Browsing Badania Fizjograficzne, Seria A, Tom 61, 2010 by Title
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ItemDziałalność turystyczna podmiotów gospodarczych na terenie województwa wielkopolskiego w roku 2008(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Przybylska, AnnaTourist industry stimulates economic growth of a region, facilitates development of business and creates new jobs. Service of this industry increases economic activity and creates additional income for local communities. Steady increase of tourist industry is observed in the Wielkopolska region. This study analyses newly established, existing and liquidated (in 2008) tourism-related businesses, including accommodation and catering. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Central Office of Statistics (GUS), including data published by the Regional Data Bank of GUS. Research shows, that over 97% incorporated economic subject acting in touristic section, belongs to private sector. This number is strictly related from administrative status of commune. Number of economic subject showing food services and dormitory is strictly related with largeness of administrative district. Number of such object predominates in region of Poznań. We can observe upward trend in considerably widest range of employment in hotels than in other sections of tourism. ItemLokalne zróżnicowanie parametrów wiatru na Mierzei Łebskiej (Słowiński Park Narodowy)(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, LeszekThe daily course of wind speed and direction over chosen active surfaces close to the sea shore on the Łeba Bar have been analysed. Measurements took place in the vicinity of the field station of the Department of Climatology, Adam Mickiewicz University in the period from the 1st of July until 25th of August 2009. Two measurement posts, representing different morphological and plant zones were chosen: 1) the frontal dune, 2) coniferous forest, and additionally, the measurements from an automatic meteorological station, located at the grey dune in the topographic low behind the frontal dune, were used. The daily cycle of wind speed changes, with its maximum in the early afternoon and minimum at night, was identified at both measurement posts. Wind speed decreases towards the land interior. The difference of a few hundred meters distance from the sea shore between posts 1 and 2 causes substantial decrease in wind speed. Additionally, the topography of the second post, which is located in the forest, in the depression behind the frontal dune, strongly reduces wind speed. The breeze circulation was weak during the measurement period while the macroscale western circulation was dominant with shorter periods when the eastern flow dominated. The effect of the night breeze was expressed by southern deviation of wind direction and the daily breeze in the afternoon, whereas in the evening the northern directions dominated. ItemOdpływ rzek w Polsce w różnych fazach oscylacji północnoatlantyckiej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Wrzesiński, DariuszDeviations of climatic elements from average levels, like those caused by changes in the atmosphe- ric circulation, modify the conditions in which the river runoff forms. The river regime is controlled by both, precipitation and air temperature, whose magnitudes show a significant dependence on the intensity of zonal circulation. A simple indicator characterising the atmospheric circulation over the north Atlantic is the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (henceforth, NAO). The North Atlantic Oscillation is considered a very important climate-forming factor in Poland. The analysis embraced monthly, seasonal and annual runoff of Polish rivers taking into consideration Hurrell’s winter NAO index from the years 1951–2000. The analysed flow series came from 141 profiles loca- ted on 86 Polish rivers. The selected rivers are distributed evenly throughout Poland and represent a diversity of environmental conditions (Fig. 1). The aim of the present research was to examine the extent to which the North Atlantic Oscillation affects the runoff of Polish rivers: its seasonal structure and spatial variability. Differences were calculated between the monthly, seasonal and annual runoff observed in the years with exceptionally high (NAODJFM > 2) and low (NAODJFM < –2) values of the winter NAO index and their statistical significance was determined. Also calculated were monthly, seasonal and annual deviations of runoff in the years with high NAODJFM indices from that in the years with their low values (assuming the runoff in the years with low NAODJFM indices to be 100%). The research results have confirmed a strong effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the runoff volume of the Polish rivers. In the winter months – January, February and March, the most statistically significant positive relations can be observed on rivers in the north-east and north of the country. The river runoff in those regions in a positive NAO stage is then more than 200% higher than in a negative stage. In the spring months, in April hold for the runoff of rivers in north-eastern Poland and the middle parts of the Oder and Warta basins, and in May, rivers of almost the entire country with the exception of the east and south-east. In those areas stre- amflow in a negative NAO stage is more than 50% higher in a positive NAO stage. The obtained results show that the North Atlantic Oscillation has the greatest effect on streamflow in the winter-spring months, i.e. in the period when the most abundant water resources are being formed in Poland. Hence, in a positive NAO stage, one might expect a considerable buildup of the water resources in the winter months, mostly in the north-east, and their marked dwindling almost throughout the entire country in spring. ItemSezony bioklimatyczne międzydobowych zmian ciśnienia atmosferycznego w Poznaniu w drugiej połowie XX wieku(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Półrolniczak, Marek; Kolendowicz, Leszek i inniThe article analyses the interdiurnal changes of atmospheric pressure as biometeorological mechanical stimulus that exerts influence on the human organism. It is based in the study of the daily values of the atmospheric pressure recorded in the years 1951–2000 in the area of Poznań. The following classification of inter-diurnal pressure changes is used in the research: type a, when the change is lower than 1 hPa and is not felt by the human organism; type b, when the range of the change is 1–4 hPa and is felt by the human organism only to an insignificant degree; type c, the average; type d, significant (Kozłowska-Szczęsna et al. 1997). The area of study is the mutability of pressure change throughout the period of many years and finding out the patterns in these changes and the annual cycle of the average interdiurnal pressure changes and the particular stimuli. As far as the annual cycle of the interdiurnal pressure changes characterised by the occurrence of the greater changes in the colder part of the year and the smaller ones in the warmer part of the year is concerned, it has been studied by other authors, who point out that it constitutes the permanent feature of this meteorological element (Kozłowska-Szczęsna 1991; Fortuniak et al. 2000). The annual cycle has been an incentive to searching for bioclimatic seasons of the interdiunal pressure changes, which are marked out by the application of Ward procedure. The method has made it possible to take into account all types of pressure changes at a time. The average frequency of their occurrence in the period of five days, therefore a matrix of data embracing 73 pentads, each of which has four features (corresponding to the four types of pressure changes. The pentads, which have been properly grouped, create dendrite, on the basis of which the image of the annual structure of bioclimatic diurnal seasons of pressure change is made. The study shows that in the area of Poznań there are four bioclimatic seasons during the entire year and that they differ in terms of the influence on the human organism. The most significant influence in terms of the frequency of occurrence is the season D, which takes places in the coldest time of the year. The least influential is season A due the infrequency of days when significant pressure changes take place. Between these two seasons, two transition seasons, B and C, happen twice a year. ItemŚredniowieczne młyny wodne i ich wpływ na przemiany stosunków wodnych na przykładzie zlewni Obry Skwierzyńskiej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kaniecki, Alfred; Brychcy, DorotaFrom the mid-13th century onwards, water provided energy to water mills located in the catchment of Obra Skwierzyńska. They did not only mill grain but also produced groats, malt, fulled cloth, tanned skin, cut wood, ground metal and produced paper. Their considerable growth in number in this area was observed at the end of the 14th century as a result of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. This area found itself on the main trade routes. During the period from the 13th to 19th century, water mills had a significant influence on the formation of the hydrological system of the catchment area. Their building and functioning was connected with the formation of mill-pond trough, dams, building weirs and mill ditches as well as bypass channels. The river network adaptation for the abovementioned purposes also includes: river mining, river bed cleaning, river banks strengthening with timber piles and boards, changes in the amount of water in watercourses. Water from lakes, springs and other water races was guided to watercourses on which several water -mills were built. Water mills were built in meadows or wetlands , trough-out canals and trenches gathering water in millponds were dug out. This kind of permanent dewatering of wet areas and changing them into meadows and pastures; also, water energy utilization for production influenced the evolution of society, forced it to optimize the utilization of surface water resources. ItemStrong High Pressure Systems Influencing the Weather in Poland During the Period 1971-2000(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Bielec-Bąkowska, ZuzannaThis paper shows preliminary results of research into the occurrence of strong anticyclonic systems that influenced the weather in Poland during the period 1971–2000. The study was based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, including daily values of the 1000 and 500 hPa geopotential heights, maps of mentioned geopotential heights and maps of sea-level field pressure. With the use of these data a number of exceptionally strong high-pressure systems were identified, together with their areas of origin and subsequent development patterns. They were then broken down into five groups with similar dynamics. The numbers of systems in each group were not found to follow any significant change trends in the long term. The greatest differences between groups were identified in terms of their annual occurrence rates and centre pressure values. ItemStruktura pola opadów Polski na tle warunków cyrkulacyjnych(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Komar, Zbigniew; Kolendowicz, Leszek i inniThe way circulation factors influence the spatial structure of the precipitation area in Poland was studied on the basis of everyday pluviometric data from 31 metrological stations as well as a circulation catalogue published by M. Stępniewska-Podrażka. The analysis covered all 7-day-long or longer periods which displayed the same type of circulation in the years 1951–1990. The pluviometric data gathered made it possible to characterise the pluviometric regimes for each town in the specified periods taking account of 3 factors: total precipitation, frequency of precipitation and intensity of precipitation. The study focused on pluviometric similarities between neighbouring points (stations) under specified conditions of atmospheric circulation. When considering matters related to the objective of the study, account was taken of the elements of the graph theory which not only made it possible to graphically represent the directions of similarity research but also showed the degree of consistency between pluviometric similarity networks from a statistical point of view. The research uncovered some particular features of structural organisation of the precipitation area depending on the conditions of atmospheric circulation: –– Variation in similarity within the precipitation areas is disturbed to a different degree The number of similar relations in constructed graph networks varied between 9 and 75. –– Cases of perfect similarity can be observed only under anti-cyclonic circulation and were present in SEa, Sa and Oa circulation types. –– The degree of similarity within the precipitation area varies depending on the character of circulation. The mean frequency with which precipitation similarities were identified along studied edges is at its lowest under cyclonic circulation and at its highest under anti-cyclonic conditions. –– When analyzed by seasons, the frequency of pluviometric precipitation similarity along specified relation lines was lower in the warm half-year under cyclonic, intermediate and anti-cyclonic circulation conditions. The graph method of studying structural features of the precipitation area used in this paper has proved to be a useful and effective research tool especially when applied to analyses of spatial relations. Presented examples of graphs are a more or less clear indication that the spatial structure of the precipitation area in Poland studied from the perspective of pluviometric similarity relations is determined by circulation factors with the spatial scope of this influence depending on the season. ItemWarunki mikroklimatyczne we wnętrzu boru sosnowego na Mierzei Łebskiej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kolendowicz, Leszek; Bednorz, EwaThe observed regularities concerning the differentiation of the temperature of individual layers of the pine forest point to the assumption by the tree crowns of the role of the active surface, which is served by the soil surface in the area devoid of vegetation. This is supported among others by the higher values of air temperature to a height of 6 m above ground level between 12.00–15.00 hours, this means during the maximum of the intensity of solar radiation (Molga 1970). Moreover the lowest values of air temperature appears to a bottom part of the pine forest above ground level between 15.00–8.00 hours. The inversion of temperature near the ground is a natural phenomenon in the night hours, particularly at dawn. If no compact vegetation layer is present, it comes into being during calm nights and in the predawn hours above the active surface (above the ground) due to the radiation of heat from the ground zone to higher layers of the atmosphere. Appearance of the cool layer in the bottom part of pine forest under the hight of 6–8 m above ground level during the points to the assumption of the role of the active surface by pine crowns at this very height (Molga 1970; Paszyński et al. 1999). Differences in temperature between the open area and the forest interior or the layer of air above the forest point to the differentiation of energy exchange processes, this being dependent on the nature of the active surface. The forest area is characterised by a clearly lower albedo value than the area of the grey sand dune upon which the MAWS 201 station is located. In addition, forest areas may accumulate a greater amount of heat during the day than the sandy soil covered with grassy vegetation. The stored heat, the quantity of which depends both on the heat capacity and the albedo value, is transferred to the atmosphere in the night. Thus, the layer of atmosphere above the forest is usually warmer at night than the air located above the ground not covered with dense and tall vegetation. During the day, the soil is considerably warmer than the active surface of the forest, which results from the lower heat capacity of the soil. For this reason, a considerably greater quantity of energy radiates in a longwave form than in the case of the forest, and thus the temperature of air above the ground during the day is higher (Paszyński et al. 1999). During the day, the interior of the forest is in turn cooler than the areas devoid of vegetation due to considerably weaker solar radiation reaching the forest bed. At night, however, due the emission of additional quantities of heat from the tall vegetation and the more difficult emission of energy from the forest soil to the atmosphere above the forest (due to its absorption by the vegetation), the temperature of air inside the forest is usually higher than in the area devoid of vegetation (Geiger 1942; Molga 1970). The distribution of humidity in individual layers of the researched forest