ItemPreface to the Issue Moral Competence & Subjectivity: Topical Issues(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Dutka, Joanna; Napiwodzka, Karolina ItemWspólnie ku podmiotowości. Wokół książki Spór o podmiotowość – perspektywa interdyscyplinarna(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Napiwodzka, KarolinaThe review paper revisits the problem of subjectivity with particular focus on the latest research in this field presented in The Dispute about Subjectivity – an Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Adriana Warmbier (2016). I pay special attention to the interdisciplinary perspective of the analyzed issues of subjectivity as a research object in humanities (philosophy, psychology, anthropology) and cognitive sciences. ItemWokół męskości jako projektu etycznego. Zarys sytuacji filozoficznej i społecznej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM) Górecki, PrzemysławThe article is an attempt at addressing the problem of "masculinity" as a historically privileged category in the social and philosophical tradition. In the dichotomous gender system, femininity is usually valued as aesthetic quality, while masculinity stands as an ethical value. This distinction, suggesting the subordinated and disadvantaged position of "femininity" derives from ancient philosophy and biblical tradition and was strengthened not only by philosophical writings but also by symbolic, legal, economic and social practices. By sketching a review of positions and confronting the stereotypical image of "masculinity" with the complex reality of multiple forms of masculine expressions, the article brings the situation of "masculinity" in the world organized by the phallogocentric symbolic order. ItemUwagi o odpowiedzialności dyscyplinarnej sędziów za rażącą i oczywistą obrazę prawa w polskim systemie prawnym(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Mazur, PawełThe paper deals with the disciplinary responsibility of judges for obvious and flagrant legal misconduct. A model of the aforementioned responsibility in the Polish law has been presented. The problems deliberated upon include: the moral justification of punishing judges for mentioned disciplinary delicts and critical evaluation of Supreme Court view about this responsibility. A question is asked about reconsidering the interpretation of obvious and flagrant legal misconduct according to modern times and the complicated social and law reality. ItemResearch on Moral Judgment Competency of College Students in Mainland China with DIT-2(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Zhang, Qian; Thoma, Stephen J.The purpose of this paper was to (1) examine moral judgment competency of a sample of 811 Chinese college students from a Southern university in mainland China with DIT-2; and (2) test whether gender, education, major, academic performance, and one-child policy have significant effect on the participants’ moral judgment competency. Results show that the participants score high in both Personal Interest schema and Postconventional schema, while low in Maintaining Norms schema. Gender and major have significant effect on participants’ moral judgment competency in China, while education level, academic performance and one-child family have no significant effect on their moral judgment competency. Reasons are discussed in the paper. ItemRobot Morality: Bertram F. Malle’s Concept of Moral Competence(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Schmiljun, AndréBertram F. Malle is one of the first scientists, combining robotics with moral competence. His theory outlines that moral competence can be understood as a system of five components including moral norms, a moral vocabulary, moral cognition, moral decision making and moral communication. Giving a brief (1) introduction of robot morality, the essay analyses Malle’s concept of moral competence (2) and discusses its consequences (3) for the future of robot science. The thesis will further argue that Malle’s approach is insufficient due to three reasons: his function argument is very simplifying and therefore troubling; each component of his theory is inconsistent and, finally, closely connected to our common understanding of personhood, which raises new philosophical questions surrounding the basic issue of if and/or when machines can be considered people. ItemA Commentary Reflection of Moral Psychology Based on Embodied Cognition(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Yang, ShaogangThe rise of embodied cognition in recent ten years has brought about significant influence on the research of moral psychology. On the one hand, the development of neuro-cognitive science has facilitated the research of morality deeply into the mirror neurons of brain, no longer being limited simply on the philosophical speculation; and on the other hand the experimental research of embodied cognition has provided new evidence for some traditional and philosophical moral issues and even made some new recognition of the issues which are different from the traditional interpretations. Tracing back to the research of the Western moral psychology, we find that cognitive rationality and virtual ethics are the two main research lines for moral psychology.（1）J. Piaget and L. Kohlberg opened a way for the research of cognitive development of morality, and their successors have formed new Kohlbergian School, such as the moral judgment theory based on DIT proposed by J. Rest and his colleagues, G. Lind’s dual-aspect theory based on his MCT and KMDD®; the social cognitive domain theory proposed by E. Turiel and his colleagues; the feminine caring ethics advocated by C. Gilligan and N. Noddings; the Social Intuitionist Theory proposed by J. Haidt based on evolutionary psychology, cultural psychology and neuro-cognitive science and so on. (2) The traditional moral philosophy and ethics have opened another way to the research of character education and virtues, such as the American movement of character education facilitated by W, Bennett and T. Lickona and others; the argument between J. Rawls and R. Nozick on moral problems; A. C. MacIntyre’s moral critique to the Western societies and his virtue ethics and so on. Since 21st century the research of embodied cognition has broken through the limitation of the traditional research on moral psychology, attempting to realize the new synthesis of intellect, human body and its environment, and therefore started the embodied research of moral judgment which is unfolded around the three dimensions of physical cleanliness, disgust, body temperature and body movements. I has also assimilated Piaget and Vygotsky’s ideas of psychological development, the theory of conceptual metaphor in cognitive semantics and the theory of evolutionary psychology, and made its theoretical interpretation and exploration for the embodied effect of moral judgment. Since the variable of physical body could have its influence on individual moral judgment by means of one’s emotion and cognitive elements, the moral judgment based on embodied cognition should be integrated with the theories of moral judgment, especially with moral competencies that are the core of moral judgment, and meanwhile the relationship between the embodied cognition and moral intuition should be deeply explored, and the issues such as chronergy, that is, time efficiency, and dynamics taken place when there is the embodied effect should be further examined, the regulated variables of embodied effects while making moral judgment and the individual differences should also be found out through detailed research. And finally we should check out the embodied effects of moral judgment through the cross-cultural comparison. ItemIs The Stimulation of Moral Competence with KMDD® Well-suited for Our Brain? A Perspective From Neuroethics(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Steć, MałgorzataThis article is an attempt to show that the KMDD® method is the best for both our brain and our moral functioning, which undoubtedly has its basis in the brain. At the same time, it is an attempt to draw attention to the importance of planning interventions (e.g. at the educational level) which stimulate moral development in accordance with the psychological and neurobiological functioning of an individual. The paper briefly presents the neuropsychological context of moral functioning, and then a series of arguments in support of the thesis that the scientifically proven effectiveness of using the KMDD® method has its support in adapting the method not only to one's pattern of individual behavior, but also to the proper functioning of one's brain. ItemRelationship between Social Support and Life Satisfaction of College Students: Resilience As a Mediator and Moderator(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Guo, YuanA total of 843 college students in Guangdong University of Foreign Studies were investigated using a social support evaluation scale, a resilience scale, and a life satisfaction evaluation scale. Results were analyzed using IBM® SPSS 21.0® and Amos 17.0. It was shown that there existed a positive correlation respectively among resilience, social support and life satisfaction. Social support predicted resilience positively and resilience partially mediated the association between social support and life satisfaction. Finally, resilience moderated the association between social support and life satisfaction; the higher the resilience level, the more significant the positive predictive effect of social support on life satisfaction. College students' life satisfaction is closely related to social support and resilience; resilience partially plays a mediating and moderating role between social support and life satisfaction. ItemInclusion and Moral Competence. Hypotheses about Two Closely Related Tasks of the School(Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii UAM, 2017) Reinicke, MartinaIn my article, I will give a short historical overview of inclusion-research. The focus lies on relation between moral and inclusion. I will introduce three branches of inclusion research and deduce my definition of inclusion from it. Inclusion can be understood as a dynamic process of realizing of equal participation on the one hand and of entitlement to diversity on the other hand. That means, inclusion lives from the solution of its immanent conflict- the conflict between equality and diversity. Therefore, I assume that “the ability to solve problems and conflicts on the basis of universal moral principles by means of deliberation and discussion, instead of using violence, deceit and coercion, or more specifically… the ability to judge arguments in regard to their moral quality instead of their opinion-agreement” (Lind 2016) is urgently needed. This ability is an important precondition for realizing inclusion. Following educational theory of morality by Lind and others, it’s not necessary to change the moral attitudes (moral orientation) in persons that are involved in the process of inclusion. It’s more important to improve their inclusive ability and their inclusive behavior. Inclusive behavior means a behavior with which shows recognition of both: of diversity of all as well as of the dignity of each individual. On this theoretical basis, I furthermore want to introduce a little research project carried out by the author in Vocational School Centre. The aim of this project was to improve the inclusive behavior by using the Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion®.