ItemPrasa lokalna w leszczyńskim regionie wydawniczym. Przyczynek do badań nad zawartością treści w kontekście sportowych wydarzeń medialnych, ze szczególnym udziałem kobiet(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Jurga-Wosik, EwaThe analysis of the content of Wielkopolska periodicals in the period from 1989 to 2011 indicates that female issues comprised two currents. One presented the historical and modern image of women, while the other discussed female issues in the context of political, economic and social events. In the first decade following the transformation the regional and local press confirmed the presence of the stereotype of female roles, but studies carried out in 2011 indicated that male and female roles were unified in numerous aspects of everyday life. This paper aims to deepen the issue previously discussed by the author, but only in the context of the qualitative changes that have occurred in the presentation of sports releases, focusing on sports events involving women in particular. To this end Wielkopolska local and regional newspapers, and local newspapers from the Leszno region (south-western part of Wielkopolska, the northern part of Lower Silesia and the south-eastern part of Lubuskie) in 1989–2012 were analyzed. ItemSpór o multipleks. Telewizja Trwam kontra Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Secler, BartłomiejThe digitalization of terrestrial television in Poland is one of the largest media projects in recent years. The process combines social, economic and technical matters. Digitalization signifies a huge technical leap forward and offers extensive new opportunities when broadcasting television signals. Digital broadcasting is offered by three multiplex platforms. Among the candidates to use the first one (MUC-1) is Telewizja Trwam, owned by the Lux Veritatis foundation. The National Broadcasting Council (KRRiT) which assigns the concessions to use the multiplex rejected the application by Telewizja Trwam, associated with Fr. Tadeusz Rydzyk. The owner of Telewizja Trwam claimed the decisions of the KRRiT were baseless. There quickly emerged accusations of discrimination against a Catholic broadcaster, and, by this token, of scorn directed toward Polish Catholics. The dispute between Telewizja Trwam and the KRRiT has involved many groups and individuals – ranging from the supporters of the media associated with Fr T. Rydzyk, to journalists, politicians, and to the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Poland. The purpose of this paper is to present this dispute, its background and the arguments of both parties. As the dispute was still unresolved when this paper was completed (in late February 2013), the author tried to suggest possible scenarios for its outcome and to draw conclusions for the future. ItemPolskie i europejskie standardy wykonywania wolnych zawodów(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Antkowiak, PawełFor some time Poland has been debating the issue of the existence and functioning of professional corporations. This debate concerns only those professions that are deemed professions of public trust and which have been granted the privilege of developing their respective professional self-governing bodies. European solutions for regulating the issue of such professions are varied and have attracted the attention of the European Union. Contemplating the evolution of the Polish political system in the field of self-governing bodies it is worth paying attention to the European standards regulating the functioning of free professions, which include what are considered professions of public trust in Poland. The said regulations set certain standards for the Polish regulator to be followed and implemented. ItemWpływ kryzysu gospodarczego na bezpieczeństwo zdrowia publicznego w UE(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Skarżyński, MirosławThe paper emphasizes the significance of health for individual existence and the entire population. It indicates the fundamental elements of health security in the EU. It presents the reasons for and results of economic crisis. The interdependencies between the economic situation and a society’s health are defined. Statistical data provide the basis for the analysis and assessment of the influence the present economic crisis has had on the security of public health in the EU. ItemO interesie narodowym i racji stanu – rozważania teoretyczne(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Kałążna, Klaudia; Rosicki, RemigiuszThe concepts of national interest or raison d’etat continue to be fundamental elements in the foreign policies of states. Making direct reference to these concepts is crucial for making the arguments employed in political discussions efficient. The paper presents theoretical considerations on the issue of raison d’etat or national interest. It attempts to distinguish between the meanings of these two concepts, presents the changes in how they have been understood and tries to approach them theoretically. It also refers to how the raison d’etat and national in- terest are understood by N. Machiavelli, C. Le Bret and a range of contemporary authors. The theoretical approach to national interest makes use of V. Udalov’s theory, which discusses this concept as understood by researchers from the two opposing blocs at the time of the Cold War – the USA and the USSR. The paper also refers to the concept of interest in the context of international relations. ItemPrzywództwo w Unii Europejskiej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Sielski, JerzyThe current financial crisis has significantly highlighted the issue of leadership in the European Union. The topic is both timely and worthy of analysis. The author tries to outline the theoretical approach to political leadership with regard to the current political scene in the European Union. A politician has to meet four criteria to be deemed a leader: his decisions are strategic, they exert permanent influence, he has a sufficient political background, and he has the highest position in a given political composition. The author makes the following hypothesis: on the basis of factor analysis (as regards the four factors above) only two current politicians are the true leaders of the EU, namely the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel, and the President of France, Francois Hollande. Both politicians meet the four attributes presented above to at least the minimum degree, thus becoming (international) EU leaders. The paper also discusses the issue of distinguishing between an (international) statesman and (international) leader. ItemNieposłuszeństwo i profanacje – globalne społeczeństwo obywatelskie(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Pietrzak, EdytaTransnational space provides the framework for discussing the topics of this paper: civil society, civil disobedience and the concept of profanation developed by the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. The first two topics are mutually related, whereas the third one expands the former two and challenges them with the tasks to be performed by both politically aware social movements and authorities. The paper attempts to answer the question of what outcomes this challenge produces. ItemWładza ludu czy elit politycznych? Próba zdefiniowania współczesnej demokracji(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Rachwał, MarcinTaking into consideration the etymology of the concept, it seems obvious that democracy stands for the power of the people. It needs to be borne in mind, however, that the concept of democracy was coined in Antiquity and served to describe the political reality at the time. The premises and practice of modern democratic states have considerably diverted from the ancient model. It therefore seems justifiable to ask whether democracy continues to stand for the power of the people. From the point of view of Ch. W. Mills, for instance, the power of the people is an idealistic intention and a noble postulate rather than a realistically achievable political phenomenon. He is not alone in this opinion. Therefore, the question arises of how to define modern democracy. Bearing in mind the considerable variety of current democratic states, it can be assumed that modern democracy is a system where the authorities are publicly accountable to the citizens, who act by means of elected representatives that compete and cooperate with one an- other. In other words, democracy is the power of a political elite controlled by the people via cyclical, competitive elections. Direct democracy needs to be highlighted here, as it is considerably closer to the etymology of the word ‘democracy’ and its Greek roots. Apart from Switzerland, however, the instruments of direct democracy are tools construed not for the citizens but rather for an opposition that can use them in order to build their position. In this manner the institutions that, by definition, should belong to the citizens have become instruments used by the political elite. ItemPaństwo i jego ustroje w starożytnej literaturze oraz filozofii greckiej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Bielawska, AgnieszkaThe paper presents the political system of the Greek poleis between the 8th century BC and 2nd century AD. It analyzes the standpoints of ancient thinkers and poets from the point of view of the development of studies on the state, the manner of its description, the approach to its tasks and the limitations imposed on the state, as well as how political systems were defined, perceived and transformed, aiming towards democracy. ItemProblematyka władzy międzynarodowej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Maj, CzesławOne of the fundamental categories of general sociology concerns power. Regardless of differences in interpretation, power can be defined as the dependence between subordinator and subordinated. This relation is unidirectional. When discussing influence, this property is significant, as otherwise it could be reciprocal, or an influence could be exerted by many other entities that are not bound by the relationship of subordination. The nature of international relations is too specific to allow a simple transfer of power-related phenomena from the realm of domestic relations. One can indicate the presence of delegated power, resulting from the mutual assignment of subordination rights to international deci- sion-making bodies. The processes of international power are divided into procedures of hard power, soft power and smart power, the latter signifying the manifestation of effective power, making use of the mechanisms of the former two. It is also important to take into account the specificity of the legitimization of international power and manifestations of accountability. Also not without significance is the capacity for the implementation of international power, equipped with the relevant enforcement instruments. ItemO przywództwie polonijnym w rzeczywistości globalizacji świata(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Chodubski, AndrzejThis paper indicates that the development or decline in the activity of the Polish diaspora to a large extent depends on how active its leaders are. It shows that the cultural and civilizational reality generates a model of a leader – a participatory individual that solves both his own problems and the problems of his community. In the new civilizational reality, education and professional qualifications are becoming the basic criterion in social stratification and one’s position in the system of socio-political governance. The picture of the Polish diaspora shows that its leaders are usually individuals with strong personalities; psychological features are of primary importance in individuals functioning in public life, including the complexities of life in a diaspora. At present, there are two typical models of leadership in the Polish diaspora. One points to the representatives of the ‘old’ immigration, aiming to cultivate the traditional forms of life among Polish émigres. The other one represents the latest wave of émigrés, who support the implementation of the values of the global civil society, where national and cultural diversity plays a significant role. In conclusion, it is noted that an important element that generates leadership among Polish émigrés is constituted by traditional political culture, including such mythicized elements as Catholicism, anarchy, democratic ideas and the cult of modernity. ItemPolitologia jako dyscyplina naukowa świadoma swoich postaw (stronniczy przyczynek do debaty z czterema uwagami)(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2013) Szlachta, BogdanThe text presents remarks on four issues political scientists often take into consideration when reflecting on the borders of their research. The first issue concerns the call to scrutinize the course of legislative procedures, the second one – the need to recognize and note various traditions of political thought in the platforms of political parties and the statements uttered by politicians; the third – the fundamental question of whether political topics are grasped in the structure of sensual perceptions reflected in language; and, finally, the disputable postulate that the philosophy of politics, approached as an element of reflection on political science, clarifies exclusively the notions and concepts applied in the political sciences. These considerations pose problems rather than solve them, and they are completed by a warning that political science should not be developed towards common knowledge, and it should not become increasingly indeterminate and blurred.