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dc.contributor.authorScheffler, Paweł-
dc.contributor.authorPietrzykowska, Agnieszka-
dc.identifier.citationScheffler, P. and A. Pietrzykowska. 2009. Rule difficulty and the usefulness of instruction: Learner Perceptions and Performance. In: Kuźniak, M.; Rozwadowska, B. (eds.) PASE Papers 2008. Wrocław: Oficyna Wydawnicza ATUT, 359-367.pl_PL
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of code-focused instruction in second / foreign language (L2) acquisition. In current SLA theory, two main types of approaches to L2 instruction can be distinguished: task-based approaches and skill-based approaches. In the former, instruction is to take place through tasks which induce interaction between learners, with code-focused explicit teaching playing a supporting role. In the latter, conscious and systematic study of grammar rules is regarded as the basis for L2 development. Learners are first supposed to develop declarative knowledge of L2 grammar, and then to proceduralize this knowledge to such an extent that it can be used in spontaneous speech production. Regardless of the type of approach adopted, one is, then, justified in applying some form of explicit code-focused instruction. However, there are still a number of issues which need to be considered when deciding which L2 grammar rules to target in teaching. One of the most controversial is that of rule difficulty. This paper addresses this issue from the learner’s perspective: it reports the results of a questionnaire administered to two groups of Polish secondary school learners of English. The first group was asked to assess the difficulty of a number of key areas of English grammar. The second was asked to assess the usefulness of explicit instruction in the same areas. The results indicate that there is a considerable overlap between the judgements of both groups. The learners’ judgements reveal their subjective perceptions of rule difficulty. This paper also reports the results of an objective measure of rule difficulty administered to the first group referred to above. It is shown that the subjective notion of difficulty does not necessarily correspond to the difficulty that learners actually experience when dealing with a particular area of grammar.pl_PL
dc.publisherOficyna Wydawnicza ATUTpl_PL
dc.subjectrule difficultypl_PL
dc.subjectexplicit grammar instructionpl_PL
dc.subjectEFL learners' performancepl_PL
dc.titleRule difficulty and the usefulness of instruction: Learner Perceptions and Performancepl_PL
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