ItemState security and individual security as exemplified by operational surveillance used by the Polish counter-intelligence service(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Rosicki, RemigiuszThe material scope of the research problem presented in the text encompasses the issues concerned with operational surveillance that the Polish civilian counter-intelligence service, i.e. the Internal Security Agency (in Polish abbreviated as ABW – Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego), is authorised to. The main purpose of the analysis is to assess the changes introduced as a result of the passing of the so-called Surveillance Act in 2016. The Act was supposed to introduce new regulations with regard to the powers concerning operational surveillance and obtaining of ICT data, granted to particular secret and police services. The said changes were enforced by the judgment of the Constitutional Tribunal, which in 2014 found numerous violations of the provisions of the Constitutions of the Republic of Poland caused by the existing regulations authorising the services to engage in particular operational and investigative actions. In order to elaborate the material scope of the research problem, and to present the conclusions, the following research questions have been presented in the text: Do the legal regulations concerning the powers vested in the Polish civilian counter-intelligence service within operational surveillance infringe individual rights and freedoms (e.g. the right to privacy, protection of personal information, privacy of correspondence), and if so, then to what extent? Functional and pro-constitutional interpretations have been applied to assess the provisions regulating the powers of the Internal Security Agency with regard to operational surveillance and obtaining of ICT data. The functional interpretation focuses on the function of selected legal solutions, whereas the pro-constitutional interpretation focuses on the assessment of legal solutions in the context of the principles of a democratic state ruled by law, as well as human rights and freedoms. As regards the pro-constitutional interpretation, the tool used for assessment is the test of proportionality, i.e. the rule used for interpreting legal norms according to the degree and legitimacy of the interference in individual rights and freedoms. ItemA comparative analysis of security issues in the new social media in the US-Israel election campaign(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Mansour, WaseemThis article presents the history of the use of social media in the election campaigns of politicians from the United States and Israel as a modern phenomenon in the current era due to technological changes in the global media. My article answers the research question: is there a difference in the strategy of using Twitter between Netanyahu and Obama, and what is this difference? It should be noted that many articles have dealt with social networks and the political use of social networks, but as far as I know, the topic of comparison and attempt to find differences in political campaigns between two leaders from the United States and Israel has not yet been investigated, and this is the goal of the article, I will focus on presenting data and information examining the allegations appearing in the official Twitter account of former Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu regarding security issues and the Iranian threat expressed in his Twitter tweets, so that he presents himself as “responsible for Israel and its citizens.” So he constantly presents the issue of national security as a winning card against his opponents in order to win the support of the far right electorate in Israel. Compared to the tweets of Obama the first president of the United States who used social media and especially presidential Twitter to win in support of the American electorate in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections and to win their economic and social contribution. ItemAir protection policy in the 2019 parliamentary campaign in Poland. An analysis of positions(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Sakson-Boulet, AnnaThis article seeks to investigate whether the election committees that won seats in the 2019 parliamentary elections had noted the public concerns about the issue of air not meeting the normative standards, and whether they offered Poles a specific vision of an air protection policy in their election manifestoes. This analysis concerns the proposals of election committees to limit low-stack emissions. Answering the research questions posed: (1) to what extent do election manifestoes address the issue of air pollution in Poland?; (2) are the tools for the implementation of environmental policy as concerns the reduction of low-stack emissions indicated, and can they be effective? leads to the conclusion that the successful election committees noted public concerns about air pollution, and addressed air protection policy to a varied extent, though not always presenting specific solutions to eliminate low-stack emissions To achieve the purpose of the research the methods of source and comparative analysis were used. ItemKrzysztof Bosak’s political views: targeting enemies in anti-democratic political thinking(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Bäcker, RomanThis article aims to place the views of Krzysztof Bosak, the Confederation’s candidate in the 2020 presidential elections, in the multifaceted typological frameworks of political thought. The analyzes show that Bosak’s political views are primarily fundamentalist. However, classifying non-heteronormative people as objective enemies is indicative of totalitarian political gnosis. Bosak’s views cannot be classified as belonging to the epigonic fascism cultivating interwar patterns, regardless of the type of national variation. Nevertheless, it is possible to classify them as glamor fascism. This type of fascism is velvety on the outside, but in fact, belonging to an offensive rather than defensive fundamentalism with significant elements of totalitarian political gnosis. In addition, it most often uses the imaginary concept of the nation as a post-ethnic community unpolluted by foreign elements. The analysis of Krzysztof Bosak’s views may be useful for subsequent analyzes of the specific manifestations of quasi-militant democracy in terms of targeting enemies in anti-democratic political thinking. ItemActivities of the Social-Cultural Society of Germans in Opole Silesia in the aspect of ethnic policy of the Polish state(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Szczepański, AndrzejSome of the most important principles of state ethnic policy are to ensure national and ethnic minorities possibility of continuing their national distinction and to enable them participation in public life, including political. The German minority residing in Poland, the most numerous among national minorities, participates actively in realization of the above-mentioned principles. The German minority is most numerous in Upper Silesia area where since 1990 the biggest minority organization in Poland, the Social-Cultural Society of Germans in Opole Silesia (TSKN), has been operating. The basic aim of this article was to make an attempt to describe TSKN activities in the aspect of Polish state ethnic policy assumptions. Research tools and methods used were: historical, comparative, statistical, source study and literature review. Essential research was also study of Internet sources, first and foremost Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration websites as well as TSKN websites. Research hypothesis had been formulated, according to which the Third Republic of Poland ethnic policy not only enable keeping national identity for the German minority living in the region of Opole Silesia, but also creates for the minority appropriate conditions to participate in public life of the region. As a result of research process above-mentioned hypothesis was verified positively. ItemThe historical and sociological determinants of Polish-Ukrainian political dialogue(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Trosiak, CezaryThe presence of over a million Ukrainian immigrants in Poland has inspired various analyses and studies. They seek to answer the question of how this largest group of immigrants, living in Poland mainly for economic and educational purposes,will influence the course of discussions on the social, political, cultural and, finally, economic consequences of migration. Yet another question, which the author of this article is attempting to answer, concerns how historical events such as the “Volhynia slaughter” and the forced displacement of Polish and Ukrainian people from 1939 to 1952 will affect the content and intensity of Polish-Ukrainian political dialogue and the content of political history. The author formulates the thesis that both Poles and Ukrainians can use these events to achieve short-term political goals. Overcoming historical burdens is a process that will take many years and last for generations. Politics, however, is more short-term and its vectors frequently change. This observation should encourage taking up the challenges related to Polish-Ukrainian reconciliation, which is a necessary condition for good neighbourly relations between the Republic of Poland and Ukraine, and more broadly, between Poles and Ukrainians, both in Poland and in Ukraine. ItemSocial sciences to the rise and development of cryptocurrencies: an analysis of the notion(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Mincewicz, WojciechThe aim of the article is to conceptualize, that is, to explain, analyze the meaning and indicate the framework for the interpretation of the concept of “cryptocurrency” in social sciences, including political science. As issue an interdisciplinary, polysemic and at the same time novum technological novelty, cryptocurrencies are a challenge for representatives of the world of science. The proposed heuristic model of concept analysis based on the technological, legal and economic aspect indicates that in the broad sense of cryptocurrencies it should be understood as: decentralized, functioning in a network with a peer-to-peer architecture, cryptographically secured, based on trust and consensus, type of virtual currency, that meets some of the functions of money. Explaining the content by one aspect of the functioning of cryptocurrencies is its narrowing down. ItemGender equality policy in Georgia and challenges(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Letodiani, TamarScientific research confirms that equal opportunities for girls and boys is one of the most important determinants of development, which has a positive impact on the country’s progress in all vital areas, the country’s economy, politics and social life. The paper “Gender equality policy in Georgia and challenges” combines a mixed study to explore important aspects of gender equality principles in Georgia a variety of areas, including women’s political involvement, quotas and mechanisms during elections, domestic violence and violence against women. Prevention, premature marriage as a form of violence. Public or non-governmental institutions working on these issues, research of state programs, which programs help citizens in involvement and development, empowerment of women and rural women, and economic prosperity. Georgian legislation, as well as gender budgeting and programs were studied. The data obtained from the studies give us a basis to draw the following conclusions: 1. Despite the positive general legal framework, Georgia fails to meet its international commitments in practice to uphold the principles of equal rights for women and gender equality. 2. Quotas system and mechanisms have been improved in Georgia again. 3. Georgia still lacks shelters and services for victims of violence. 4. There are no solid coordination mechanisms between the state agency and local self-governments. 5. Public servants need to acquire additional knowledge and experience on gender sensitivity, budgeting and program planning. ItemThe Effects of Syria War on Turkey-EU Relations(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2021) Sambur, BilalSyrian war has changed Middle East radically. Regional dynamics and actors have deeply influenced by Syrian war. Turkey is one of the Middle Eastern countries, which has influenced from this conflict most. Turkey has close relations with the EU in order to become its full member. Syrian war caused many problems between Turkey and the EU. Refugee crisis, Idlib problem, military interventions of Turkey in Syria and Eastern Mediteraanian disputes are chief problemler between Turkey and the EU. Syrian war brings Turkey and the EU relations to the end. In this paper, we intend to discuss the effects of Syria war on Turkey-the EU relations.