ItemReligia jako ideologia. Status religioznawstwa i problem transcendencji(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Paradowski, RyszardThe paper attempts to expand and transform the religious notion of transcendence, as well as the way in which religion is defined, which in Polish religious studies is dominated by a denominational approach, where the social functions of religion in particular (which according to academic religious studies determine the essential character of a religion) are considered ‘non-specific,’ while the ‘specific’ functions are those that the religion itself assumes to be such. The paper states that the essential character of religion goes beyond its social functions to encompass broadly understood ideological functions. This claim is illustrated by an analysis of the biblical story of the creation of the world and man, as this story demonstrates that religion is a product of the biblical axiological dilemma interpreted from an authoritarian viewpoint. ItemSzkoła demokracji – młodzież w świecie społeczno-politycznym. Wykluczenie, czy zaniedbanie?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Brylczak, MarcinThe paper attempts to show the role of young people in society and politics. It tries to approach young adults on one hand as subjects of politics with their consciousness, rights and obligations, and on the other as the objects of a wide range of social engineering, media and educational activities by politicians. Two significant phenomena concerning the young are briefly discussed, namely social capital and exclusion from political life. The latter can be interpreted either as an attempt to escape a reality that the young do not understand, or as their conscious choice and a substitute for freedom. The process of education is significantly contributed to (apart from the institutions dedicated to this purpose, such as school and family) by the media, in particular the modern media, or post-modern ones that provide a communication channel among the young, but also attract the politicians, who try to attract the attention of the young and win their support. The author concludes by saying that the social capital generated by educational institutions as well as by the ‘networks of mutual contacts’ among the young can offer the best possible protection from the processes of alienation and exclusion that constitute a threat to democracy. ItemGlobalna wioska Jana Pawła II(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Drążek, DariuszThe subject of this brief study is politics and the Catholic understanding of its object and purpose, and therefore the unjustified – although popular and widespread – claim that the Church interferes in politics may be put forward once more. In a world that boasts about the ‘achievements’ of tolerance, politics becomes a realm which the Church is excluded from. Although for the moment this is being done informally, Catholics and especially priests are ingrained with a fear of politics and anything political, whether in terms of actions or words. In this new world, politics is an important role everybody plays outside the Church. However, the Church encourages us to pursue what is good, noble and worthy of man, assuming a position “above ideologies or even defying them”. The political philosophy of the gospel is expressed in the statement: “So give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s” (Matthew 22, 21). It clearly distinguishes between the private and the public, while not separating the two. The present paper does not attempt to present a comprehensive lecture on the social teaching of the Church, but indicates the main elements of the definition of politics, its subject, purpose and the means of achieving it. This is more of an attempt to outline the Church’s philosophy, perception and approach to politics rather than an enumeration and description of the characteristics of various areas of political activity. ItemDwie dekady przeobrażeń mediów lokalnych południowo-zachodniej Wielkopolski(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Jurga-Wosik, EwaThe Republic of Poland is assumed to have been born in 1989, which also marks the beginning of the transformations in the Polish media market. After twenty years some conclusions on the directions of the development of the media can be reached. The field of research discussed in this paper involves the media of south-and-east Wielkopolska and adjacent districts, connected with Wielkopolska in historical, cultural and economic terms. The results of this research attempt to present a systemic description of the local media, including their emergence, development and evolution. The discussion encompasses the legal, political, organizational, technical, and economic conditions for issuing and propagating the media. Given the diversified typology of the media in the region under analysis, the specificity of local mass media is confirmed. ItemWolność myśli, sumienia i wyznania w prawie polskim. Próba analizy pojęć – określenia zakresu(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Sobczak, WitoldThe issue of religious schools being financed from public resources in Poland needs to be approached primarily from the point of view of the constitutional guaranties of the freedom of conscience and religion. To this end the regulations of the Law of May 17, 1989 on the guarantees of the freedom of conscience and religion need to be analyzed together with the Law on the relations between the Republic of Poland and the Roman Catholic Church that was passed on the same day. It is only then that the following regulations should be considered: the concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of Poland signed in Warsaw on July 28, 1993, the Law of June 14, 1991 on financing the Catholic University in Lublin from the state budget, and the Law of June 26, 1997 on financing the Papal Theological Academy in Krakow from the state budget. The latter institution presently operates under the name of the Pontifical University of John Paul II. Finally, an analysis is required of a group of three laws of April 5, 2006 on financing the Papal Theological Faculty in Warsaw, Papal Theological Faculty in Wrocław and Jesuit University of Philosophy and Education “Ignatianum” in Cracow respectively. ItemLiczebność diaspory polskiej w Obwodzie Kaliningradzkim Federacji Rosyjskiej. Zarys problematyki(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Żęgota, KrzysztofThe issues related to Polish minority in the countries of the former Soviet Union have been intensively studied, especially since the early 1990s. It is however impossible to determine a precise number of the members of Polish minority residing in the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation. This results from the imprecise and incomplete data presented by the local administration. The most optimistic statistics estimate Polish minority at approximately 20,000 people. On the other hand, when one refers to the ‘strict’ but certainly underestimated official data a number of nearly 5,000 is mentioned. Additionally, the issue of national affiliation is frequently related to the subjective perception of ethnic identity by the residents of the territory in question. Therefore, even though some Polish ties do exist, they do not necessarily translate directly into a mature Polish national identity, let alone the intention to admit such identity. ItemPolityka obrony mniejszości narodowych i polityka zagraniczna Węgier. Casus Karty Węgra w stosunkach węgiersko-słowackich i węgiersko-rumuńskich(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Kopys, TadeuszThe Hungarian Card exemplifies how to solve nationality and citizenship issues in the transforming international reality after the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the expansion of the European Union. Regardless of the dispute in Hungary, as well as among EU politicians, Hungarian law has emphasized the need to redefine the concept of the nation, or even to substitute the political sense of this concept with the status of state membership or citizenship. The Hungarian Card, how it was passed and then successively amended, evidences that a regional policy is actually operating in Central Europe. Additionally, this Hungarian law has accelerated work on similar regulations in other countries, including Poland. ItemAspiracje Ukrainy wobec Unii Europejskiej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Hurska-Kowalczyk, LianaThe evolution of the ambitions of the Ukrainian authorities regarding integration with the EU is discussed in the paper. The current attitudes of political parties represented in Parliament towards the European Union, as well as the attitude of Ukrainian society towards the integration of the country with the EU is analyzed. Attention is focused on the Eastern Partnership as the EU’s response to the aspirations of the Ukrainian political elites toward integration with the EU. The process of working out a new agreement between Ukraine and the EU, that is to replace the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, is analyzed. In the conclusions the principal barriers to the integration of Ukraine with the EU are highlighted. ItemInicjatywa naddunajska Unii Europejskiej. Nowy plan Tardieu?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Koźbiał, KrzysztofThe new EU Strategy for the Danube Region came into force on April 13, 2011. Referred to as the Danube Initiative it assumes cooperation within a greater European macro-region covering 1,080,000 km2 with over 115,000,000 inhabitants. The region encompasses as many as fourteen states, six of which are currently outside the European Union. Brussels aims to develop an improved transportation network inside the region by means of water, rail and roads, achieve stronger commitment to environmental protection, contribute to increased prosperity in this part of Europe and improve institutional cooperation in order to fight corruption and organized crime. Achieving these challenging goals is to result in increased unification of the region, in particular its less developed territories, with the UE in terms of economy and social development. The implementation of the Danube Initiative does not involve the establishment of any new institutions or resources. The goals are to be achieved by making better use of current measures. ItemU źródeł antypolitycznej polityki w Polsce. Ramy zbiorowego działania, definicja sytuacji i praktyki kontestacji(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Lipiński, ArturThe paramount objective of this text is to use several proposals formulated in the field of research into so-called framework analysis and to demonstrate their analytical efficiency on the example of post-revisionist texts by L. Ko³akowski, A. Michnik and J. Kuroñ. Not only did these texts catalyze the activities and explain the objectives of an influential part of the political opposition in communist Poland, but they also continue to be a great expression of social awareness as well as self-awareness of a part of the opposition movement from the early 1970s. A more general objective of this paper involves a demonstration that the categorical network of this concept is applicable when examining all types of political texts understood as elements of a social process of defining reality. ItemDwie dekady przeobrażeń mediów lokalnych południowo-zachodniej Wielkopolski(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Jurga - Wosik, EwaThe Republic of Poland is assumed to have been born in 1989, which also marks the beginning of the transformations in the Polish media market. After twenty years some conclusions on the directions of the development of the media can be reached. The field of research discussed in this paper involves the media of south-and-east Wielkopolska and adjacent districts, connected with Wielkopolska in historical, cultural and economic terms. The results of this research attempt to present a systemic description of the local media, including their emergence, development and evolution. The discussion encompasses the legal, political, organizational, technical, and economic conditions for issuing and propagating the media. Given the diversified typology of the media in the region under analysis, the specificity of local mass media is confirmed. ItemDostęp do informacji publicznej a ochrona prywatności osób, które przestały pełnić funkcję publiczną(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Skrzypczak, JędrzejThe practice of granting access to public information raises considerable controversies over the status of the individuals who cease to hold public office but where the period of their activity continues to be of interest to the public. This paper discusses the issue of the conflict of two values protected by the law. On one hand we are dealing with granting access to public information, on the other with the protection of privacy. ItemOchrona uchodźców w ustawodawstwie państw członkowskich Unii Europejskiej z Europy środkowej i wschodniej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Potyrała, AnnaThe paper aims to analyze the asylum policies of new EU member states from Central and Eastern Europe. After The Hague Program Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union was announced in 2004 the refugee policies of various countries were to be harmonized and a Joint European Asylum System was to be established on the basis of legal and institutional foundations. The initiatives focused on the adoption of common solutions concerning asylum procedures, the conditions for admitting individuals applying to be considered refugees in the EU, temporary and subsidiary protection, and the criteria for granting asylum. As negotiations with candidate countries commenced, they needed to adapt their national laws to the requirements of European legislature. Candidate countries initiated changes in their national legal systems. However, some solutions they have introduced defy the international obligations following from the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and recommendations of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Particular controversies concern the concept of safe states, where refugees are deprived of the possibility of applying for the protection of the EU, as well as the concept of subsidiary and temporary protection allowing for individual applications for asylum not to be considered. ItemWolność wypowiedzi prasowej a zniewaga(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2012) Sobczak, JacekThe crime of using insulting language protects human dignity (its external aspect) from such infringements that in terms of culturally determined and commonly accepted standards express contempt for an individual, irrespective of his or her feelings. The offence of using insulting or offensive language, refers to an act of disparagement, or offensive behavior towards somebody. An insult expressed via the mass media results in more serious consequences. The public nature of an act referred to in Art. 216, section 1 of Penal Code means that it was committed in a manner allowing it to be noted by a number of people that cannot be determined in advance. Therefore, a qualified type of insult involves one committed via the mass media. The ratio legis of this construction is rather obvious, as an insult committed via the mass media has a larger range, and a larger impact area.