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Title: Czas, przestrzeń i ich struktury formalne
Other Titles: Time, Space and Their Formal Structures
Authors: Ponsard, Claude
Translator: Rutkowska, Czesława
Issue Date: 1981
Publisher: Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM
Citation: Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 43, 1981, z. 4, s. 57-67
Abstract: Consideration on formal structures of time and space mainly based on humanistic and social sciences is proposed in the study. The first part answers the question whether these formal structures are similar or different. The author supports the opinion that time possesses one formal structure while there are many different formal structures in the case of space. Time has a structure of complete succession by inclusion relation. It is verified not only by mensurable (or chronological) time, but also by structural (or operational) time. On the other hand, space is connected with so differentiated presentation ways, that it produces various configurations. It results from this, that formal structures with which abstract spaces are equiped, together with considered physical and human spaces are numerous and more or less strongly dependent on this whether metric spaces, topological spaces or graphs are concerned. A problem of supplementary nature towards the first one, and namely of comparative properties of time and space, introduced by their adequate formal structures, is discussed in the second part. The discussion concerns four main properties: direction, reversibility, homogeneity and continuity. Time direction is obvious while space direction refers to examination of isotropy properties. Irreversibility of time is visible for its reversibility, which is sustained sometimes, is a false problem. On the other hand, reversibility problem for space depends on symmetry properties, except directed and non-symmetrical graphs (condition of the lack of peripheries). While time is homogeneous, space is once homogeneous and once heterogeneous. Continuity is connected with the nature of time. In the case of space it depends on conditions of accessibility, and continuity notions in empirical meaning and in mathematical meaning are not similar, unless in some particular case. An opinion is underlined in the conclusion, that time is less abundant than space in proper formal structures and comparative properties.
Sponsorship: Digitalizacja i deponowanie archiwalnych zeszytów RPEiS sfinansowane przez MNiSW w ramach realizacji umowy nr 541/P-DUN/2016
ISSN: 0035-9629
Appears in Collections:Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1981, nr 4

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