Browsing Geologos, 2019, 25, 3 by Title
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ItemA probabilistic approach to assessment of the quality of drinking water(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Wątor, Katarzyna; Kmiecik, Ewa; Postawa, Adam; Rusiniak, PiotrKnowledge of uncertainty in analytical results is of prime importance in assessments of compliance with requirements set out for the quality of water intended for human consumption. Assessments of drinking water quality can be performed using either a deterministic or a probabilistic method. In the former approach, every single result is referred directly to the parametric value, while in the probabilistic method uncertainty related to analytical results is taken into account during the decision-making process. In the present research, laboratory uncertainty and uncertainty determined on the basis of results of analyses of duplicate samples collected in two Polish cities were compared and used in the probabilistic approach of water quality assessment. Using the probabilistic method, more results were considered to be “above the parametric value”. Most excesses were observed when the maximum allowable uncertainty as set out in the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 7 December 2017 was used, which is due to the highest values of these uncertainties. The lowest values above parametric values in the probabilistic approach were observed when measurement uncertainty was considered. ItemAn analysis of flooding coverage using remote sensing within the context of risk assessment(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Solovey, TatianaResults of research of the identification of flooding as a result of groundwater table fluctuations on the example of the valley of the River Vistula, with the use of multi-spectral Sentinel-2 images from the years 2017–2018 are presented. An analysis of indexes of water use, calculated on the basis of green, red and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, for extraction of water objects and flooded areas was carried out. Based on the analyses conducted, a mapping method was developed, using three water indexes (MNDWI Modified Normalised Difference Water Index, NDTI Normalised Difference Index and NDPI Normalised Difference Pond Index). Results show that the 10 metre false colour composite RNDTIGNDPIBMNDWI obtained significantly improved submerged extractions more than did individual water indexes. Moreover, the 10-m-images of MNDWI and NDPI, obtained by the sharpening High Pass Filter (HPF), may represent more detailed spatial information on floods than the 20-m-MNDWI and NDPI, obtained from original images. ItemDynamics of the status of groundwater in the Polish Lowland: the River Gwda catchment example(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Jamorska, Izabela; Kubiak-Wójcicka, Katarzyna; Krawiec, ArkadiuszThe aim of the present study is to monitor changes in the location of the groundwater table in the catchment area of the River Gwda within the Quaternary and Neogene water-bearing level over a 35-year period, between 1981 and 2015. In addition, on account of very diverse total annual precipitation levels in particular parts of the catchment, attempts were made to determine the influence of precipitation on the location of the groundwater table. By correlating groundwater level and meteorological parameters (precipitation), it was discovered that precipitation in the previous year made the largest impact on the groundwater table. Moreover, low precipitation totals in the southern part of the catchment are not discernible in groundwater table fluctuations, which is linked to the location of the observation well within the drainage zone as well as to water ascension from deeper aquifers. ItemIdentification of transport parameters of chlorides in different soils on the basis of column studies(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Pietrzak, Damian; Kania, Jarosław; Kmiecik, Ewa; Wątor, KatarzynaKnowledge of transport patterns of chemicals in groundwater is essential for environmental assessment of their potential impact. In the present study, the mobility of a chloride tracer injected into three different soils was investigated, using column experiments. The column tests were performed under steady-state conditions to determine parameters of chloride migration through soils. Based on breakthrough curves, pore-water velocity, dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were calculated for each soil sample using CXTFIT/STANMOD software. Pore-water velocity was in the range of 0.31 cm/min for fine sand, to 0.35 cm/min for silty sand and to 0.40 cm/min for vari-grained sand. The highest values of dispersion coefficient and dispersivity constant were observed for silty sand (0.55 cm2 /min and 1.55 cm, respectively), while the lowest value was found for fine sand (0.059 cm2 /min and 0.19 cm, respectively). Column experiments for chlorides (conservative tracer) are a preliminary stage for further research which will be undertaken to investigate migration parameters of selected neonicotinoids (reactive tracers) through different soils. Item'Laboratory investigations of diclofenac migration in saturated porous media - a case study(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Okońska, Monika; Marciniak, Marek; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, MariuszAt present, concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface and ground waters are low; however, even low concentrations of certain substances may prove very harmful. One of such pharmaceutical drugs is diclofenac, a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). For this reason, it is important to determine its mobility in groundwater and to estimate parameters of migration. Authors conducted column tests for two porous media: an artificial one, consisting of glass granules, and a natural one, i.e., sandur sand obtained from a site north of the city of Poznań (Poland). During the test, impulse breakthrough curves of chloride ions and diclofenac were recorded. The results were used to identify a specific sorption model and to determine values of migration parameters. Solutions of the inverse problem using optimisation methods and of equations of mathematical migration models were carried out in a MATLAB environment. Based on test results, the mobility of diclofenac is shown to be very high and comparable to that of chloride ions. The tests also revealed a slight and irreversible sorption of diclofenac on grains of both porous media. ItemPossibilities of safe yield increase in the Wydrzany well field (Uznam Island, Poland) by surface water from a drainage system(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Hoc, Ryszard; Sadurski, Andrzej; Wiśniowski, ZenonIn parallel with intensified development of the Polish part of Uznam Island, there is an increase in the demand for drinking water in this area. This island ranks among areas with low water resources, which at the present time are allocated. In order to create the prospect of increased groundwater resources, a concept has been developed that allows for the recovery of part of the freshwater from drainage systems which discharge into the waters of Szczecin Lagoon or the River Świna. The present article discusses the secondary use of water from drainage systems for supply of the Wydrzany resource area. The notion of using water from the White Bridge pumping station was considered the most promising. The catchment area of the polder is 880 ha, 280 ha of which are located on Polish territory. The White Bridge pumping station transfers water from the polder, which it leads to the Peat Channel which, in turn, drains water gravitationally into Szczecin Lagoon. Here, results of simulations aimed at the use of drainage water to improve upon groundwater resources in the "Wydrzany" intake are discussed. On the basis of these simulations of artificial water supply to the intake, an increase of available resources by up to 50 per cent may be expected. ItemPresence of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater with respect to land use in the vicinity of sampling sites(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Kuczyńska, AnnaThe present paper discusses the results of an analysis of the impact of land use on the distribution of pharmaceuticals in groundwater samples collected during a pilot study of the contents of pharmaceuticals and hormones in groundwater taken from the national groundwater monitoring network of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute. Samples were collected during monitoring campaigns from 160 groundwater monitoring sites in various land use types in 2016 and 2017. Samples were analysed for a total of 34 active substances, including natural and synthetic oestrogen hormones, cardiovascular and respiratory medications, analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antidepressants, antimicrobial drugs and anti-epileptics. Our study confirmed the presence of pharmaceuticals in 53 per cent of groundwater samples taken. Data show variations in the distribution of pharmaceuticals depending on land use type, which can thus be employed in pressure analysis and identification of sources of pollution. ItemRadiocarbon dating of groundwater from a PZ-2 piezometer located in the foreground of Wieliczka Salt Mine, Poland(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Duliński, Marek; Gorczyca, Zbigniew; Marzec, Michał; Czub, Robert; Brudnik, KrzysztofA comparison of two methods of radiocarbon age determination of groundwater is presented. The simplest Pearson model and the "user-defined" option of the NETPATH program were considered. Both methods were used to determine the age of water from a PZ-2 piezometer that is situated in the foreground of chamber Z-32 in Wieliczka Salt Mine. Results of these calculations clearly demonstrate that 14C ages obtained by the Pearson model can be significantly overestimated in comparison with those determined by the NETPATH code. Without additional data, such as the stable isotope composition of the water, conclusions on the age of the groundwater based solely on the Pearson model may be highly inadequate. ItemThe FEM model of groundwater circulation in the vicinity of the Świniarsko intake, near Nowy Sącz (Poland)(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Zdechlik, Robert; Kałuża, AgnieszkaModern hydrogeological research uses numerical modelling, which is most often based on the finite difference method (FDM) or finite element method (FEM). The present paper discusses an example of application of the less frequently used FEM for simulating groundwater circulation in the vicinity of the intake at Świniarsko near Nowy Sącz. The research area is bordered by rivers and watersheds, and within it, two well-connected aquifers occur (Quaternary gravelly-sandy sediments and Paleogene cracked flysch rocks). The area was discretized using a Triangle generator, taking into account assumptions about the nature and density of the mesh. Rivers, wells, an irrigation ditch and infiltration of precipitation were projected onto boundary conditions. Conditions of groundwater circulation in the aquifer have been assessed based on a calibrated model, using water balance and a groundwater level contour map with flow path lines. Application of the program based on FEM, using smooth local densification of the discretization mesh, has allowed for precise mapping of the location of objects that significantly shape water circulation. ItemThe δ18O and δD isoscapes of recent groundwater in Poland(Instytut Geologii UAM, 2019-12) Leśniak, Paweł M.; Wilamowski, AndrzejConsidering the country’s development and quality of life, recognition of the water cycle mechanism is of great importance. A significant contribution to this comes from the isotopic composition of particular elements of the water cycle. However, a weak point is that in Poland only one element of the water cycle, precipitation, is sampled and measured over more than 312 thousands km2 at a single station. It is therefore necessary to seek extension of or alternatives for these rare data. Such an alternative is the sampling of groundwater containing tritium in the national monitoring network of groundwater bodies that is maintained by the Polish Geological Institute. Based on such data we have constructed δ18O and δD isoscapes (i.e., maps of δ18O and δD values) of recent groundwater. These data provide spatial distribution of δ18O and δD values which can be used as input to hydrogeological models.