community does not differ considerably from the results of research carried out on this topic by other authors. The greater content of water vapour in the air inside the forest in comparison with the open area results directly from the considerable intensity of evaporation of the lower active surface of the forest. The maintenance of the greatest air humidity in the lower zone of pine crowns is most probably connected with their additional transpiration (apart from the transpiration of vegetation of the forest bed) and low wind velocities, which make it possible for water vapour to gather and remain in this zone (Molga 1970). ItemWiek osadów międzyglinowych na lewym brzegu Warty w Poznaniu w świetle badań palinologicznych(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Milecka, Krystyna; Nyćkowiak, Marcin; Troć, MaciejThe main aim of this article was to estimate the time of accumulation of organic sediments from Eemian interglacial, found in inter-clay layers. Palynological analysis was done for the samples of sediments. They were taken within the area of Poznań at the sites of geotechnical and geological research. Rebuilding of city-stadium in Bułgarska street was a good opportunity to core the organic sediments interlying the morainic clays which were accumulated during the Mazovian and Vistulian glaciation. Layers lying between the clays contain organic material very often and this was the case this time. Palynological analysis revealed accumulation of these organic sediments during the 5th and 6th period of Eemian Interglacial according to the biostratygraphical classification of Tobolski (1991). ItemWpływ cech litologicznych na podatność magnetyczną lessów z rejonu Wzgórz Dalkowskich(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Issmer, KatarzynaMagnetic susceptiblity (Ms) gives precise information about paleo-environmetal changes. The statistical relation between Ms and precise grain-size analysis of loess from Dalków Hills implies that any interpretation of the paleoclimatic record of loess sequences must recognize the detailed grain-size, because such relation could well imply paleo-environmetal changes in sediments without organic residuum. The data presented here suggest that environmental magnetic analysis of loess sediments is mainly dependent on fine silt content described in Aeolian literature as loess fraction. This study indicates that multiple methods should be employed in analyzing paleoclimatic changes recorded by magnetic susceptibility (Ms) in the Polish loess-paleosol sequences. Magnetic susceptibility (Ms) correlated with precise paleoclimatic grain-size investigations has yielded numerous records and resources. ItemZ historii zagranicznego ruchu turystycznego w Polsce(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Kłysz, PiotrThe beginnings of tourist traffic in Poland go back to the second half of the 20th century. Earlier, particularly between 1945–1856, foreign tourism was almost non-existent. Tourism started to develop at the end of that period. The development gained momentum in the first half of the 1960s. In 1955 about 77,000 foreign tourists came to Poland and 44,000 Poles went to other countries. These figures have been growing considerably in the following years – in 1965 778,400 Polish tourists visited other countries and as many as 1,162,900 foreign tourists came to Poland. Foreign tourist traffic has been mainly organized by the Polish Travel Office Orbis. Other institutions involved in the organization of foreign tourism in Poland included PTTK (Polish Tourist and Sightseeing Organization), ZMS (Union of Socialist Youth), ZSP (Union of Polish Students), Polish Tourist Cooperative Gromada, and Turysta Cooperative. The opinions about Polanď’s attractiveness for tourists varied. In the 1980s many foreign tourists believed that Poland is not a very attractive tourist destination. A number of people who visited Poland in recent years have had a completely different opinion. In tourist materials dating back to the beginnings of the 1960s we can read that foreigners find in Poland everything that could be expected from a tourist trip, i.e., beautiful landscapes (Photo 1), and beautiful historical architecture (Photo 2). Polish tourists also go to many attractive regions of the world (Photo 3). ItemZróznicowanie populacji głazów eolizowanych w różnowiekowych strefach peryglacjalnych Polski Zachodniej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2010) Antczak-Górka, Barbara; Nowaczyk, Bolesław; Bednorz, Ewa; Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Milecka, Krystyna; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Chlachula, Jiri; Wrzesiński, Dariusz; Bródka, Sylwia; Mazurek, Małgorzata; Makohonienko, Mirosław; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Słowik, Marcin; Piekarczyk, Jan; Borówka, KrzysztofThe article presents the results of statistical analysis performed on various populations of wind-polished boulders in the lowland part of Western Poland. The populations were studied in three zones connected with stages of retreat of the Last Glaciation, both in the foreland and hinterland of each of the zones, to accommodate differences in climatic conditions and genetic types of substratum. Those factors influenced the original population of stones that could then be transformed by the wind. It was found that wind-polished boulders were a common occurrence in the study area, whether lying on the surface or as stone horizons underlying aeolian cover sands. Spatial differences among those populations are due to variations of climatic conditions accompanying the successive stages of retreat of the last inland ice.