Badania Fizjograficzne, Seria A, Tom 65, 2014


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    Prezentacja dynamiki stężenia fosforu całkowitego w jeziorach reperowych w Polsce w latach 2000-2008 za pomocą sygnatur animowanych
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Cybulski, Paweł
    The article focuses on how cartographic visualization of physical and geographical phenomena which were the results of the “Report on the state of the environment in Poland 2008” relates to the changes of concentration of total phosphorus in the benchmark lakes in the years 2000–2008. Environmental assessment based on the size and the dynamics of the concentration of the biogenic elements. Presentation of the data that are time-variable must also be designed in a way to reveal the nature of these changes and allow the user to understand them. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness and the appropriateness of the use of the animation in the cartographic presentation of the point phenomena that refers to changes in natural environment.
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    Zróżnicowanie reżimu odpływu rzek w północno-zachodniej Polsce
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Wrzesiński, Dariusz
    This paper seeks to identify features of the flow regime of rivers in north–western Poland in terms of runoff, structure, as well as temporal and spatial variability. The analysis was performed on the basis of hydrometric data of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management from the years 1951–2010 coming from 46 gauging stations located on 33 rivers. The research embraced coastal rivers and lakeland tributaries of the Oder, Noteć and Vistula. In hydrological terms, this area is characterised by wide differences in flow conditions, as indicated by both, very great and very low water abundance. As a result, those rivers have different regime features, and on the basis of regularities in their flow variability they can be classified into 3 varieties of the nival hydrological regime. The rivers in this area display exceptional differences in total runoff, from the lowest values in the entire country (under 100 mm, the upper Noteć basin), to very high, the highest in the lowland part of Poland (over 300, and in the case of the Radunia even over 400 mm). They also show wide differences in their groundwater flow and its contribution to total runoff. For many coastal rivers this figure exceeds 80%, the highest in the country. Another of their characteristics is the lowest variability of discharges, especially annual ones. Also notable are the distinctly greater water abundance, higher groundwater flow and its share in total runoff, as well as lower variability of yearly discharges of streams in the eastern part of the coastal region than in its western area.
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    Charakterystyka wiatru przypowierzchniowego sprzyjającego najwyższym sumom opadów atmosferycznych na polskim wybrzeżu Bałtyku
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Świątek, Małgorzata
    The aim of the paper is to analyze directions and speed of the surface wind in one hundred days with the highest daily precipitation totals in years 1954–2003 in selected weather stations located on the Polish seacoast. The study describe wind directions according to the shore-line of the Baltic Sea. The analysis demonstrated that an onshore wind is more conductive for intensive precipitation than offshore one. The wind along the shore-line occurred more frequent from the west (in Gdynia from the north) than from the east. Generally, the domination of the northern and the western wind (with higher than average velocity of the wind) in these days are evident.
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    Charakterystyka stosunków nefologicznych w Moskwie
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the cloudiness in Moscow. The analysis was based on the eight diurnal observations carried out in the Meterological Observatory of the Łomonosow University in Moscow in years 1974–1990. The structure of the cloudiness, annual and diurnal courses were taken upon consideration. The average annual total cloudiness is much higher in cold part of the year. The long-term variability of total cloud cover in Moscow has shown an increasing tendency. The most frequent cloud type was Stratocumulus, which dominates during the whole day.
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    Rekultywacja biologiczna składowiska odpadów Poznania w Suchym Lesie
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Łukasiewicz, Szymon
    The Poznań landfill in Suchy Las is a ground level landfill. The subsoil contains heavy clays and silts, which cause it to be naturally isolated from subterranean waters. Outflows from the landfill are directed to the local sewage treatment plant, which functions on the principle of reverse osmosis. The landfill gas is collected by the gas pipeline system and sucked under pressure to the electrical power station. Thanks to these treatments, it is possible and fully justified to plant trees and shrubs as part of the biological reclamation of the landfill. The article discusses the environmental conditions existing at the landfill and the group of arborescent plants that have been successfully planted on the slopes of the landfill.
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    Kartograficzny zapis przestrzeni historycznej w korelacji ze źródłami pisanymi
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Lorek, Dariusz
    Through the analysis of the land use depicted on old maps we can acquire new knowledge about man and the environment, as well as aspects related to the mutual relations between them. For this reason, in addition to use in the presented paper written historical sources, we should refer to archival cartographic studies, which constitute a valuable source of information on many levels. Usage of old maps in studies allows us to discover new information, e.g. the spatial relationship, which can not be found in written communications. This paper attempts to determine how much archival cartographic materials stands for an independent source of information. The study aimed to identify the extent to which the map (the content) can supplement written historical information and what conditions should be met in order to be able to use this type of material in research. In this paper were verified information about the topography of the surrounding area of Śrem (Greater Poland) in the nineteenth century, on changes in the settlement network. Information about the changes in the space contained in the literature created a background for activities associated with completing the relevant maps and reflections on the transformations of the settlement pattern of the study area.
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    Położenie, powierzchnia i kształt wybranych jezior Pojezierza Międzychodzko-Sierakowskiego na mapach topograficznych
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Kubiak, Jarosław; Ławniczak, Radzym
    The objective of research concerned verifying the accuracy of the location and shape of selected lakes presented on topographical maps from various periods, drawn up on different scales. The area of research covered lakes situated in North-Western Poland on the Międzychód-Sieraków Lakeland. An analysis was performed of vector maps available in both analogue and digital format. The shape and location of lakes have been verified directly by means of field measurements performed using the GPS technology with an accuracy class of RTK. A compilation of cartographic and field data formed the basis for a comparison of the actual area and the length of the shoreline of the studied lakes. Cartographic analyses made it possible to single out the most reliable cartographic sources, which could be used for the purposes of hydrographical analyses. The field measurements performed have also disclosed the potential for using differential GPS measurements for updating and verifying existing cartographic materials, including those pertaining to the hydrographic grid. Furthermore, they have made it possible to obtain very precise quantitative data.
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    Cyklony tropikalne na obszarze Tajlandii
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Krystkowiak, Anna
    The purpose of this paper is characteristic of tropical cyclones occurring in Thailand, and thus to detect and describe some rules governing them. It was found that cyclones occur over the area of Thailand, mostly in October, and have most of tropical depression strength. Based on the data from the years 1951–2009 184 tracks of the movement of cyclones were analyzed appearing at that time in the area of Thailand, and then determined the regions and provinces most vulnerable to the emergence of the storm in each month of their occurrence. It was found the cyclones penetrate the area of Thailand, usually from the east, covering different regions depending on the month in which they appear. The region most vulnerable to the emergence of the cyclones in the Northeast region, while the provinces through which most of cyclones passed are two provinces in the North – Chiang Mai and Nan.
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    Charakterystyka cyklonów tropikalnych występujących na obszarze Tajlandii w poszczególnych porach roku i towarzyszących im warunków pogodowych na podstawie danych z lat 2000-2009
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Krystkowiak, Anna
    The aim of this paper is to characterise tropical cyclones occurring in Thailand in different seasons of the year – together with accompanying weather conditions – based on data from the years 2000–2009. It has been found that most cyclones occur during the rainy season, especially in September and October. They usually bring heavy rain and cause numerous floods, although in most cases they come to Thailand in the tropical depression stage, where the wind speed does not exceed 56 km/h. It has been found that cyclones in the area of Thailand pass through different regions and provinces, depending on the season. In the hot season, mainly southern and northern provinces are exposed, whereas in the rainy season northern and north-eastern ones; towards the end of September also the central provinces, while in the cool season – southern ones. In the analyzed period, most cyclones occurred in the provinces of Nong Khai and Nan, being part of the north-east region and the north region respectively, while no cyclone showed up in the eastern region. It has been found that the routes of some cyclones differ from those widely accepted for a given month, and many of them – especially at the end of the rainy season and the cool season – proceeded over the territory of Thailand in the direction of the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
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    Przemiany środowiskowe związane z antropopresją w ujściowym odcinku Warty
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Kaniecki, Alfred
    This article is an attempt at presenting environmental changes within the Warta valley during the last 250 years on the basis of existing archives, i.e. historical sources and old hydrographic hand-drawn maps, compiled in 1773 and 1786. Correlation with a modern map illustrates how much the hydrographic network and water conditions has changed in this area. The area under discussion by the author covers the valley of the lower Warta river from the mouth of Noteć river to the mouth of the Warta into the Odra river. First of all, an attempt was mode to reconstruct the initial environmental conditions. The greatest changes were connected with river regulation work in the Warta valley, including irrigation channels and discharge ditches draining the water from swampy valleys parts. These field works were for the most part of valley carried out towards the end of the 18-th century and the early part of the 19-th century. In this period the changes of hydrographic conditions were greatest. The present hydrographic pattern in the Warta Valley is artificial regulated with strengthened nearly straight line banks. This works provided for its stability, whereas in its other segments of Warta river often changed its course creating new meanders or arms. The dominance of drainage works in this area, liquidation of wet areas and river patterns made this terrain periodically dry, completely different than in the middle Ages. The Warta also lost its significance as a water route, and its water are polluted. In the Warta valley also the transformation of relief is caused by the development of transport routes, building the flood dam and another type of anthropogenic forms. In area under consideration as a result of human activity, practically all physiographic elements were changed – waters, swamps, relief, soils and topoclimate.
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    Miejskie tereny nadrzeczne rzeki Warty w Poznaniu - potencjał i ograniczenia
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Dymek, Dominika
    The presence of the river is one of the main factors which create the city. It has a positive effect on climate and human well-being, promotes biodiversity and recreation and improves quality of people life. The Warta River is an important compositional and functional element in Poznan. The valley area of the river within the administrative boundaries of city is subject to a strong human impact. Decline in the economic importance of the river caused a reversal of the city from her. This unfavorable phenomenon continues to present days. Inadequate management of urban riverside areas prevents the use of their potential. More and more devices and hydraulic structures are dangerous for ecosystems in the river. One of the ways of their protection are compact systems of riverside buffer parks. Nowadays we observe the phenomenon of “return to the water”. There is growing consensus about the need to revitalize the riverside areas, which will contribute to the quality of space, improve housing conditions, recover of a neglected area and save the values of cultural and natural heritage. If all goes according to the plan in Poznan also will be “return to the water” and the city will “regain its river”. The proper use of potential that give the rivers in the city should be one of the main activities of contemporary urban planners. The management of the river valleys landscape should be the result of a compromise which takes into account ecological, hydro and anthropogenic factors.
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    Zastosowanie form morfometrycznych do analizy zróżnicowania wybranych typów powierzchni na obszarach młodoglacjalnych
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Dąbrowski, Adam; Jasiewicz, Jarosław
    This paper aims to test the possibility of using a simplified classification of land forms using principles of machine vision (geomorfons – Jasiewicz, Stepinski 2013) to analyze the types of young-glacial surface areas. In the analysis we appointed 31 test areas relevant to the 8 main types of surface (valleys bottoms, outwash plains, flat and undulated glacial moraine of small and large scale, moraine hills and edge zones). Also we run several statistical analysis to test whether different types of surface can be identified on the basis of the inventory forms. The analysis showed limited interpretiveness of the method and allowed us to identify the main reasons for those limitations. We also signaled and outlined main research directions that should be taken to remove these restrictions in the future.
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    Zmienność stanów wody rzeki Czerna Wielka w latach 1961-2010
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Choiński, Adam; Ptak, Mariusz; Łabędzka-Gardy, Maria
    Daily observations of the levels of water in the Czerna Wielka river have been followed by an analysis of the relevant fluctuations. It has been established that in the Żagań profile (closing the catchment), the course of the water levels show a downward trend. The average water level in the timeframe 1961–2010 amounted to 108.3 cm (42.63 inches). The highest annual level occurred in 1981 (136.8 cm = 53.85 inches) while the lowest level was recorded in 1991 (82.1 cm = 32.32 inches). As for specific seasons, the water levels tend to be clearly highest in the winter months (with peaks in January and March) while the lowest levels are characteristic of the vegetation season (July–August). What is more, an analysis has been carried out of the water levels in two other observation stations located in an upper part of the catchment, where a reverse trend has been recorded (in 1971–1993). This indicates that in the specified time, the water level has tended to rise, unlike in the Żagań station in the same period of analysis. This situation may result from the catchment’s diversity with respect to the natural conditions (lithology) as well as human activity (hydraulic structures).
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    Tereny zalewowe w dorzeczu Prosny
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Choiński, Adam; Ptak, Mariusz
    Based on the data provided in hydrographic maps of Poland (1:50000), we can present the range and calculate the flood-hazard area in the Prosna river basin. It has been established that the total flood-hazard area amounts to 190.5 sq. km, which represents almost 4% of the river catchment. The largest areas of the type are located directly in the Prosna river valley (127.1 sq. km) and in the Pratwa river catchment (24.5 sq. km). On top of that, historical data on the water levels at the Bogusław station have been juxtaposed (1951-1983). An analysis of the average levels and the extreme annual levels has indicated that in the former case, no trend has been detected, while the extreme levels tend to have been growing. Therefore, a rising trend has been noted with reference to the emergency levels (250 cm) and alarm levels (300 cm). The year 1979 was exceptional in this respect, as the alarm level was recorded fourteen times, and the emergency level was recorded twenty eight times.
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    Najnowsze sondowania wybranych jezior Pojezierza Wielkopolsko-Kujawskiego
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Choiński, Adam; Ptak, Mariusz
    The article presents the results of bathymeter measurements of formerly untested lakes of the Wielkopolskie and Kujawskie Lake districts with areas exceeding 50 ha. It has been established that the volume of water in the six lakes amounts to 22,980 [thou. cubic m.] while their total area amounts to 267.9 [ha]. The research results have enriched the available data on the bathymetric parameters of the region in question. At present, in the Wielkopolskie and Kujawskie Lake districts only one lake (with an area exceeding 50 ha) out of 193 has not been provided with detailed information about the hypsometry of the lake’s bottom. Bathymetric measurements conducted in various parts of Poland (both new and those updating the existing bathymetric plans) should be deemed valuable and necessary. These measurements provide a new source of information which serves, among other things, to evaluate the recent direction and rate of evolution of lake basins and the changes to the water resources stored in lake basins.
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    Cyrkulacyjne warunki występowania ekstremalnych opadów atmosferycznych na Spitsbergenie
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Bednorz, Ewa; Jakielczyk, Marta
    Circulation conditions of extreme precipitation at Spitsbergen were analyzed in this study at the basis of daily data from 1981–2010 from the Svalbard Lufthavn station. The mean annual precipitation in Svalbard Lufthavn amounts to 189.1 mm. The most of extreme daily precipitation cases appear in autumn and winter. It is related to high frequency of deep polar cyclones in the cold part of the year, which bring snow and rain to the Svalbard Archipelago. The highest daily precipitation at Spitsbergen is observed during cyclonal circulation from south-western or western direction. In summer and autumn abundant precipitation is caused by local cyclones appearing right over or northwest to the island. In winter and spring the pressure pattern typical for the days with abundant precipitation characterizes with a thorough of low pressure spreading from the Icelandic Low through the Fram Strait to the Arctic. These circulation patterns are usually accompanied with higher-than-normal pressure over Scandinavia and northern Europe and high pressure gradients over the North Atlantic.
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    Wybrane przypadki obfitych opadów śniegu w Poznaniu
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Bednorz, Ewa
    Composite maps of the sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential heights means and anomalies were constructed for the days with the high snow accumulation in Poznań. Similar maps of the air temperature at the isobaric level 850 hPa and of precipitable water content were presented. Additionally, 48-hours back trajectories of air masses for chosen days with the most effective snowfalls were constructed, using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Negative anomalies of sea level pressure and 500 hPa heights, which mean low pressure systems spreading over Europe, are the basic condition of abundant snowfalls in Poznań. Snowfalls may appear as a result of fronts in the colder parts of Mediterranean cyclones with the dynamic warm and humid air of distant southern origin climbing upwards on the cooler and more stabile polar air masses from the north or east. The alternative location of snow-bringing low pressure systems is the Baltic Sea region.
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    Variability of summer meteorological and biometeorological conditions in the Ebba Valley region (Central Spitsbergen)
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2014) Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Szpikowski, Józef; Małecki, Jakub
    Variability of summer meteorological and biometeorological conditions on the topoclimatic scale in the 2008–2010 summer season in the Ebba Valley region (Central Spitsbergen) was investigated. Three measurement sites, representing different altitudes and topography, as well as different types of active surfaces typical of Spitsbergen, were chosen, where automatic, hourly recorded, measurements were taken. The mean diurnal course of the basic meteorological and biometeorological parameters (i.e. air surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, global solar radiation, wind chill temperature, cooling power, etc.), was computed for each of the three sites, which demonstrated spatial and temporal variability of biometeorological and weather conditions. Furthermore, four relevant weather types which may appear in the summer in different environments represented by the three measurement sites were distinguished. They can be defined as follows: type 1 – cold and windy weather, type 2 – cold and wet weather, type 3 – sunny weather (moderately windy and relatively warm), type 4 – warm and cloudy weather. The characteristics and occurrence of each of these types were described.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego