Badania Fizjograficzne, Seria A, Tom 67, 2016


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Now showing 1 - 20 of 24
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    Zastosowanie analiz lokalnych zmian pokrycia terenu do oceny zmian potencjału świadczeń ekosystemowych na przykładzie miasta Białogard
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Zajączkowski, Dominik
    Spatial planning and spatial management are only to a small degree based on the knowledge of the benefits provided by the ecosystem in urbanized areas. The analysis in question made it possible to check the validity of the interpretation of the changes in the land cover structure with respect to the benefits provided by the ecosystems. The study contains results of changes in the land use structure in the Białogard municipality between the 1930s and the first decade of the 21st century. The selection of the research area stemmed from the fact that in the town’s administrative territory, various biologically active areas prevail the structure of which was strongly impacted in the period of the analysis. The changes between the various types of biologically active areas and their proportions with respect to the developed areas were examined in detail. For this purpose, an approach was adopted of assigning benefits to the individual land cover forms ranging from 0 (no relevant capacity) to 5 (very high relevant capacity) derived from the Benjamin Burkhard research group (2009, 2012, 2014). The research revealed a range of changes in the land cover structure of Białogard. The most profound changes pertained to the agricultural areas (a considerable decrease in the surface area), forests and the developed area (a high increase). When the surface areas of individual land cover classes was multiplied by their assigned point weights, we obtained results to be used in ecosystem services and to estimate the values of the natural environment of the analysed area. The presented procedure shows the changes in the land cover in a new light and provides new arguments for sustainable spatial management.
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    Odpływ rzeczny w zlewni górnej i środkowej Odry w różnych fazach oscylacji północnoatlantyckiej
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Wrzesiński, Dariusz; Waszczak, Karolina; Plewa, Katarzyna
    The study area covers watersheds in the upper and middle parts of the Oder basin down to Słubice. This region is interesting in terms of its diverse climatic, hydrological, geomorphological and environmental conditions. The study contains hydrometric data from 94 gauging stations located on 53 rivers from 1971 to 2010. Calculations were made of the outflow for the entire period in question as well as for years with high and low values of the winter NAODJFM index. On the basis of a test of the significance of differences in the outflow between the average period and the years in positive and negative phases of the NAODJFM, the effects of the changes in the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the flow of the rivers in the basin of the upper and middle Oder were examined. In a negative NAODJFM phase, in 90 catchments the outflow was above the average. In a positive NAODJFM phase, the annual outflows on most rivers were below the average.
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    Stability of the water levels regime on the lakes in Poland
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Wrzesiński, Dariusz; Plewa, Katarzyna
    The paper presents the results of a study into the stability of water-level regimes in Polish lakes. Stability is defined as a degree of regularity with which a certain phase of the hydrological regime occurs (high and low water levels). The hydrological regime is described with the use of the following 6 variables – first, second and third maximum; first, second and third minimum. Stability of the hydrological regime is determined by the stability coefficient (WS). The analysis relies on data concerning average monthly values of water levels for 34 lakes located in Polish lake regions. There are characteristic spatial differences in the stability of maximum and minimum water levels which are usually caused by environmental factors and human activity. It was observed that the most stable dates were those of the 1st maximum and the 1st minimum. In the case of the lakes in the Pomeranian, Wielkopolsko-Kujawskie and Mazurian lake districts, the occurrence date of the 1st maximum is highly stable and stable, while the date of the 1st minimum is the most stable in the lakes of the Drawsko, Wielkopolsko-Kujawskie and Mazurian lake districts.
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    Cechy reżimu odpływu rzek w zlewni Warty
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Wrzesiński, Dariusz; Perz, Adam
    This paper seeks to identify the features of the flow regime of the rivers in the basin of the river Warta in terms of the runoff, the structure as well as temporal and spatial variabilities. The analysis was carried out on the basis of hydrometric data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management from 1971–2010 obtained from 71 gauging stations located in 39 rivers. The research embraced the entire Warta basin with its tributaries. In hydrological terms, this region is characterized by sharp differences in the runoff conditions due to abundant or scarce water resources in the sub-basins. As a result, those rivers have different regime features; following the regularities in their flow variability, they can be classified into 3 types of the nival hydrological regime. The river Warta and its tributaries reveal exceptional differences in the total runoff, from the lowest values in Poland (under 100 mm, the upper Noteć basin) to very high in the upper Warta (above 380 mm, the Kręciwilk station). There are also big differences in the groundwater flow and its contribution to the total runoff. For some of them it exceeds 80%, the most distinct in Poland. The rivers of the Warta basin also show a wide range of variability in the discharges, from very stable to very irregular. In general, the greatest differences in the regime characteristics are between the central part of the basin in comparison with the northern and southern parts.
