- ItemCarbonization of Selected Biological Materials, Trends, and Perspectives.(AMG Transcend Association, 2022-04-18) Kotula, Martyna; Kubiak, Anita; Leśniewski, Bartosz; Pajewska-Szmyt, MartynaThe exploration of new materials as well as methods and sources of their production is a constantly growing trend in both scientific and industrial directions. One such method is carbonization, which has attracted a lot of attention over the past decades. Carbonization is the process of preparation of 3D carbonaceous materials with unique properties by thermal treatments with the exclusion of oxygen. A higher specific surface area characterizes the obtained nanoporous carbon materials compared to their precursors, and, consequently, they can be used in such fields as biotechnology, electrochemistry, or electronic industry. Special attention has been directed to the carbonization of nanoorganized biological materials due to their extensive composition and unique hierarchical structure. This review aims to provide insight into the examples of carbonization of selected biomaterials such as polysaccharides (cellulose, chitin) and proteins (keratin, spongin, silk) evidenced by excellent and successful examples from the recent literature. In addition, this work highlights the most significant aspects of diverse experiments, allowing getting inspiration for fields such as materials science and well extreme biomimetics.
- ItemIron-sponges Interrelations: from Biocorrosion to Nanostructured Biocomposites(AMG Transcend Association, 2022-04-15) Kubiak, Anita; Kotula, Martyna; Leśniewski, Bartosz; Pajewska-Szmyt, MartynaIron (Fe) is the 4th most widespread element on Earth that constitutes a crucial player in geochemistry, biological processes, and industry as metal. The study of iron biomineralization is a well-recognized interdisciplinary area that has been growing over the years. This paper presents an overview of iron-sponges interrelation, particularly from the view of nanostructured biocomposites. This review highlights the potential mechanism of iron-sponge interrelations, including biocorrosion as well as the possible role of selected amino acids and structural proteins in the mineralization process concerning the development of novel nanoorganized hybrid materials. This is the first review that describes the interrelations between iron and structural biopolymers of marine sponge skeletons to the best of our knowledge. We believe that this review will highlight new perspectives in bioinspired materials science and modern biomimetics.
- ItemThermostability of Selected Biological Materials(AMG Transcend Association, 2022-05-22) Leśniewski, Bartosz; Kotula, Martyna; Kubiak, Anita; Pajewska-Szmyt, MartynaThermostability is a crucial property of biological materials, especially in the case of their potential application in materials science, including such novel directions as Extreme Biomimetics. This approach includes research at high temperatures without destroying the 3D structure of selected biological materials that allow the development of novel nanostructured composites. Consequently, this article presents an overview of the characterization of such biomaterials as chitin, chitosan, spongin, collagen, keratin, silk, byssus, and conchiolin in the contest of their structure and thermostability with respect to future potential applications. The review also highlights the instrumental techniques used for thermal analysis of materials – thermogravimetric methods. The review covered the latest achievements in the issue of thermostability research of natural, renewable materials, and the information presented in this paper may be valuable in future practical studies.