Charge-Order on the Triangular Lattice: A Mean-Field Study for the Lattice S = 1/2 Fermionic Gas
The adsorbed atoms exhibit tendency to occupy a triangular lattice formed by periodic potential of the underlying crystal surface. Such a lattice is formed by, e.g., a single layer of graphane or the graphite surfaces as well as (111) surface of face-cubic center crystals. In the present work, an extension of the lattice gas model to S=1/2 fermionic particles on the two-dimensional triangular (hexagonal) lattice is analyzed. In such a model, each lattice site can be occupied not by only one particle, but by two particles, which interact with each other by onsite U and intersite W1 and W2 (nearest and next-nearest-neighbor, respectively) density-density interaction. The investigated hamiltonian has a form of the extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit (i.e., the zero-bandwidth limit). In the analysis of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of this model with repulsive W1>0, the variational approach is used, which treats the onsite interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation. The ground state (T=0) diagram for W2≤0 as well as finite temperature (T>0) phase diagrams for W2=0 are presented. Two different types of charge order within √3×√3 unit cell can occur. At T=0, for W2=0 phase separated states are degenerated with homogeneous phases (but T>0 removes this degeneration), whereas attractive W2<0 stabilizes phase separation at incommensurate fillings. For U/W1<0 and U/W1>1/2 only the phase with two different concentrations occurs (together with two different phase separated states occurring), whereas for small repulsive 0<U/W1<1/2 the other ordered phase also appears (with tree different concentrations in sublattices). The qualitative differences with the model considered on hypercubic lattices are also discussed.
National Science Centre (NCN, Poland) - Grant SONATINA 1 no. UMO-2017/24/C/ST3/00276; scholarship of the Minister of Science and Higher Education (Poland) for outstanding young scientists (2019 edition, no. 821/STYP/14/2019)
charge order, triangular lattice, extended Hubbard model, atomic limit, mean-field theory, phase diagram, longer-range interactions, thermodynamic properties, fermionic lattice gas, adsorption on the surface
Nanomaterials 2021, vol. 11 (5), 1181