Interlinie, 2011, nr 1 (2)

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Berger, Łukasz
    The aim of the article is to give a portrayal of certain aspects of how ancient Greeks and Romans perceived the space surrounding vertical and horizontal oppositions. A selective presentation of ideas originating in religion and classical literature at different stages of its development is supposed to indicate some consistency in the conveyance and judgment of spatial categories. The division between t h e t o p and b o t t o m appears to be in close relation to the Universe from its very beginning. In cosmogony itself, which is based on a vertical axis, there is an analogy in sacred architecture and aetiological myths (the foundation of Rome, the constructing of the Oracle of Delphi). The exchange of energy between different levels in the Universe is also based on a vertical line, including all the moments of transfer between them (ascensus, descensus). Those moments – through mythology – found their way into literature (Homer, Plato, Vergilius). The horizontal opposition had its imprint on divinities whose right-hand side is regarded as the righteous and auspicious one. The semantic extension of the perception of this category can be found in the fact that being right-handed is often associated with mastery in arts. This penetrated modern Romance languages via Latin. What is more, in many cases Latin linguistic inheritors replaced the lexeme which was related to the left in space with a foreign word which could indicate its bad connotations connected with the Latin sinister. The variety described in this selective presentation does not allow the author to draw more general conclusions. The article is merely trying to signal that certain patterns do exist in the perception of the ancient sacred space and still influence the reception of basic oppositions which build the world around the modern European.
  • Item
    Doświadczanie przestrzeni jako konstruowanie kulturowego obrazu. Przykład Bałkanów I Syberii
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Ewertowski, Tomasz
    The paper analyses the process of the experiencing of space as constructing image. In the first part of the paper the main theoretical assumptions are presented. They are based on the postcolonialism theory, Erazm Kuźma’s semiological idea of the unessential nature of the term ‘East’, and Jeep Leerssen’s concept of image. The main idea is that the process of the experiencing of space always produces an image of space which consists more cultural than geographical information. This image corresponds to the ideological categories of its progenitors. In the second part of the paper two examples of the analysed process are described. The author demonstrates different phenomena connected with images of the Balkans and Siberia. This part focuses on such concepts as ‘balkanism’ (according to Maria Todorova), ‘the reproduction of orientalism’ (according to Milica Bakić-Hayden), and the mataphorization of image (the romantic image of Siberia was also used to describe Western culture).
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Szczepan, Aleksandra
    The essay is concerned with the epistemological aspects of space in early novels (The Erasers, The Voyeur, Jealousy) of Alain Robbe-Grillet, a theorist and author of the French New Novel. The text is divided into three parts. The first one is concerned with space on the plane of a story, especially in The Erasers and The Voyeur. The space of the labyrinth drives the protagonists of these novels to a cognitive deadlock. An unknowable structure of the city composed of similar and recurring streets and buildings in The Erasers or identical houses in The Voyeur makes orientation impossible. The second part presents the functions and signification of description in the New Novel according to theoretic essays of Robbe-Grillet. Afterwards, by an examination of the descriptive technique in Jealousy, the author shows how an ultra-realistic description of space loses its function of representation. The third part of the essay is concerned with the figure of mise en abyme – the literary technique of story within a story. Mise en abyme can also be represented on the plane of the plot by specific objects like mirrors, photos, sculpture etc. which remind or indicate the main structure of the story. Mise en abyme lies in the infinite reflection of two mirrors facing one another. There are several examples of this construction in Robbe-Grillet’s novels; they serve as a way to indicate the void and flat space deprived of meaning. Mise en abyme introduces the problem of an unknowable reality closed in repeated reflections of autoreferring space. The conclusion is that space in Robbe-Grillet’s novels serves to show descriptive possibilities of language and their cognitive failure in the paradigm of realism.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Tabaszewska, Justyna
    The text proposes an analysis of the poetry of Bolesław Leśmian, Julian Przyboś and Stanisław Barańczak using a concept whereby space in poems is treated as an analogy to space in reality. The paper takes into consideration various perspectives connected with space, especially the difference between ‘space’ and ‘place’ and the most important oppositions like open space vs. closed space, village vs. city and, moreover, natural space and space which is reconstructed by human activity. In current sociological analyses of human experiences of space, especially natural space, the problem of subjective perception is one of the main issues. Macnaghten and Urry claim that there is not one nature but many alternative natures. More attention is paid to the theories that focus on ‘place’ or ‘point’, not on ‘space’. The aim of presenting the poetry of the three Polish poets mentioned above is to show how space is categorized by the subject. Three ways of space focalization show us that the perspective of the subject is connected with the metaphysical theories of those poets. The most important conclusion of the article is that there is no space without the imagination and memory of the subject.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Koszarska, Justyna
    Futurism was an artistic movement, which can be concerned as a reaction to an experience of modernisation, a process that had a large influence on the shape of humans’ surroundings and, in the further perspective, on the human condition. The great city, masses that inhabit its area and the greatest technical invention of modernity: the machine, are the three apices of a triangle, which can be metaphorically used to describe the process of modernisation. All these three apices, marks of modern changes, have a great influence on the experience of space, which we find rendered in the works of Polish futurism. Hence, its artistic activity may be considered as an answer to the process of modernisation, in terms proposed by Richard Sheppard. I decided to focus on two aspects of futurist’s experience of space. The first one is connected with Henri Bergson’s utopian theory of the pure perception. The cognition of space can only be true when neither memories nor reflection interfere it, while the subject finds himself in the centre of the item being recognized. This kind of experience, which uses all senses of the subject’s body placed in a way that Bergson proposes, can be find in Anatol Stern’s poem Nagi człowiek w śródmieściu (A Naked Man In The City Centre). The second aspect of the experience of space is to be observed in Bruno Jasienski’s poems such as Miłość na aucie, Śnieg, Podróżniczki (Love in a car, Snow, Travellers), where scandalous, provocative eroticism indicates the sensual, bodycentred manner of experiencing the space. In fact, this type of experience can be treated as a pleasure in Lévinas’ terms due to it causes delight, which excludes the possibility to structurise a strong identity for the subject. The experience of space in futurist’s works becomes a pleasure with no further consequences for the subject’s interior. Its quality, which indicates the tendency to change the nature of experience into pleasure, points out the rule of pleasure, that is a major rule in nowadays culture.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Umerle, Tomasz
    Laurence Sterne philosophically relativized the category of space and consistently tried to show epistemological scepticism in his novels. This attitude is different from so called 'classic' novel which emphasizes cultural, social, geographical etc. aspects of space as a fiction's background. Sterne – sometimes even in a discursive way – refused to present these aspects of space and mostly tried to present his narrator's inner space that is being created in the act of narration. To show his sense of relativity and irony, Sterne used some descriptive models, e.g. theatralization. Also, he discussed with typical spatial literary patterns (which he knew for example from adventure novels) by transporting them into his narrative concept of inner space mentioned before. It all indicates that Sterne was aware of the ‘spatial problems’ which novel is said to face in the twentieth century.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Podbielska, Alicja
    This paper analyzes different experiences of space by which memory of Holocaust could be passed on. The Memorial for the murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin gives visitors the feeling of insecurity and overwhelms them with monumentality. For that reason it is criticized as reflecting the other side of German memory: The Third Reich’s megalomania and dream about power. The Hamburger memorial against fascism designed in 1986 by conceptual artists Jochen and Esther Gerz offers quite an opposite experience of space. A twelve-meter-high pillar has been established for visitors to sign on it. Once the area was covered by signature it was lowered into the ground till it completely disappeared. The intention of the artists was to put memory not into the monument but into people. Pozdrowienia z Alej Jerozolimskich (Greetings from the Jerusalem Avenue, 2002) by Joanna Rajkowska – a fifteen-meter tall artificial palm tree installed in the centre of Warsaw – is an attempt to infuse with Israel's scenery a Warsaw's street whose name and history sends the observer to the history of the Jews in Poland. In another work called Dotleniacz (Oxygenator, 2007) Rajkowska created an artificial lake with oxygen concentrators, gold fish, flowers and banks. Again, the installation was placed in a very meaningful place – Grzybowski Square – which is strongly connected with Jewish life in Poland as well as Polish anti-Semitism. The synagogue in Poznan was transformed during the Nazi occupation into a swimming pool which it has remained until the present day. This fact ( just like the building) seems to be invisible for most citizens. In 2003 Rafał Jakubowicz changed the fact by projecting a Hebrew inscription הייחש-תכירב (swimming pool) on the façade of the former synagogue. In Berek (The Game of Tag, 1999) by Artur Żmijewski a group of naked men and women of various age play tag. The artist filmed them in two rooms: in a symbolically neutral space and in a gas chamber of a former Nazi death camp. The film is an attempt at breaking the spell of this horrifying and paralysing space.
  • Item
    „Moja osobista przestrzeń” – prywatne wirtualne kolekcje sztuki
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Gruszka, Anna
    The phenomenon analyzed in the essay My Personal Space – The Private Virtual Collections of Art is the possibility of visiting the world’s museums by means of the Internet – visiting indirect, nevertheless enabling peaceful, profound, multiple and free contemplation of art. The function of Mon espace personnel (My Personal Space) of French museums of Louvre and Orsay that reveals some radical modifications in the perception, understanding and reception of art, is an illustration of this phenomenon. Using Mon espace personnel means traversing the virtual Louvre or Orsay and choosing works of art, their descriptions, analyses, publications etc. and then adding them to the internaut’s personal thematic albums. The phenomenon described is a starting point to the reflection on the significance of the space in which art exists (called, according to Golka, the form of art’s presence) with its ontology as well as its functions and the character of its reception. The identification of what this space is, in the context of the hybridization of the form and the content and the emergence of the computer culture (Manovich) as well as in the context of the popularization of the reality (Krajewski) and the decentralization of the world of art (Wójtowicz), is an important part of this essay. These phenomena are also inscribed in a wider context of the changes of the character, mission and role of the museum in the time of the digital revolution.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Krupa, Aleksandra
    The analysis of an old pre-war photo representing a part of the Łódź district – Bałuty – provokes the following questions: Is it possible – although the photograph retains only a fraction of past time and space – to meet the reality which was once present. Do we experience the photographed space and time closed in a frame? How can we do that? Does this experience – if possible – depend on our individual memories and perception? In finding answers to these questions, above all, I refer to some of Roland Barthes' concepts. According to them, when we look at a photo we can experience the past directly as a past reality, without recourse to narrative mediation. But we cannot make attempts to reinterpret the past. The category of chronotope, widely discussed by the Russian scientist Mikhail Bakhtin, turns out to be helpful and very inspiring, as well. The term chronotope refers to the idea of inseparable connection of time and space and the conviction that any contact with the area of meanings should be made only through the spatio-temporal gate.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Dereniowska, Małgorzata
    This paper is an interdisciplinary approach to issue of the human experience of space. Originally human has been experiencing the space of Nature, looking for a soul in all the forms of Nature. If we take the space of a human into a consideration then an intuition appears that it is a part of the space of Nature. Human is one of the species coexisting in the earthly environment. Unlike the non-human beings, a man has an unique capability and possibility of converting his living space. From the ecological crisis point of view, the human does it by negatively affecting the space of Nature, which is the living space of other species. This destabilize the balance of the physicochemical parameters, decreasing the capacity of the environment. This leads to the thesis that human decreases the space of Nature, creating instead its cultural substitutes of the living space (one of the most typical is the virtual reality, Internet). When a human is living in industrial areas then he has the ability to fulfill himself in many planes he created. This allows to state a conclusion that because of the cultural substitutes the process of the destruction of the environment remains relatively unnoticed. As a consequence, the human may notice the ecological crisis later. Without the system motivating to change the way human acts in the area of cultural space the change seems to be improbable. It is possible to make it on the ethical and axiological level.
  • Item
    Wytwarzanie przestrzeni autentycznej jako krytyka nowoczesności
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Schudy, Hanna
    The paper discusses social practices of creating as well as producing authentic objects and space. My deliberations are based on the thesis of the authors of the books The tourist gaze (John Urry), The tourist. A new theory of the leisure class (Dean MacCannell); Contested natures (Phil Macnaghten and John Urry), but also on my own research concerning attitudes towards wolfs in western and eastern Poland. The point of the article is that at the age of the new visual media, postmodernism and posttourism, when it is difficult to recognize whether an object is the original or a copy, man still wants to stand on the firm ground of genuine values. The sociologists mentioned above claim that this is why in the modern world there is a demand for authentic objects and so in an answer to this need such attractions like w i l d n e s s and r u s t i c i t y are produced. In the first part of the article I present an example of a visual product – an English cottage. Secondly, basing on the results of some research concerning attitudes towards wolves, I attempt to show that in Poland there are also some practices the idea of which is to create an authentic space - wild nature. Finally I emphasize that constructed authentic space, scenes, and landscapes are examples of myths – wildness, rusticity – the consequence of nostalgia for lost authentic world.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Jezierska, Anna
    The paper presents the baroque city space of Wrocław as a unique and complex phenomenon. The author focuses manly on the function of sculpture which was one of the most dominant means of baroque expression within the cityscape. Also, baroque theories on art and its social function are discussed, using some elements of the theory of communication, which is essential for describing the processes of experiencing the city space and visual arts within it. Huge baroque spatial town-planning compositions, i.e. combining elements of gardens and landscape with architecture and sculpture, could not be arranged in Wrocław: its close structure of medieval buildings and the solid system of fortifications made it impossible. These conditions forced certain alterations of the city which were utterly different from the West European ones. They mainly included rebuilding facades (e.g. coating them with baroque architectural and sculptural detail), specific planning of squares, erecting monuments and building chapel annexes by medieval churches. The structure of new foundations was dependent on an old street system (e.g. the new building of the Jesuit university). In this specific space of townplanning it was sculpture which was the most dominant means of baroque expression. Formed mainly by two ideologies – the protestant and the catholic ones - sculpture filled the city space, bearing specific, complex information. The receivers of this information derived from various social groups and denominations. Within the space of the baroque Wrocław, it is also possible to observe some specific micro-spaces (mainly church interiors), whose character was formed by the sculptural decor. The article presents the most important sacral and secular interiors, where sculpture played a leading role, as well as those sculptures which were placed on buildings’ facades and by the streets or in the squares.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Niemyjska, Maria
    The subject of this work is a nineteenth-century working-class housing estate, Księży Młyn, in Łódź. This research is geared to define how the architectural construction influences the everyday life and mentality of its inhabitants (a research combines the disciplines of art history and cultural anthropology). A specific connection between space and human psyche is visible in Księży Młyn. Therefore, space of this housing estate might help to illustrate universal contents concerned with the experience of living space. This work brings up the issues of the relation between the regularity of architectural structure and sense of direction and the ‘acquaintance’ of surroundings (the question about border between safety and control). The important aspects of that relation are division of space that involves the way of moving around (shaping human behaviors and habits), architecture`s influence on the mental map of the place (places, institutions, actions evaluating), the connection between open/closed space and its inhabitants thinking about the world (space and the idea of an own place in the world, space and development of individuals). A methodological reflection in this project – polemics with semiotic perspective for architecture (Andrzej Turowski) in relation to existential concept of space (Christian Norberg-Schulz) – is also important. As a comparative material this work exploits patron estates that were built in the same time, Renaissances projects of perfect cities and other architectural projects that are similar to Księży Młyn in formal or functional respect. This estate will also be compared with the lettriste concept of living-space, far different from the one that occurs in the architecture of Księży Młyn.
  • Item
    (Pracowania Humanistycznych Studiów Interdyscyplinarnych WFPiK UAM, 2011-03-31) Podgórski, Michał
    The article is an attempt at showing the implementation of Jacques Ranciere’s theory in contemplating about city space, its division, appropriation and privatization. The first part of paper is focused on presentation of approaches describing processes of appropriation of space, which are dominant on the sociological field. There are two main interpretations: (1) first perspective reduces appropriation to legal or factual annexation of space, authors write here about gentrification, gated communities or privatization of public space by corporations; (2) second perspective reduces appropriation to visual (over)presence, of which the best example is ostentatious presence of billboards in public place and appropriation/retrieval of space with such activities as painting graffiti and sticking stickers. Unfortunately, these two perspectives do not include the wholeness of processes of appropriation which take place in the city, because of two reasons: (1) these two perspectives unwillingly relate to the fact that city is aesthetic space (city continually provides innumerable volume of aesthetic experiences); (2) both perspectives completely ignore the fact that city is »multi-sensual world« (city provides not only visual experiences but it is full of sounds, scents and kinaesthetic experiences). So, there is requirement of using multi-sensual perspective to make the recognition about processes of appropriation of city space more complex. The next part of article is devoted to presentation of Ranciere’s conception of the distribution of the sensible, as the one of possible strategies of analyzing processes of appropriation of city space in terms of aesthetic experiences. The distribution of the sensible is sensuously accessible system of relations between objects which is connected with specified time and space, in other words: this system defines what can be seen and heard at given moment in such place. Therefore, the distribution of sensible defines where each element/individual should be »placed«, with whom each individual can talk, which language is appropriate in specified space-time, and, finally, which scents are proper there. Processes of distribution of the sensible will be discuss on example of changes of historical centers of polish cities which took place after the 1989.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego