Reglamentacja obrotów zagranicznych jako forma polityki interwencyjnej rządu polskiego w latach 1929 - 1939

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1974

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Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM

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Control of Foreign Traffic as the Form of the Polish Government Policy of Intervention, in the Years 1924 -1939

Abstract

The collapse of the world economy in the thirties was especially felt in Poland. In that situation the state had to undertake some efforts in order to lighten the course of events as well as to precipitate the end of crisis. These efforts were also directed towards the possibly rapid reconstruction of the devastations in Polish economy caused by that crisis. The intervention measures of the Polish government embraced the whole variety of steps which were undertaken in all branches of national economy. The author of this paper comes to the analysis and evaluation of control policy which — apart from the customs policy and the policy of export promotion — constituted in those times the substantial form of state intervention in the field of Polish foreign trade. The control of foreign traffic was reviewed from the point of view of numerous restrictions, import quotas and barter business. After a thorough examination of the process of rapid development of the foreign traffic control in Poland the author points at the double objective of introducing the import quotas. On one hand those above mentioned quotas can be considered as the repercussion and result of autarchic processes developed amongst the Poland's trade partners and increasing difficulties in international trade as well as the result of commonly used foreign exchange restrictions causing the freeze of credit balance from exports. Those import restrictions were introduced in order to weaken the disadvantegeous influence of the above mentioned events on Polish foreign trade and — indirectly — on the whole Poland's economy. On the other hand the control policy was also facilitating the inland's economic and financial policy. In the years 1929 - 1935 the system of quotas highly contributed to the achievement of favourable balance of foreign trade and international payments; in the next years that system constituted one of the most significant factors realization of foreign exchange control. In addition, in the whole period being the subject of the present analysis, the compensatory turnover greatly facilitated the realization of policy of export promotion. The mentioned motives of using the control policy caused the seizure of almost full control of foreign trade by state. In this article the author evaluates the control policy on the basis of the demonstrated uniformity of that policy with the general, economic policy of the state. As the deflation policy of the crisis years is evaluated rather negatively the same appraisal can be adopted to the control policy in foreign trade. However the investment policy of the after-crisis years of economic growth is appreciated as the only justified policy within the framework of contemporary political system and therefore also the control policy should be positively appreciated.

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Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 36, 1974, z. 1, s. 191-215

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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego