Przestrzenie Teorii, 2014, nr 21


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    Spis treści
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014)
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    Poeta odchodzi...
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Krajewska, Anna
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    Hermeneutyczne rozumienie W-cielenia i Eucharystii: „Tenebrae” Paula Celana i interpretacyjny charakter kom-unii poprzez ciało, krew i obraz
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Wierciński, Andrzej
    Carnal hermeneutics shows that pre-thematic bodily hermeneutics can complement cognitive hermeneutics. The thematization of sacramental imagination is an essential part of such an approach. Carnal hermeneutics finds new ways of showing how imagination inhabits our bodies and reflects on the emancipatory possibilities that are hidden in the process of maintaining and crossing the various boundaries that constitute our identity. Carnal reading is both reception and creation, i.e., it is not a reading into something but a reading from something. The act of interpreting Paul Celan’s Tenebrae is an exercise in a diacritical hermeneutics of communion and prayer, which contributes to the self-awakening of existence by elucidating the fundamental structures of our understanding of being.
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    Tło zmieszane z niczego. Problem nihilizmu u Witkacego
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Sztaba, Wojciech
    As Witkacy wrote in Narcotics, it is “the surrounding nothingness which creates a negative background for all being” that makes things visible. Nihilism provides a framework for Witkacy’s work. His philosophy and esthetics are a response to the nihilistic lack of meaning and the absolute, while his cultural pessimism is a projection of the lost paradise. The romantic attitude that he had developed by reading Schopenhauer and Nietzsche left deep traces in his art, thus generating the iconography of his paintings and permeating his dramas and novels.
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    Acheiropoietes – mimesis doskonała?
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Zawadzki, Andrzej
    The paper deals with the topic of an acheiropoietes (an image “not made by hands”) and, more broadly, with the motif of the so-called true or natural image. Such images were known to ancient Greek thinkers (Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Plotinus), but their importance grew significantly in the Christian theology of icons which treated Christ as the perfect image of His Father. In modern times true images mostly function in folklore and they are also referred to in modern art. From the perspective of the philosophy of representation, a true image is an interesting utopia of perfect mimesis – it comes into being in a natural, not artificial way, whereas a copy is regarded as equivalent to the original.
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    Poza śmierć, ku Niemożliwemu. Kiriłłow vs. Nietzsche
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kruszelnicki, Michał
    The aim of this paper is to critically analyze and evaluate the commonly held belief in philosophy and literary studies that suicidal Kirillov – a relentlessly intriguing character featured in Dostoevsky’s The Devils – voices and embodies the same ideas that were later to become characteristic of Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought. This analysis begins with a critical reading of Boris Evlampiev’s essay: Dostoevsky and Nietzsche: Toward a New Metaphysics of Man. Evlampiev’s presents Kirillov as an individual who showed the way to the full affirmation of earthly life, much earlier than Nietzsche’s Zarathustra, without resorting to religious faith or visions of paradise and salvation in the afterlife. The author of this article presents arguments against the view that Kirillov is the forerunner of Zarathustra. As this staged confrontation between Kirillov and Nietzsche/ Zarathustra unfolds and Kirillov’s would-be “Nietzschean” conduct and ideology are reviewed, numerous problems and doubts arise. As the analysis of Nietzsche’s and Kirillov’s approaches to the issue of death and the transience of human existence progresses, it reveals contradictions in Nietzsche’s thought which show that there is a need to re-evaluate Kirillov’s character. Eventually, the author reaches the conclusion that Kirillov’s dilemmas are much closer to those of Nietzsche than one would initially think.
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    Obraz fotograficzny – między archiwum a pozorem. Fotografie w „nożyku profesora” Tadeusza Różewicza
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Marciniak, Hanna
    This article explores the issue of postmemory and secondary witnessing as dealt with in Tadeusz Różewicz’s 2002 poem The Professor’s Little Knife. The paper presents two photographs which refer to the problem of the Holocaust’s representation and its limits. The first picture comes from the collection of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum; however, the author concealed its origins and changed its appearance so that it resembled a retro nude photograph. The second one is a raw, non-stylized picture of a knife that belonged to Professor Porębski during imprisonment in Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp. By using various interpretation methods, such as the deconstruction of an image or empathic reading, the author of this article examines the limits and consequences of treating a photograph as “spectral evidence”.
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    „Śmierć w starych dekoracjach”, czyli „aisthesis” według Tadeusza Różewicza
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Górska, Irena
    The aim of this article is to present Różewicz’s way of thinking about the concept of aisthesis based on his short story Śmierć w starych dekoracjach [Death in the Old Decorations]. Różewicz, who follows current trends in aesthetics which appreciate the role that the body and all of the senses play in an aesthetic experience, ennobles the very body that remains a center of sensory and aesthetic perception, in accordance with Richard Shusterman’s somatic philosophy. However, Różewicz’s character, who starts with simple sensory impressions, constantly goes beyond the senses and provides a commentary on each new ordinary, everyday experience as well as an experience of art. These commentaries are constructed from memories, images, reflections or free digressions which are often very remote from what they were triggered by. Różewicz emphasizes both the importance of what is rational and what is sensory for an aesthetic experience, thus overcoming a belief which was promoted by traditional aesthetics, i.e. about the exceptionality of psychological attitudes to aesthetic experiences. He extends aestheticism to include areas that are traditionally considered to be unaesthetic in order to capture the full essence of aisthesis. Therefore, he does not differentiate between the experience of art and ordinary, everyday experiences. This is because aisthesis in Śmierć w starych dekoracjach is a force that merges all these experiences into one whole, thus turning an experience of art into an experience of existence.
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    Wspólna twarz – Różewicz, Rembrandt i starość
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Rosales Rodriguez, Agnieszka
    This article proposes an interpretation of Rembrandt’s Self-Portrait as Zeuxis Laughing (Wallraf- -Richartz Museum, Cologne) as it appears in Tadeusz Różewicz’s poem Mirror. The 17th-century Dutch artist was known as a painter who portrayed the human body as it really is, i.e. with all its imperfections and changes that are brought about by the passage of time. He has also been regarded as a master who expressed the disappearance and decay of form (Simmel) and the anticipation of death (Malraux) by using an unconventional technique. Różewicz “appropriated” Rembrandt’s face to speak of the inevitability of getting old and dying, the limits of Logos and poetry as well as the powerlessness of a poet whose fatal destiny is to describe and testify to suffering. Rembrandt’s figure appears in a flash of light, but at the same time seems to melt into thick paint, to disappear, like the poet’s words on the surface of silence, thus suggestively representing the moment of the subject’s transformation and crossing the border between life and death, the artist’s withdrawal from the world and last breath as well as the limits of literature, i.e. the loss of discourse. In this poetic epiphany, Rembrandt is – let us refer to Harold Bloom’s famous concept of apophrades – the great dead returning in Różewicz’s work.
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    Dramatyczne konstruowanie twarzy w wybranych utworach Tadeusza Różewicza
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Woźniak, Ewelina
    The purpose of this article is to present Tadeusz Różewicz as a poetic portraitist. Faces very often appear in the poet’s works and they play a special role there. The methods that are used to construct them can be grouped into four main categories: 1) a face as a performing subject, 2) a face as an object, 3) a face as a static construct, and finally 4) a face as an element, or metonymy, of human existence and entanglement with reality. In Różewicz’s poetry the human face is material and a mirror, but also a universal symbol of the human condition. These faces are usually distorted, decaying, and blurred. They symbolize the disintegration of the world in which human beings have to live. For Różewicz a face is the most condensed image of humanity and an equivalent of a substance in which every external stimulus leaves its mark. The way of using faces as a material and the process of disintegration that is described in detail constitute a dramatic and performative action which implements the objectives of fluid aesthetics, thus showing the moments of transition from meaning to nothingness and the process of erasing meaning.
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    Autoportret niemożliwy
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Śliwiński, Piotr
    This sketch deals with Różewicz’s feeling that identity issues are unresolvable. This feeling, which became increasingly strong in the poet’s later works, led him to lose control over poetic form and employ more rhetoric as well as caused his works to be similar to performing arts. A description of the similarities between Różewicz’s cultural ideas and the ones that are present in popular rock music is an important part of this article.
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    Ikonoklazm odwrócony. Tadeusz Różewicz w poszukiwaniu form „wewnętrznego obrazu”
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Stankowska, Agata
    Tadeusz Różewicz often noted down phrases which could be interpreted as iconoclastic in his poems and poetry-related sketches. This article presents the reasons for the poet’s dislike of an image that is identified with a metaphor, which he expressed particularly strongly immediately after the war. It also describes the continuation of historical iconoclasm which was characteristic of the twentieth century, and on the level of which the notion of God’s “unrepresentability” was replaced by the issue of the unspeakableness and inconceivability of trauma. The efforts that Różewicz made to rethink the status of an image are presented against such a background. According to the poet, an image should satisfy the primeval desire for presence, which was ascribed to it once again after the Holocaust, like a painting from before the era of art. Therefore, Różewicz develops the theory of an “inner image” which one should pursue rather than create. An “inner image” is not a “fanfare played to celebrate life”, which inspires awe and can only be described in terms of aesthetic conventions, but a kind of manifestation of the hidden, wounded lyrical “I” and, most importantly, of its authentic experience. The “truth” of the image and metaphor that are “possible after Auschwitz” became bound up with what is somatic, and not conceptual, with what is tangible, and not imaginable, and with what is metonymic, not metaphorical. This truth is also largely (but not necessarily solely) connected with the human condition and existence rather than with God’s fullness.
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    Anty-Gombrowicz i Różewicz
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Skrendo, Andrzej
    This article deals with Tadeusz Różewicz’s opinions of Witold Gombrowicz’s creations. The author compares both writers’ views on literature, especially poetry and theater. He states that Różewicz has created a character who can be called “Anti-Gombrowicz”. The author reveals how Różewicz thought up this peculiar concept and then tried to release himself from it.
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    Różewicz o sobie samym jako innym
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Przybylski, Ryszard K.
    It seems that Tadeusz Różewicz’s poem titled Francis Bacon or Diego Velazquez in a Dentist’s Chair is dedicated to the works of the author of Studies of Crucifixion. In fact, Różewicz writes about the impression that Bacon’s art left on him when he saw it in galleries and museums. This poem is also about fascination. Contrary to what may seem intuitive, it is not an attempt to describe the poet’s own way of interpreting these works; and even if so, this is only true to a limited extent. For Różewicz, Bacon’s works were just a pretext to look at himself, especially at his own early poems, from a distance – from a somewhat ironic distance. In this way the poet is able to present himself as “the other”, thus referring to the title of Paul Ricoeur’s book.
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    „Francis Bacon czyli Diego Velázquez na fotelu dentystycznym” – malarskie i inne cytaty jako „dodatek” do rozpraszającego się życia
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) van Nieukerken, Arent
    The mature poetry of Tadeusz Różewicz seems to be at odds with both modernist and postmodern literary tenets. It undeniably makes abundant use of intertextuality (including self-quotations), but in spite of this [post]modernist tendency it does resist self-referential impersonality. Różewicz again immerses allusions to images, texts and other artifacts – which, according to formalist and structuralist interpretations, should disengage themselves from an artist’s biography in order to achieve aesthetic autonomy – in the current of life, devoid of an innate sense and always identical to itself. In fact, life cannot be apprehended by art, and precisely, Różewicz tries to thematize this impossibility by producing texts or rather poetical acts that could be classified as self-effacing artifacts. He even succeeded in discrediting the modernist epiphany (which has a double status, i.e. as a poetical device and a window on the transcendent) by replacing it with loquacious anticlimaxes. The fragmentary, disintegrating form of his later poetry (the long poem “Francis Bacon or Diego Velázquez in a dentist’s chair” is a perfect – or rather consciously imperfect – implementation of this form) does not pretend to be a representation of a human being’s disintegrating existence. This poetry is, above all, an existential act, or – in other words – a performance, and not a self-sufficient work of art.
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    Różewicza sztuki splątane. Interpretacja performatywna
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Krajewska, Anna
    This article attempts to analyze Tadeusz Różewicz’s works by using methods that are associated with performative literary studies. The author refers to concepts of quantum physics and introduces a new aesthetic category, “entangled arts”. Among these arts are, for example, drama and theater, which are seen from an anti-binary perspective. This approach eliminates the traditional division of arts into the art of literature and performing arts, thus leading us to look on literature as a performing art. Therefore, the idea of “entangled arts” is not about “the synthesis of arts”, but about their unresolvedness and an act of reading which requires one to simultaneously exist and be active in two different realities, for example, in a digital and imagined world, or in film and on stage. Różewicz adheres to the same principle as Diego Velázquez when he was painting Las Meninas, which represents a trap of a performative painting. This is true of Kartoteka rozrzucona [The Scattered Card Index], Pułapka [The Trap] and the short story Grzech [The Sin]. The author of this article considers Tadeusz Różewicz to be the greatest modern writer, a dramatic poet who pushes the boundaries of art, and an artist who is both present and absent.
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    „wymienię wzrok na dotyk”. Poetyka oglądu w twórczości Tadeusza Różewicza
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Cieślak, Robert
    The author poses the question of the importance of a sensory experience in Tadeusz Różewicz’s poetry, including the possibility of the co-existence of and/or replacement of the dominant sense of sight by that of touch. In poetic practice, this change is expressed by the metaphor “touching sight”. Phenomenological analysis allows one to determine the cognitive order in which the perception of an image precedes the perception of a word. The author argues that the understanding of poetry as the philosophy of art requires establishing a list of recalls of images and reconstructing cognitive order (including the subjective experience of space), which together create the “poetics of view”. When interpreted from this perspective, poetry can be treated as testimony to the knowledge of reality.
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    O marginaliach (i nie tylko) Tadeusza Różewicza
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Degler, Janusz
    Tadeusz Różewicz moved from Gliwice to Wrocław in 1968. He lived near South Park for many years and he regularly met there with the author of this article. They talked about many different things and current events, and especially about Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz, i.e. more specifically about his service in the tsarist army, the battle that took place near the Stokhid in June 1916 in which he was severely wounded as well as about the causes of his suicide in September 1939. In 2003 Różewicz moved to a house on Promień Street, which is located in a remote area of the city. When he was moving to the new place he came across Witkacy’s 1919 treatise titled Nowe formy w malarstwie i wynikające stad nieporozumienia [New Forms in Painting and the Misunderstandings Arising Therefrom], which he had bought in October 1945 at a street stall in Warsaw. After a careful reading of the treatise (as evidenced by numerous underlines in the text), he decided to enroll in the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow. The quotes that are presented in the article show that Różewicz paid particular attention to Witkacy’s main philosophical concepts (“metaphysical anxiety”) and statements about the end of metaphysics in the 20th century. Many notes and annotations in the margins, some of which are cited in the present article, are evidence of Witkacy’s critical reading of Leon Chwistek’s “Wielość rzeczywistości w sztuce” i inne szkice literackie [The Multiplicity of Realities in Art and Other Literary Sketches]. In 1975 Anna Micińska published, based on a manuscript that had been discovered, the sociocultural study Niemyte dusze [Unwashed Souls] which Witkacy wrote in 1936 but which he did not manage to publish. Różewicz regarded this study as one of Witkacy’s most interesting works because it showed a whole different side of the artist – a citizen who was concerned about the condition of Polish society and the Polish state.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego