposed here allows one to carry out further research on using contemporary epistemology in knowledge management practice.
- ItemKrytyka refleksywna w badaniach nad praktyką zawodową i organizacyjną(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Nowak-Posadzy, KrzysztofThis article attempts to show that certain modes of checking practitioners’ and an organization’s knowledge (as analyzed by means of professional practitioner research), can be seen as stemming from general philosophical notions of critique. The term “critique” has been interpreted in many different ways, depending on the philosophical tradition, and has been operationalized in various ways, according to the methodological standards in a given branch of science or field of research. Critique can thus be legitimately defined in terms of (1) reflection, (2) negation, or (3) revision and it can have (1) neutral, (2) negative, or (3) positive implications. Practitioner research (PR), among other objectives, investigates numerous professionals’ (or organizations’) modes of learning that are necessary to make their work (or functioning) more efficient. These types of learning can be considered in terms of (1) learning-by-doing from experience, (2) trial-and-error dealing with information, or (3) correction-and-revision of a given standard. In the first section of the paper the author wonders what kind of research PR is. In the second section he discusses three conceptual shifts in PR, which resulted in focusing on three ways of enhancing professional (organizational) knowledge (i.e. reflective practice, informational literacy, and an internal audit). Finally, the third section elaborates on the reflexive interpretation of critique in order to show that a philosophical approach to critique can be useful in grasping some of the practices (i.e. critical reflection) that have occurred in professional and organizational reality and deserve methodological attention.
- ItemMetafora smogu informacyjnego a procesy informacyjne(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Szynkiewicz, MariuszThe author of this article investigates an epistemological problem that is related to information overload and the data smog metaphor in particular. The paper is focused on two aspects of data smog: the quantitative aspect, which concerns information dispersal, and the qualitative aspect, pertaining to the value of information.
- ItemModeling in Biology: looking backward and looking forward(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Orzack, Steven Hecht; McLoone, BrianUnderstanding modeling in biology requires understanding how biology is organized as a discipline and how this organization influences the research practices of biologists. Biology includes a wide range of sub-disciplines, such as cell biology, population biology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology, and systems biology among others. Biologists in sub-disciplines such as cell, molecular, and systems biology believe that the use of a few experimental models allows them to discover biological universals, whereas biologists in sub-disciplines such as ecology and evolutionary biology believe that the use of many different experimental and mathematical models is necessary in order to do this. Many practitioners of both approaches misunderstand best practices of modeling, especially those related to model testing. We stress the need for biologists to better engage with best practices and for philosophers of biology providing normative guidance for biologists to better engage with current developments in biology. This is especially important as biology transitions from a “data-poor” to a “data-rich” discipline. If 21st century biology is going to capitalize on the unprecedented availability of ecological, evolutionary, and molecular data, of computational resources, and of mathematical and statistical tools, biologists will need a better understanding of what modeling is and can be.
- ItemModelling communities and populations: An introduction to computational social science(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Jarynowski, Andrzej; Paradowski, Michał B.; Buda, AndrzejIn sociology, interest in modelling has not yet become widespread. However, the methodology has been gaining increased attention in parallel with its growing popularity in economics and other social sciences, notably psychology and political science, and the growing volume of social data being measured and collected. In this paper, we present representative computational methodologies from both data-driven (such as “black box”) and rule-based (such as “per analogy”) approaches. We show how to build simple models, and discuss both the greatest successes and the major limitations of modelling societies. We claim that the end goal of computational tools in sociology is providing meaningful analyses and calculations in order to allow making causal statements in sociological explanation and support decisions of great importance for society.
- ItemModels and Beliefs they Produce(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2019) Hardt, ŁukaszThis paper does not focus neither on models nor on modelling procedures but rather on the nature of knowledge about the world models give us. It puts forward the thesis that models are producers of beliefs about their targets. These beliefs may differ both in degree and scope. They are offered by various kinds of models, including models understood in terms of isolations as well as minimal models. This paper puts emphasis on what kind of entities beliefs produced by economic models are.
- ItemModels and their Foundational Framework(2019) Thalheim, BernhardThe term model is mainly used in two meanings which are considered to be different: a model of a problem domain as a conceptualisation; a model of a set of formulas as an interpretation in which every formula within this set is true. A general theory of models has not yet been developed. H. Stachowiak proposes a phenomenal approach and ‘defines’ models by their properties of mapping, truncation and pragmatics. Meanwhile, a notion of the model has been developed. At the same time, it seems that there are rather different understandings of model in sciences and especially Mathematical Logics. Sciences treat models as reflections of origins. Mathematical logics considers models as an instantiation in which a set of statements is valid. So, mathematical model theory is often considered to be a completely different approach to modelling. We realise however that mathematical model theory is only a specific kind of modelling. We show that the treatment of models in logics and in sciences can be embedded into a more general framework. So, the theory of models is based on a separation of concern or orientation.
- ItemO pojęciu bioetyki. Refleksja nad jej genezą i statusem metodologicznym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Paś, AndrzejAbstrakt Gdy dokonamy analizy problematyki stosunkowo nowo powstałej dyscypliny, jaką jest bioetyka, to jednocześnie zauważymy, iż w swoim przedmiocie badań (zachowanie moralne człowieka) pokrywa się ustaleniami metodologicznymi z etyką. Jednakże wydaje się, iż w tej kwestii istnieje dosyć zasadnicza rozbieżność. Skoro bioetyka ma sięgać do podstaw życia biologicznego człowieka, to musi ująć w swojej analizie całą gamę rozwoju zachowania społecznego, którego finalnym „rezultatem” jest kategoria osoby ludzkiej- interpretowana jako istota bioetyczna.
- ItemO sposobach i problemach reprezentacji wiedzy w nauce o zarządzaniu wiedzą(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Zeidler, PawełThe paper presents a preliminary analysis of methodological issues relating to the representation of knowledge that is managed in an organization. The problem of adequate ways of representing that knowledge and the concept of knowledge representation itself are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the issue of the representation of tacit knowledge which plays an extremely important role in an organization and gives it a competitive advantage. The analyses are carried out based on the assumption that models are the most convenient way of representing knowledge and are used to solve problematic situations that arise in the course of an organization’s activity.
- ItemOd objawu do działania. Problemy metodologiczne procedury diagnostyczno-terapeutycznej w medycynie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Banasiak, MariuszThe purpose of this article is to identify the main methodological problems arising in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. I will discusse the issues relating to the characteristics of diagnostics tests, measurements scales, algorithms for clinical decision making and the fundamental postulates of EBM concept.