Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 2009, nr 2

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    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2009) Golka, Marian
    The paper consists of four parts. The first one outlines the main, general theses of the author’s deliberations, the second presents the basic assumptions of the post-colonial theory, or perspective, the third contains a brief characteristics o f the mechanism o f changes after 1989, and the fourth offers evaluation of selected effects o f transformation from the perspective of the adopted theory. The climate for political transformations in Poland was unfavourable and it was largely carried “blindfold”. Consequently, its consequences were both positive and negative. The positive effects have many supporters o f the transformation, while the negative ones are much less frequently quoted. From the post-colonial perspective, the main negative effects include: the debt loop, sub-standard political culture (of citizens and politicians), quasi-tribal attitudes, good climate for corruption, impaired feeling of safety and various pathologies observed in different areas o f public life.
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    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2009) Drozdowski, Rafał
    The starting point for the discussion presented in the paper is an assumption that the first stage of the transformations of the political system in Poland (as a transition from “real socialism” to “real capitalism” ) has practically come to an end. Poland is nevertheless facing another phase, in which not mere stabilisation o f the newly implemented system, but securing Poland a place among the most developed countries will be at stake. The author analyses barriers that are currently limiting the conditions for a successful “second modernisation leap” . The main factors are: 1) growing privatism of individuals, crisis of the “common good” idea, and the generally low level of social capital; 2) spontaneous, bottom-up resistance to the market efficiency logic; 3) remarkable situationism and short-time perspective of many adjustment strategies; 4) substandard level of general education and poor education system, and 5) growing asymmetry between the aspirations of the consumer society, also with regards the social status, and inadequate means to satisfy them. The paper ends with a question which segment of the society could undergo further modernisation. In the author’s opinion it will neither be the old middle-class, that was left behind the main stream of the transformation, nor the new middle-class, still not very numerous and encountering various structural barriers to its development. It seems, therefore, that the burden o f further modernisation will be put on the shoulders o f the highly diversified and specifically Polish proto-middle class that combines selected features of the old and new middle class and the “post-proletariat”. Consequently, further modernisation processes in Poland will be o f an “enclave” character, selective and structurally inconsistent.
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    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2009) Raciborski, Jacek
    The paper presents the formation process of democratic citizenship in Poland after 1989. Although the author looks at citizenship as a multi-dimensional phenomenon, the focus is put on the electoral behaviour of citizens, as it is believed to be the fundamental factor to the consolidation of democracy. Poland is an example of a state with a considerable tension, or incompatibility, between the legislative assumptions expected from citizens living in a democratic system and their actual civic practices. The election turn-out is generally low, Poles seem to have no specific political preferences and their civil rights awareness is generally poor. Only one in three adult citizens follows the basic standards of democratic citizenship while not more than 20% may be called “high-quality” citizens. Problems with citizenship do not result from a poor institutional design of democracy in Poland, or any particular difficulty encountered in its implementation. What seems to have been the case is that at the initial stage of transformation the existing electoral rules hampered the establishment of a stable party-based system. The fundamental modifications of these rules in 1993 confirmed that electoral volatility was the core factor of political instability. However, the author sees the establishment of democratic citizenship as a long-term process and is o f an opinion that despite the deficiencies currently being observed in civic practices o f the young democracy, there is no immediate or direct threat to Poland’s democracy.
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    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2009) Domański, Henryk
    The paper analyses the functioning of the social system in Poland from the stratification mechanism perspective. Basing on the results of research carried out in the last decades, the author attempts to identify the conditions in which the recent changes have taken place in the stratification mechanism and the consequences they had on institutions and social attitudes. An analysis of the above leads to a conclusion that those mechanisms function according to a certain logic that is well known both in theory and in practice. Contrary to the theses suggesting a decline of social stratification, there is nothing to suggest that intergenerational transmissions of social status or educational inequalities have weakened. Likewise, marital homogamy and friendship patterns remain substrantial. In the second part of the paper the author attempts to answer the question whether within this stable system of social distances, a “ruling” class and a “middle” class are emerging, as they seem to be (both from the theoretical and empirical point of view) the most predestined classes to play a significant role in the transformation process.
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    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 2009) Woźniak, Zbigniew
    The political contract concluded a t the “Round Table” twenty years ago continues to produce much controversy, and when confronted with the subsequent political changes it reveals its sociotechnical and tactical character. The negotiating team representing the Solidarity and opposition consisted largely of city intellectuals with long-time oppositionist history, capable of presenting the existing authorities a different vision of Poland and its society. They also managed to win legalisation of independent trade unions and other social organisations, turn their 35% parliamentary representation into a stronghold from which they continued to attract more followers, both from the Democratic Alliance and Peasant Party, formerly allied to the ruling Workers’ Party, and eventually create grounds for electing the first opposition prime minister. With this accomplished, the economic reforms have accelerated and the political scene has become more diversified. However, there are still reforms th a t need completion before the citizens can be fully integrated to participate actively in the transformation of their own country, and become more interested in public matters. Therefore, in the concluding part of the paper, effects and consequences of the unfinished political transformation are indicated. This is followed by the author’s own concept of a balanced society with integrated citizens.