Coexistence of Lobelia dortmanna and Cladium mariscus, an ecological and paleobotanical study

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Lobelia dortmanna L. (Lobeliaceae family) is an indicator species that is predominantly found in oligotrophic and acidic lakes. They are mainly distributed in northwestern Europe. Their occurrence in Poland is highly threatened by the increasing grade of human activity and environmental eutrophication; however, new sites of Lobelia were discovered in the last few decades, for example, in Lake Krzywce Wielkie situated in Bory Tucholskie National Park (BTNP), Poland. The existence of Lobelia in this lake was unexpected because Cladium mariscus was also found in the lake. Cladium has different ecological demands and is regarded as a species typical of calcareous habitats where calcium is found in abundance in the substrate. To explain the coexistence of both species in Krzywce Wielkie, pollen analysis of organic sediments was performed for four short cores collected from the littoral zone of the lake and for one long deep-water core. Additionally, macrofossil analysis was done for all the short cores. Pollen analysis revealed the existence of Cladium from the early Holocene period up to the present time. Pollen and seeds of Lobelia were found to be present since the beginning of the 20th century. Development of L. dortmanna and Myriophyllum alterniflorum populations and a decrease in the number of aquatic macrophytes in the eutrophic water indicate oligotrophication of water. This process started following the construction of drainage canal and the consequent water level decrease. This situation can be attributed to the abandonment of the agricultural areas adjoining the lake, which causes a decrease in the inflow of nutrients into the lake. Development of pine forest and establishment of BTNP enabled the protection and conservation of the surrounding catchment areas, thus restricting the potential eutrophication of the habitats.



State Forest and the cooperation of National Park “Tuchola Forest”


Lobelia dortmanna, Cladium mariscus, Late Holocene, land use, trophy changes, Tuchola Forest, lake, lake sediments, paleobotany, pollen analysis, 210Pb, 137Cs, radiocarebon, sediment cores, macrofossils, Poland, Holocene, palaeolimnology, palaeoecology, gyttia


Acta Palaeobotanica 2021, vol. 61 (2), pp. 195-217.


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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego