Ethics in Progress, 2023, Volume 14, Issue 1

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    An Application of the Corporate Virtue Scale to Assess Managers’Perceptions of Ethical Behaviour in Public Organizations and Service Provision
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Shindika, Emmanuel Selemani; Cheteni, Priviledge
    A strong ethical culture is the key to any organization’s long-term success. The purpose of this research was to investigate the link between an organization’s ethical culture and its effect on workers’ well-being, as well as to test the construct validity of the Corporate Virtue Scale (CEV). In South Africa’s Buffalo Municipality, 277 managers from different government agencies made up the sample. The eight-factor CEV scale was validated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Employees’ stress and emotional exhaustion were linked to their views on the prevalence of an ethical culture in public agencies. The results of this study show that an organization’s ethical culture significantly affects its employees’ quality of life on the job. The CEV scale was found to have construct validity, proving its reliability and validity in practice. The government is urged to prioritize the streamlining of regulations and processes that foster an ethical culture in public institutions.
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    Doing GenderBody and Gendered Probation. A Case (Re)Constructive Analysis of Gendered Probation
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Kirchner, Anna; Zizek, Boris
    With the present article an extension of the doing gender concept by another important dimension, the body, is proposed. Butler showed that sex results from the materialization and we argue that not only gender emerges from interactive doing, but also does sex. This process is called Doing GenderBody and interestingly we showed that it is not done by doing the gender. After the inactive production of a gender/sex, it follows an evaluation process of this produced gender/sex, called the probation. Moreover, this gender/sex must be a valuable contribution to the community. The valency of the probation figure does not only depend on the collective view, but also on a produced sex/gender which contradict the shared gender/sex knowledge. Further, because of this contradiction the single person sees this as a valuable contribution to the community. The analysis of the art works we have done allowed us to show the fundamental modes of the possibility for probation figures to be constructed.
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    Women’s Reproductive Health Rights in Poland. Between a Druggists’ Conscience Clause and Their Legal Duty to Provide Contraceptives
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Ciereszko, Kinga; Napiwodzka, Karolina; Nowak, Ewa; Hemmerling, Kay
    This article recommends the promotion of moral competence in the health and pharmacy professions to enable them to respect human and patient health rights with a focus on the provision of reproductive and sexual health care services. In certain cultures, health care and drug providers follow their conscientious objection (conscience clause) and decline to perform specific health services, including the provision of legal contraceptives in cases protected by legal and human rights. Such malpractices may violate patients’ and purchasers’ legitime rights. The article also presents findings obtained in Poland with N=121 women experimentally interviewed to examine their experiences as contraception purchasers, to assess their preference concerning facing human vs. robotic pharmacists, to manage the risk of refusal argued by the conscientious objection, and to score their moral competence with one of the dilemmas included in the MCT by G. Lind. This study demonstrated that purchasers with higher C-score (C for moral competence) would not just prefer a robotic pharmacist without a ‘conscience’ but, rather, a competent sales staff able to instruct the patient and advice her on any related queries. It further results that participants with higher moral competence are thus less likely to trust the medical expertise of artificial intelligence. We conclude that public institutions in pluralistic societies must manage normative reproductive health contexts more inclusively, and the election, education, and practice of health professionals in the public health care sector require the development of a normative mindset toward respecting the rights of all patients instead of respecting them selectively at the diktat of particularistic conscience.
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    Urdu Translation and the Validation of a 14-Item Measure to Assess Stress Management Skills in Healthcare Workers: Measurement Invariance Across Gender
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Yumna, Ali; Syeda, Farhana Kazmi
    This study aims to conduct an Urdu translation and a validation of the ISBF Stress Management Skills Scale in two distinct phases. The first phase includes the forward-back translation method for ISBF. The second phase includes cross validation and the establishment of psychometric properties for the ISBF scale. A sample of 500 adults working in health care was taken from different hospitals and dispensaries. The first phase of the study includes the forward-back translation method. The second phase includes exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with invariance measurement. The total reliability of the scale is reported to be .812. EFA revealed a two-factor structure for ISBF scale, with configural, metric and scalar invariance across males and females, and comparable latent mean scores for males and females. CFA showed goodness-of fit indices for the two factors. The scale showed good internal consistency values. The model fit value includes the value for the goodness of fit index, which was .979, for the adjusted goodness-of fit index: .961, for the comparative fit index: .993, for the incremental fit index: .993, and for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value: .033. Good values of composite reliability and convergent validity were measured for both dimensions of the scale. The scale shows that this diagnostic tool can help to assess the skills used to manage stress. For criterion validity, the coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS-21) was used, which showed positive correlations. The subscale of stress management was taken from the Health Promoting Life Style Profile II (HPLP-II), which also showed positive correlations. Significant mean differences were found between scores of healthcare workers with stress management skills and with those without stress management skills. The group of mean differences indicated the females have greater stress management skills as compared to men. The Urdu translated and validated instrument will be helpful in understanding behavior in healthcare settings.
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    Correlational Research on Mobile Phone Addiction and the Interpersonal Relationship Distress of Chinese College Students
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) He, Liming; Yang, Shaogang; Meng, Yangyang
    In this essay, we utilized the following scales: Mobile and Internet Addiction Test, Basic Psychological Needs Scale, Negative Coping Style Questionnaire, and Interpersonal Relationships Assessment Scale. With those, we surveyed 1,730 college students, investigating the influence of mobile phone addiction on their interpersonal relationship distress and the mediating chain effect of basic psychological needs and negative coping styles on mobile phone addiction and interpersonal relationship distress. The results indicate that: (1) Mobile phone addiction can predict interpersonal relationship distress in college students; (2) Basic psychological needs serve as the mediating variables between mobile phone addiction and interpersonal relationship distress; (3) Negative coping styles prove to be the mediator between mobile phone addiction and interpersonal relationship distress; and (4) Basic psychological needs and negative coping styles establish a mediating chain effect between mobile phone addiction and interpersonal relationship distress.
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    A Social Network Approach to the Dual Aspect of Moral Competence
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Higgins, Silvio Salej; Sanabria, Guillermo Vega; Bataglia, Patrícia Unger Raphael; Gonçalves, Erick Fontenele; Carmo, Lavínia Ferreira da Silva
    This work presents evidence supporting the relationship between the dual aspect of moral competence (emotion and cognition) and social networks in school settings. We conducted empirical research with 160 students from various disciplines of the social sciences and different cohorts in two Brazilian public universities. Firstly, the participants responded to Georg Lind’s Moral Competence Test (MCT-xt). Following this, a sociometric generator regarding relationships of friendship and collaboration in social networks was applied, and several Exponential Random Graphs Models (ERGMs), with the MCT-xt score as an exogenous effect and predictor of these relationships, were utilized. We also used a Crisp-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis in order to determine if the cohorts, where the average MCT-xt was associated with the interactional structure, obeyed the same causal configuration. There exist two conditional configurations: (1) a sufficient score of MCT-xt in a social network with homogeneous status encourages a proactive search of collaboration; (2) an insufficient score of MCT-xt in a social network with homogeneous status encourages a collaborative exchange based on the popularity of some individuals. This work reveals how to interpret, at the grouping level, the results of MCT-xt.
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    Prudent Reflective Equilibrium
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Coitinho Silveira, Denis
    The main aim of this paper is to propose the inclusion of the expertise of a prudent agent within the procedure of reflective equilibrium by adding a disposition for identifying reasonable beliefs. This can be seen as the starting point of the method, and would safeguard against the criticism of conservatism and subjectivism. In order to do this, I will begin by analyzing the core characteristics of the method and its main weaknesses. I will then investigate the characteristics of prudence as a disposition for identifying an adequate means for achieving a good end. With this in mind, I will apply prudence to the procedure which is carried out by an agent who deliberates well and can identify reasonable moral beliefs. These beliefs must be justified according to their consistency with ethical principles and with the factual beliefs of relevant scientific theories. Finally, I will argue that this deliberative process is consistent with ethical pluralism and democracy, and can be interpreted as a kind of moral knowledge.
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    Post War Justice: Jus Post Bellum for Just War and Peace
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Rathour, Mansi
    This paper aims to address a key topic of speculation within political philosophy, namely the Just War Theory. The Just War Theory works to ethically restrain wars based on principles listed out in jus ad bellum (reasons to go to war) and jus in bello (conduct during war). As such, the theory dominated by the debate between the ‘traditionalists’ and ‘revisionists’ who are concerned about the integration of jus post bellum as the third branch of just war theory and feel it is better suited to the domain of international politics and security. This paper explores this lacunae over the neglect of jus post bellum (post war justice) within the just war discourse. By identifying the limitations of a minimalist jus post bellum and this misrepresentation of peace with security, this paper defends a maximalist account of jus post bellum and also situates post war justice as a necessary third branch of the Just War Theory. The challenges to taking such an extensive stance on post war justice are also addressed. As the first two branches of just war theory have been codified, the neglect of the post war stage leads to unrestrained war endings and ad-hoc solutions. Any just war theory needs to recognize the legitimacy of the third branch of post war justice as well, as only then can the Just War Theory function to restrain wars.
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    The Ideological and Ontological Causes of Russia’s War on Ukraine. West versus East; Tyranny versus Democracy
    (Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Philosophy, 2023-07-31) Hordiichuk, Olha
    The article deals with the causes of Russia’s war on Ukraine, which is based on political and geopolitical interests, economic and military strategies, ambitions of individual political leaders, and mentality factors. The ontological basis of the war is the historically formed fundamental difference between the spiritual world, mentality traits of Ukrainians and Russians, which formed under the influence of a particular culture, with its ethnic, value and worldview coordinates, and under the influence of ideologies that determined the features of social and political life at different historical times. A strong spiritual system is created in the social and cultural space of the state, which preserves its values from generation to generation in the culture, forming a stable mentality and enduring attitudes. Their conceptual comprehension expands the context of cause-and-effect connections, helps to understand the situation more deeply and to choose optimal effective mechanisms for gradually successfully resolving the complex geopolitical situation that threatens the whole world.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego