ItemAntoni Ziemba Sztuka Burgundii i Niderlandów 1380–1500 Tom 1. Sztuka dworu burgundzkiego oraz miast niderlandzkich(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Sikora-Sabat, AnnaA review of Antoni Ziemba Sztuka Burgundii i Niderlandów 1380–1500 Tom 1. Sztuka dworu burgundzkiego oraz miast niderlandzkich Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. 2008. 602 pp. ISBN 978-83-235-0443-6 ItemMarijke van der Wal en Eep Francken, reds, Standaardtalen in beweging(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Wąsik, ElżbietaA review of Marijke van der Wal en Eep Francken, reds Standaardtalen in beweging Amsterdam: Stichting Neerlandistiek VU. 2010. 217 pp. ISBN 978-3-89323-763-0 ItemMarlene Verhoef and Theodorus du Plessis, eds Multilingualism and Educational Interpreting(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Cichocka, AleksandraA review of Marlene Verhoef and Theodorus du Plessis, eds Multilingualism and Educational Interpreting Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers 2010. 199 pp. ISBN 9.780.627.02777.2 ItemWitold Grzesiewicz Afryka utrwalona I: Mój pobyt w Kongo (1929-1938), Małgorzata Grzesiewicz-Sałacińska, red. Afryka utrwalona II: Karty pocztowe Kazimierza Zagórskiego z kolekcji Witolda Grzesiewicza(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Zajas, PawełReview of: Witold Grzesiewicz Afryka utrwalona I: Mój pobyt w Kongo (1929-1938) Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Gondwana, 2009. 191 pp. ISBN: 978-83-928264-1-5 Małgorzata Grzesiewicz-Sałacińska, red. Afryka utrwalona II: Karty pocztowe Kazimierza Zagórskiego z kolekcji Witolda Grzesiewicza Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Gondwana, 2009. 131 pp. ISBN: 978-83-928264-1-5 ItemCongo in de literatuur Themanummer van Armada: Tijdschrift voor wereldliteratuur(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Czarnecka, Bożena; Koch, JerzyReview of: Congo in de literatuur Themanummer van Armada : Tijdschrift voor wereldliteratuur Zestiende jaargang, nr 59, juni 2010. 119 pp. ISBN 978 90 284 2317 6 / NUR 324 / ISSN 1384 105 X ItemThe Cambridge History of South Africa Volume I. From Early Times to 1885(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Leśniewski, MichałA review of Carolyn Hamilton, Bernard K. Mbenga, Robert Ross, eds The Cambridge History of South Africa Volume I . From Early Times to 1885 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. 467 pp. ISBN 978-0-521-51794-2 Item‘Beperkte afschrikkingsmacht’ van de Republiek Zuid-Afrika(Department of Dutch and South African Studies, Faculty of English, 2011) Kubiak, KrzysztofIn the seventies South Africa became a nuclear power. This paper examines the circumstances of and reasons for developing national nuclear capacities. The author presents the political and strategic situation of South Africa and the new threats and challenges which appeared after the collapse of Portuguese colonies in Africa and the arrival of the first Cuban units in Angola. In this context the South African authorities considered the development of nuclear weapons as a fundamental factor in creating a balance of power, and also as an important political tool. It must be emphasised that South Africa saw its own nuclear capacity as an instrument of policy, rather than a classical type weapon to be used on the battlefield. At the end of the apartheid era the South African nuclear bombs were deactivated and dismantled. The country also stopped construction of ballistic missiles. At present the Republic of South Africa is ‘free’ of nuclear weapons. ItemMyth (De)Constructed: Some Reflections Provoked by Dan Wylie’s Book Myth of Iron: Shaka in History(2011) Leśniewski, MichałThe aim of this article is to discuss perspectives on and interpretations of South African history in the early 19th century: in this case, an early history of the Zulu state and a biography of Shaka. Firstly it is an overview of Dan Wylie book, Myth of Iron: Shaka in History. This book, which is a very important voice in the discussion of the beginnings of the Zulu State, is a pretext to look at contemporary so-called revisionist historiography. Far from being averse to revisionist attitudes, it is useful to observe the method behind revisionist criticism as presented in this book – how it criticises earlier historiography and primary sources, and how it elaborates new interpretation. This leads to another dimension of this text: a reflection on the creation and deconstruction of historical stereotypes. Dan Wylie’s book is an example of how deconstruction of one set of myths and stereotypes may lead to introduction of another set. Even in agreeing with the view that history is just a constructed story of the past, it is also important to take note of the means by which this story is created. ItemTussen ‘rabauwen’ en ‘kloekmoedige’ heren: De representatie van geweld in de Nederlandse contemporaine geschiedschrijving uit de tijd van de Opstand(2011) Urbaniak, JanThis article raises an issue of the physical violence on the basis of several texts from the seventeenth- century Netherlands. Those texts written among others by the famous Dutch chroniclers, such as Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Jakob van Wesembeeke or Pieter Christiaenszoon Bor, present a homogenous image of violence during the Eighty Years’ War in its different phases. The above-mentioned writers contrasted the enormous brutality of the Spanish aggressors on the one hand with a peaceful attitude of Dutch inhabitants on the other hand and thereby tried to add an important social value to their texts. They namely intended to alienate the Spanish enemy and at the same time to encourage the Dutch rebels, whose fight for freedom was widely justified in those texts, even though the rebels were resorting to violence to an equal extent as their opponents. The image of violence in the described texts becomes a part of political propaganda, which aimed to build the Dutch national identity at the end of the fight for independence of the Northern Netherlands in the seventeenth century. ItemModerne Nederlandse poëzie en de oorlogen in voormalig Joegoslavië(2011) Novaković-Lopušina, JelicaRecent Dutch and Flemish poetry shows many reactions and reflections on the bloody Yugoslav drama of the late twentieth century. The wars in former Yugoslavia were close to home. Also, the Dutch and Belgian military were involved in the events. Furthermore, the media played a crucial role by involving entire populations in the conflict as virtual eyewitnesses. Some poets rely on the poetics of fascination and disgust for violence as set out by the renowned Dutch poet Armando. Others prefer the almost silent mourning for the condition humaine. Some prefer implicit pacifist engagement, others express explicit political judgements. The dominant impression is the need of so many poets to react, reaffirming thus the belief in the strength of words as the only weapon of dignity.