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    Wpływ człowieka na tereny biologicznie czynne w mieście na przykładzie klinów zieleni w Poznaniu
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Witczak, Łukasz; Macias, Andrzej
    The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors of destruction of the urban green system as exemplified by the green areas in the city of Poznan. The conclusions are drawn with respect to an analysis of the land use changes and field work. The objective of this research was to identify poor practices in urban development and suggest a solution to alleviate the negative changes.
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    Fale mrozów w Poznaniu i ich cyrkulacyjne uwarunkowania
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Tomczyk, Arkadiusz
    The article aims to determine the long-term variability of frosty days and frost waves occurrence in Poznań, as well as to define the pressure conditions triggering off frost waves. A frosty day was defined as a day with the maximum temperature below the 5th percentile of the daily maximum temperature from a whole year (-1.7°C). A frost wave was defined as a sequence of at least 5 frosty days. In the analysed period, there were 44 frost waves which in total took 406 days. The most frequent were 7-day waves which represented 25% of all the frost waves. These tended to occur between November and March, with a majority of them (as much as 54.5%) in January. The occurrence of frost waves in Poznań in the discussed multiannual period was related to a ridge of high pressure above Eastern and Central Europe. During frost waves, the pressure over the analysed area was higher than the average in the winter season. According to the Grosswetterlagen (GWL) classification of weather types, frosty days forming frost waves were mainly associated with the anticyclonic circulation (54.0%).
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    Warunki pluwialne w Poznaniu w latach 1981-2015
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna; Grześkowiak, Katarzyna
    The study covers the characteristics of pluvial conditions in Poznań in 1981–2015. There is a slight increase in the multiannual precipitation course, while the number of days with precipitation is decreasing. There is a significant growing trend of precipitation over 5 mm and 10 mm. Throughout the years, summer precipitation with a maximum in July and the smallest totals in the winter with a minimum in February prevail. The spring precipitation outweighs that in the autumn. In the course of annual daily precipitation totals, the interval of 1.1–5.0 mm tends to be least varied and occurs with an equal frequency throughout the year. Precipitation in the 0.1–1.0 mm range usually takes place in January and December. Precipitation over 5 mm usually occurs in the summer. July has the biggest frequency of moderately strong, strong, and very strong precipitation. According to the pluvial classification, July is the most frequently humid, very humid and extremely humid month while February – the driest one.
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    Warunki termiczne na stacji ekologicznej w Jeziorach (Wielkopolski Park Narodowy) w latach 2006-2015
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna; Przebieracz, Joanna
    The paper presents the basic characteristics of the thermal conditions at the Ecological Station in Jeziory (Wielkopolski National Park) in 2006-2015. The aim of the study is to analyse the variability of day-to-day air temperature and to determine the nature of the stimuli of the thermal conditions. The average annual temperature in Jeziory in 2006-2015 was 9.1°C. In the course of annual air temperature, July was the warmest month with an average temperature of 19.7°C. The average maximum occurred often in August as well. The coldest month was January with an average temperature of –1.1°C. The average minimum occurred also in February and December. The greatest seasonal fluctuations in air temperature occurred in the winter. In the other seasons, the course of average temperature is more even. At the Ecological Station Jeziory, there are small interdiurnal changes of air temperature. Declines tended to be much more prominent than increases. The mean change for the entire period is close to zero (0.4°C). In most cases, these changes did not exceed ± 1.5 deg but in extreme cases they reached several degrees. The biggest interdiurnal changes occur in May and January. The smallest range of the changes occurred in July and March. The biothermal conditions in the surroundings of the station in Jeziory are conducive to the development of tourism and recreation. The analysed decade was dominated by inert (68%). The sharp thermal stimuli appeared rarely (2%). Significant and sharp stimuli occur usually in the winter i.e. in December and January and then in the spring: in April and May.
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    Fale upałów latem 2015 roku i ich uwarunkowania cyrkulacyjne
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Sulikowska, Agnieszka; Wypych, Agnieszka; Woszczek, Izabela
    The main goal of the study was to characterize the thermal conditions during the hot summer of 2015 and to determine the circulation types with respect to the occurrence of extremely high air temperature and heat waves in Poland. The daily maximum (TMAX) and minimum (TMIN) air temperatures from 7 stations in Poland in 1951–2015 were used, as well as the Grosswetterlagen and Niedzwiedź circulation type classifications. A day with an extremely high air temperature (DTE) was defined as having TMAX above the 95th percentile and a heat wave as a sequence of at least 3 such days. The results prove that the summer of 2015 in Poland was unusually hot, especially in the south-western part of the country. The circulation types accompanying DTE and the heat waves were mainly anticyclonic with an advection of tropical air masses from the southern sector.
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    Pozyskiwanie danych przestrzennych do rejestracji wydarzenia o charakterze masowym z wykorzystaniem bezzałogowego statku powietrznego
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Smaczyński, Maciej
    At present, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles show the world from a new perspective, formerly hardly accessible. The author made an attempt at examining the potential and the effectiveness of the innovative UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology for the purpose of taking a series of photographs during a mass event treated as a dynamic phenomenon. The aim of the study was to systematize the process of obtaining spatial data on mass events and to suggest the use of the appropriate research methods.
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    Uwarunkowania cyrkulacyjne konwekcji w południowej Polsce
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Poręba, Szymon
    This work presents the influence of atmospheric circulation on CAPE values over southern Poland. The CAPE index is the one of most commonly used convection indicators. The research was based on a re-analysis from the NCEP/NCAR database, soundings and two atmospheric circulation classifications: Grosswetterlagen and T. Niedźwiedź. The research period included 13 years from 2000 to 2012 during which time the maximum CAPE value reached 3695 J/kg (derived by reanalysis) and almost 4450 J/kg (derived by sounding). According to Grosswetterlagen, the biggest average and maximum CAPE values over southern Poland occurred during three synoptic situations: Trough over Western Europe (TRW), Low over Great Britain (TB), Low over Central Europe (TM)
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    Pogoda upalna w Zakopanem (1986-2015)
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Pajewska, Małgorzata
    This paper presents the characteristics of hot weather in Zakopane in 1986–2015. The data on air temperature obtained from the NCDC NOAA public databases was the source material for this research. In 1986–2015, there were 18 very hot days, 97 very warm days, 2 tropical nights and 6 very warm nights. During that period there were 3 heat waves (in 2000, 2013 and 2015). The thermal characteristics indicate that since 1990, there has been a distinct increase in the frequency of extreme weather events.
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    Wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na ilość całkowitego promieniowania słonecznego docierającego do powierzchni ziemi w Belsku (1971-2014)
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Nelken, Kinga
    This paper analyses the amount of global solar radiation reaching the ground in Belsk, depending on the atmospheric circulation type. The study used daily sums of global solar radiation from 1971–2014 as well as the calendar of circulation types as developed by Lityński. The largest differences in the amount of solar radiation among the particular circulation types occur in the summer. The largest sums of solar radiation are observed during inflows of air masses from S and SW, and the smallest during the inflow from N, NE, and NW. On sunny days, the reduction of the incoming solar radiation is associated with the S and SW directions.
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    Urbanizacja terenów wiejskich w percepcji lokalnych mieszkańców na przykładzie Wolicy koło Kalisza
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Markuszewska, Iwona; Delebis, Agnieszka
    The article concerns the process of the dynamic transformation of a rural area that came about as a result of suburbanisation. The transformation, concerning the last several years, was presented using the example of the village of Wolica, near Kalisz. The main data were obtained from a survey carried out among the local inhabitants. Additionally, the following information sources were used; cartographical maps and the planning and strategic documents of the commune of Godziesze Wielkie, being the territory on which Wolica is located. The results of the survey revealed that the suburbanisation of Wolica significantly changed the rural landscape. Although these changes are necessary, in response to the demands of local dwellers, they are not always beneficial for the maintenance of the landscape quality.
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    Pomiędzy ekonomią a ochroną zasobów: gospodarowanie gruntami rolnymi na wybranych przykładach w gminie Zbąszyń (Wielkopolska)
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Markuszewska, Iwona; Marchewka, Paulina
    Rural areas are more often exposed to changes as a result of the urbanisation of the countryside. As a consequence, changes in the agricultural land use are observed, which often lead to the loss of the soil’s resources. Reconciling the development of rural areas with the dynamics of the transformation of rural areas as a result of the suburbanisation process is s very difficult task to accomplish. This is why rational management of agrarian production space is important at local level. This paper presents the issue of the de-farming of agricultural land using the example of the Zbąszyń Commune in the Wielkopolska Region.
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    The outlook of land consolidation in Poland: Stakeholders`dilemmas and policy weaknesses
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Markuszewska, Iwona
    This paper discusses the issue of farmland merging in Poland in the face of social unwillingness and a poor legal policy. The theoretical consideration was carried out on the basis of the scientific body of literature, supported by empirical examples of farmland consolidation. The intention of the work is to present a comprehensive overview of land consolidation, where special attention was paid to the unsuccessful merging efforts. As a result of the investigation, attempts were made to answer the following question: Is land consolidation necessary to improve the condition of Polish farming?
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    Przebieg i charakter zjawisk lodowych na rzece Łebie
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Łukaszewicz, Jan; Jawgiel, Kamil
    This article presents the course and the variability of forms of ice phenomena in selected parts of the river Łeba based on data from the water gauge stations in Miłoszewo, Lebork and Cecenowo between 1960 and 2013. The authors’ intention was to elaborate complete characteristics of the ice phenomena course against the changes in the air temperature, as the main factor determining the ice phenomena on the river. Data from meteorological stations in Lębork and Łeba were used to analyse the forms and types of ice in the various parts of the river in its upper, middle and lower courses. The work does not include only natural factors of a significant impact on the course and form of ice phenomena; account has also been taken of the impact of human activity, including the transformation of the river bed to change the form and duration of individual ice phenomena in specific sections of the river. Based on the studies one may conclude that all possible genetic types of ice occurred on the river. Ice edge appeared most frequently with the river freezing only partially (46%). The second most common form was ice cover (21%). There were also ice jams and frazil ice but only in the upper and the lower courses of the river where the impact of human pressure is negligible or altogether non-existent, and the river follows its natural course. In the middle course of the river where a dam has been built (Lębork), ice phenomena such as ice blockage or ice cover do not exist. In the entire 53-year period of the observations, in general there were no effects of the ice on the river in three years. In the remaining 50 years, ice appeared regularly. A very clear downward trend in the number of days in which ice occurred was observed on the river, especially after 1987. This situation is directly related to an increase in the average air temperature in winter.
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    Modelowanie dopływu promieniowania słonecznego do obszarów o urozmaiconej rzeźbie terenu w systemach informacji geograficznej
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Leziak, Kamil
    The inflow of solar radiation to the active surface is among the crucial factors determining its radiation balance and thus the climate conditions. Due to limited research and a multitude of surfaces, the determination of the spatial distribution of solar radiation on the basis of in situ research is hampered. Therefore actinometrical models are used to calculate the value of solar irradiance with reference to digital elevation models. Two actinometrical models were described: r.sun implemented in the GRASS GIS software and the Area Solar Radiation (ARS) provided in the ArcMap program, a part of the ArcGIS package. A digital elevation model of the East Carpathian Mountains in Romania was used as entry data for the above described models and a comparative analysis of the following characteristics was performed: total solar irradiance, direct irradiance, diffused irradiance and direct daylight duration. It was determined that despite the fact that both actinometrical models show different values of solar irradiance for the same area, they reflect similar spatial distributions. While both models are deemed valid tools for calculating solar radiation in mountainous areas, elementary knowledge of the tools is a must in order to use the results in an informed and responsible way.
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    Zmiany koryta Noteci w jej środkowym odcinku
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Kaniecki, Alfred; Ptak, Mariusz
    The paper analyses the changes in middle course of the Noteć River channel i.e. from Nakło to Ujście. The research was carried out by means of the cartographic method surveying environmental changes. Based on the cartographic material from four different periods of time, the occurrence of considerable changes was determined in the period between the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 21st century. The observed transformation was attributed mainly to the anthropogenic factors, including any hydrotechnical works related to e.g. the river’s regulation and drainage works in the river valley. Such activities are aimed at a more efficient use of the Noteć River for economic purposes.
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    Zagospodarowanie terenów zalewowych Warty w wybranych miastach
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2016) Jawgiel, Kamil; Łukaszewicz, Jan
    Floodplains are administered by the Regional Water Management Authority; the establishment of floodplains is justified only in exceptional cases. The main argument against such areas is heavy material losses and human security. These areas have been developed in a cartographic form on the hazard- and flood risk maps as part of the IT System of Protecting the Country from Extreme Hazards (ISOK). In large cities like Poznan, Gorzow Wielkopolski and Konin where the impact of human activity is particularly severe, floodplains are used in different ways. The cities in question try to make an effective use of the floodplains. The aim of the study is to present the structure of land use in selected cities located along the Warta and to identify potential material losses resulting from the flooding.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego