Przegląd Politologiczny, 2011, nr 4

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    Polityka gospodarcza w deklaracjach wyborczych kandydatów na Urząd Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w 2010 roku
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kamola-Cieślik, Małgorzata
    The paper presents the differences and similarities in the economic platforms of candidates for presidency of Poland. An attempt is also made to assess which promises made by the candidates in the realm of economy generated support, and which were responsible for the conflicts arising between them. Economic problems were the subject of the electoral declarations of many candidates. Privatization, the tax system and the development of businesses attracted most attention. The visions of the Polish economy presented by the candidates were similar. Only Janusz Korwin-Mikke advocated a minimum of state intervention in economic life. The commercialization of the national health system and agricultural subsidies were the centre of the disputes between Bronis³aw Komorowski and Jaros³aw Kaczyñski. The fact that the former won a judicial argument about the privatization of the health system did not help him to win over undecided voters, which was clearly evidenced in the opinion polls conducted before the election. Komorowski was elected Poland’s president by a small majority. Kaczyñski’s defeat was due to the fact that he commanded a significant negative electorate.
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    Rola lobbingu w polskich stosunkach przemysłowych
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Piestrak, Mariusz; Kichewko, Karolina
    Lobbying is one of the strategies applied by groups of interest. Like any other strategy it is to help achieve the goals that a particular group identifies and articulates. Paradoxically, the greatest value and the strongest enemy of lobbying is its popularity. On one hand lobbying is a series of activities that group elites willingly (e.g. in the U.S.) employ to achieve their interests. On the other hand, though, referring to the notion of lobbying in various contexts, whether in PR, marketing or journalism, it raises numerous questions. The latter, i.e. the journalistic context distorts it most severely. It is journalism that applies the name of lobbying to mysterious, to put it mildly, and dubious interactions between the private and the political sectors, thereby implying a rather derogatory ‘image’ of this instrument in public opinion, which is especially the case in Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland. However, lobbying is more than a handy tool to achieve particular, strictly business interests, it is also an important route to implement social interests. It can be easily used by large economic groups of interest, trade unions or business organizations, wrestling with the strong third party of industrial relations, the state. By this token lobbying becomes a component of industrial relations, and by no means is it a worse party, one that is less socially-oriented and more like an ‘old boys’ network’, but a party which can efficiently contribute to a specified social interest to be implemented in the labor market. In order to make it possible, though, appropriate regulations, conditions, and factors of a legal, organizational and cultural nature need to be developed. A profound change in this field does not seem feasible in Poland, which becomes clear when reading the long-awaited law on lobbying currently in the legislative process. Maybe we should not be very surprised, given that our industrial arena is highly susceptible to hybrid and ephemeral solutions, and the issue of making appropriate use of lobbying also leaves a margin for uncertainty and deformation. Despite these concerns and limitations caused by industrial relations it is worth improving and creating the proper environment for lobbying activity in Poland, which the authors of this paper try to demonstrate.
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    Działalność samorządu lekarskiego w zakresie doskonalenia zawodowego na przykładzie Wielkopolskiej Izby Lekarskiej
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kordel, Piotr; Kordel, Krzysztof; Saj, Marek
    The issue of the continuous improvement of professional qualifications by medical doctors is of utmost importance both from the point of view of doctors and their patients. Acquiring new knowledge and skills is an important element of a doctor’s professional career. A doctor who raises his qualifications guarantees better medical care for a patient. The professional self-governing body of doctors constitutes a significant element in the postgraduate education of doctors. It participates in the education of interns and in the procedure of acquiring the title of specialist. It also supervises and organizes the process of doctors’ mandatory continuous education. A majority of the tasks related to doctors’ professional education is performed by regional chambers. The Wielkopolska Medical Chamber organizes training sessions and courses for its members, which are one of the forms of fulfilling the requirement of professional improvement, reimburses a portion of the costs borne by the doctors in connection with improving their professional qualifications, and it establishes cooperation with domestic and foreign academic institutions to provide doctors from Wielkopolska with an opportunity to partake in training. These activities of the medical association, combined with the organs of professional liability of doctors, allow the patients to hope that when visiting a doctor they encounter a specialist who will take the utmost care of them.
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    Działania izb przemysłowo-handlowych na rzecz rozwoju innowacyjności polskich przedsiębiorstw
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Walkowiak, Katarzyna
    In a knowledge-based economy innovativeness is among the most significant factors that are decisive for the competitiveness of modern businesses. EU member states undertake numerous activities to support the innovativeness of their businesses and to reduce the distance between them and the global leaders of innovativeness. In Poland only a small proportion of businesses run innovative activities and the level of innovativeness of the economy significantly differs from that of the majority of EU states. Stimulating an enterprise’s innovative potential is significantly influenced by cooperation and connections with the institutions of the business environment. The institutions supporting the innovative activity of businesses in Poland are not fit to meet their needs. At the same time the civil factor, namely the entrepreneurs, is not taken advantage of. Their role in business life can be strengthened by the chambers of commerce and industry – the institutions of public law that represent all entrepreneurs and which are competent to participate in the shaping and implementation of policies to promote the innovativeness of the state and its regions.
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    Innowacyjność izb gospodarczych na tle modernizacyjnej funkcji prawa
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Dąbrowski, Karol
    On the basis of extensive sources, the author discusses the meeting point of three phenomena: innovativeness, economic self-governing bodies and the modernizing function of the law. Initially, he analyzes the meaning of the words ‘innovation’ and ‘modernization’. The issue of innovation and innovativeness is described with reference to Joseph Schumpeter. New notions are indicated, that have emerged in academic language: innovative competence, innovative potential, innovative environment, etc. The innovative activity of modern chambers of commerce in Poland is criticized. An attempt is made to draft an ideal model of an innovation incubator. The author identifies the sources of poor development of business environment institutions, as chambers of commerce are defined, as lying in their legal organization, which is faulty in his opinion. As he emphasizes the idea of self-government (differentiating between ‘self-government’ and a ‘self-governing community’) he raises the issue of whether it is feasible to vest the tasks of the central administration in economic self-governing bodies.
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    Samorząd terytorialny miasta Kalisza. Doświadczenia minionego dwudziestolecia
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Żmurkiewicz, Agnieszka
    The reinstatement of local government at the level of the district in Poland in 1990 has resulted in the actual empowerment of local communities, while the local governments have become able to define the goals of local policy that are in line with the expectations of local communities. The local government of Kalisz has taken advantage of the new opportunities to improve the living conditions and standard of living of its citizens since it was instituted. Over the years, due to changes in the political system, related to the establishment of counties, the local government of Kalisz has received new operating opportunities, implementing projects at the level of both districts and counties. The political transformation was complemented by the changes in the election principles of the executive, which has significantly improved the efficiency and effectiveness of the President of Kalisz. The activities of local government have been concentrated on the increasing of social integration by means of taking maximum advantage of local assets and potential. In order to achieve these goals promotional instruments have been employed to encourage foreign investors to investment in Kalisz. A significant part of the local government’s activities concern its longstanding international cooperation with towns in Western, as well as Central and Eastern Europe.
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    Samorząd zawodowy i gospodarczy w Polsce po 1989 roku
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kmieciak, Robert
    One of the greatest achievements of the socio-political transformation process in Poland is the profound decentralization of public governance. In administrative law, decentralization is perceived as a system with a larger number of independent hubs, vested with competences in terms of public law, and a single center. Therefore, decentralization is a process of delegating certain public functions which formerly were reserved for the central government to groups of citizens organized in corporations. Although local government exemplifies decentralization it is not a one-dimensional no- tion that refers exclusively to territorial relations. In the system of representation specialized self-government bodies, formed with different criteria, play a highly significant role represen- ting the interests of various groups. They are divided into self-governing bodies focused on the economy and the professions. Formal and legal homogeneity, though, does not translate into the appropriate political position of these two forms of self-governing bodies in Poland. While the professional self-governing body is clearly an association governed by public law, the so-called economic self-governing body is based on concepts that emphasize the volunta- ry nature of the ties between entrepreneurs, associated in chambers of commerce. The differences in their legal status and the resulting powers bear no influence on the fact that both economic and professional self-governing bodies are now facing equally serious threats in Poland. In both cases these are related to how the state approaches the extra-territo- rial form of decentralization. We can speak of different motivations here. The state, or rather the state administration, is excessively interested in the professional self-governing bodies and is curbing the autonomy they have traditionally been vested with. The situation is quite different with respect to the economic self-governing bodies, where the public authorities are scarcely interested in becoming involved in supporting them. It should be realized then, that the success of Polish decentralization reform will only be complete when all forms of self-government develop harmoniously irrespective of the rela- tions between their members, whose empowerment will serve democracy and strengthen civic society.
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    Samorząd terytorialny jako uczestnik komunikacji społecznej
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kowalczyk, Ryszard
    The author considers local government as a participant of social communication, mainly by means of its public communications. He emphasizes two fundamental forms of public communication, formal and informal. He touches upon the political foundations of local gov- ernment information policies, which implement a specific political vision of the authorities. The author concludes by saying that in the field of information policy a unit of local govern- ment cannot be treated as a passive executor of statutory tasks (in their formal and legal as- pects) but should rather be perceived as an active creator that runs its information policies on the basis of its own local policy (the political and legal aspects).
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    Samorząd zawodowy adwokatów w opinii jego członków
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Antkowiak, Paweł
    The model of public administration which emerged in Poland after 1989 assumes that its tasks are performed by the apparatus of the centralized government administration as well as by a diversified system of bodies or institutions that operate independently and fulfill public tasks, vested in them by virtue of law, in their own names and on their own accounts. Administrative tasks are performed by obligatory units and by the professional self-governing bodies, among other entities. They play a very important role in the system of representing defined so- cial groups’ interests because they are set up by the professions whose social significance re- quires the highest vocational and moral qualifications. The Chamber of Lawyers is worthy of particular attention, with its rich history and the fact that it forms the kernel of several corpora- tions of professions of public trust. However, recently there are increasing concerns about the justification for such structures and their operation in the public realm. Professional self-governing bodies are being subjected to social and media criticism, and are also criticized by their own members. The main accusa- tion of the representatives of a given profession concerns the apparent clash of their group’s interests with the social interest. All these doubts have resulted in a clear tendency of the progressive limitation of the com- petences of professional self-governing bodies in Poland and their takeover by the state ad- ministration. Several decades of self-government experience is a sufficient period to reveal the shortcomings of a given organization and to demonstrate the need to critically review cur- rent solutions. It is beyond doubt, however, that such a review should be performed by those who are most concerned with the development of a given profession, that is, by the members of a given professional self-governing body. For this purpose a questionnaire has been carried out with the approval of the Supreme Bar Council and with assistance from its officers. The purpose was to answer the question of what is the actual assessment of the work of the Chamber of Lawyers by the members of this pro- fession? The survey results show that lawyers have extensive knowledge of how their own professional self-governing body works. Although the general conclusions are mostly posi- tive, lawyers indicate numerous fields where changes should be introduced. It is clear that self-government has become an inherent part of this profession. Lawyers deem the existence of their professional self-government to be an institution required not only by themselves, but also by social interest.
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    Kompetencje samorządu zawodowego lekarzy w zakresie odpowiedzialności zawodowej w Polsce
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Skrzypczak, Jędrzej
    The subject of this study is the analysis of one of the competences of the professional self-governing bodies of medical doctors, namely the exercising of professional liability. Both the analysis of historical provisions and modern regulations confirms that the compe- tence of exercising professional liability is one of the most significant rights and responsibilities of the professional self-governing body of doctors. It should be remembered that the binding law on the chambers of medical doctors stipulates that it is a professional self-government’s task to represent individuals who perform the profession of doctor and den- tist, and to exercise care that these professions are performed within the limits of public inter- est and for its protection. Therefore, it seems that exercising of professional liability is the fundamental priority in the realm of ensuring appropriate performance of the profession.
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    Dylematy współczesnego dziennikarza/dziennikarstwa – wybrane zagadnienia
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Barańska, Marzena
    The speed of information transfer, the limited forms and journalistic genres used in every day practice, inadequate professional preparation, fragmentary presentation of interviewees’ opinions, superficial journalistic research before a story is filed, and widespread access to the journalistic profession have significantly affected how the professionalism of journalists is perceived. Many journalists are inspired for this line of work, seeking sensation, or creating sensational content, which increases the number of readers, listeners or viewers as the events unfold and which contributes to an increase in the audience and in the number of readers of some titles. However, the briefness of the statements presented frequently results in journalis- tic material being one-sided and lacking an in-depth approach to the issue. Under such cir- cumstances, interventionist information materials have dominated our media, limiting the readers’ opportunity to see a good documentary or read a good article. There is a shortage of teachers with real authority in journalistic circles, who are in a position to denounce abuses and demonstrate the merits of professional journalistic abilities. The aim of the paper is to indicate journalistic behaviors that raise controversies and draw attention to the dilemmas of modern journalism which diminish the value of this profession.
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    Obchody dwudziestolecia III Rzeczypospolitej. Próby kształtowania pamięci zbiorowej polskiego społeczeństwa
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Adamczyk, Anita; Lesiewicz, Elżbieta; Mazurczak, Witold; Stachowiak, Paweł
    The paper tries to sum up the celebrations to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the Third Republic in 1989 and to present them in the context of the ‘remembrance policy’,meaning the endeavors various circles are engaged in to shape Polish society’s collective memory. The authors analyze the celebrations in terms of several selected aspects. The first one concerns the academic field: conferences, seminars and resulting publications. Another aspect refers to the official celebrations organized by state institutions. The third is about the response and debates taking place in newspapers at that time. The review of different ways of commemorating the anniversary results in the conclusion that they were all strongly politi- cized and used for the purposes of the current political struggle. This was particularly clear during the official celebrations, divided into those organized by the government and president respectively, yet even the events organized under academic auspices were not free from politi- cal manipulation. Therefore, the celebrations corroborated the fact that 1989 has not strongly registered in Poles’ awareness as a generational experience that positively organizes the col- lective memory; the celebrations did not stimulate a nationwide reflection on the achieve- ments of the era commenced with the events of 1989. They did not make a contribution to creating in the collective memory a ‘national consensus of pride’ at the regained statehood reminiscent of that of the Second Republic.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego