ItemTendencje zmian przepływu rzek Polski w drugiej połowie XX wieku(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Wrzesiński, DariuszA study was made of multi-year tendencies in monthly, seasonal and yearly series of streamflow in Poland in the second half of the 20th century. To establish changes in the time series, use was made of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The analysed flow series came from 148 profiles located on 91 Polish rivers and covered 9 time intervals: two 20-year periods (1951-1970 and 1981-2000), two 25-year ones (1951-1975 and 1976-2000), two 30-year ones (1951-1980 and 1971-2000), two 40-year periods (1951-1990 and 1961-2000), and the years 1951-2000. Over the years 1951-2000, the directions of change in the series of mean monthly, seasonal and yearly streamflow in Poland were clearly different in the first and second part of this period. In all the flow series starting in 1951, upward trends decidedly prevail, being the most frequent in the years 1951 -1980. Statistically significant trends can then be observed in more than 30% of the series under analysis. Nearly 60% of the mean yearly flow series display then statistically significant growth, recorded on most of the rivers in the country except in the Mazurian Lakeland. A statistically insignificant increase in streamflow can be noted from January to April. In the remaining months the discharge figures grow markedly, although the growth varies in space and time. From May to July the discharges rise mostly on rivers in the eastern part of the country, in the Narew and Wieprz catchments, in May in the Warta catchment, and in June also in the upper Oder catchment. From August to October a significant increase in streamflow can be observed on most rivers in the country except lakeland rivers and upper reaches of the Carpathian tributaries of the Vistula. A similar distribution occurs in the remaining months, with the proportion of statistically significant trends in December dropping to 38% of the series under analysis. After 1961 the direction of variations in streamflow changes and negative trends start to predominate. The largest number of downward trends, in more than 70% of the series, although usually statistically insignificant, can be observed in the period 1971-2000. An exception is the March and April flow series when upward trends predominate. An increase in streamflow in the winter-spring season can then be observed on the rivers of the Pomeranian Lakeland (February and March) and the Carpathians (February and April). In the summer-autumn season the discharges of most rivers in this multi-year period tended to decline. Mean annual discharges on most of the studied rivers tended to grow between 1951 and 2000, but usually in a statistically insignificant way. An increase can generally be noted on rivers flowing in the eastern parts of the Vistula and Oder catchments and on coastal rivers, while a decrease, on rivers in the western parts of those catchment, not counting the upper reaches of the Sudeten tributaries of the Oder. Still, upward trends, statistically significant, are only characteristic of rivers of the Pomeranian Lakeland and locally those in the Narew catchment and some Carpathian streams. A statistically significant upward trend in the winter season on rivers in the north-east of the country, and also locally on the Sudeten and Carpathian rivers, shows that circulation factors may be responsible for the higher discharges of those rivers. This is corroborated by a diagram of isocorrelates of streamflow in those regions in the winter season with the winter NAO index, as well as differences in flows between a positive and a negative stage of this macro-scale type of circulation (WRZESIŃSKI 2008). An analysis of the spatial variability of the tendencies of change in streamflow is also made difficult by the physical-geographic conditions of the catchments and by human activity. These are elements of major importance in the shaping of flow conditions and specific features of stream regimes. The reversal observed in flow tendencies in the 1970s requires further studies to confirm the statistical significance of this change and to determine when upward trends turned into downward ones. ItemTypy cyrkulacji atmosfery a rodzaje chmur w Poznaniu(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Szyga-Pluta, KatarzynaThe frequency of appearance of cloud genera was analyzed taking into consideration their associated types of circulation. The study is made on the basis of diurnal climatological observations carried out in Poznań in years 1971-1990. The Lityński objective classification of circulation types was used. The research results prove that the cloud genera appear throughout the year depending on the atmospheric circulation. High clouds are the most frequent during the anticyclonic types of circulation (table 1). As, Ns, St and Cb clouds are associated with the cyclonic circulation. Ac, Sc and Си clouds form independently of the circulation type which shows the biggest influence of the local conditions on the specific clouds. Among the anticyclonic types of circulation the type NWA is conducive to forming of Ci, Cc, Ac, Sc, Си and Cb clouds (table 2, fig. 1). Cs clouds are connected mainly to the SWA circulation. The air inflow from west is favourable to form the As and Ns clouds. St clouds appear most often during the NA circulation. During the intermediate circulation types, high and middle clouds form most frequently when the air flows from the SW direction (table 3, fig. 2). Sc, St and Си clouds favour to appear during the NWo circulation. Cb clouds form mainly in connection to the NE0 circulation. In the midst of the cyclonic circulation the type SWc is conductive to occurring of: Ci, Cs, Ac, As, Ns and Sc types of clouds (table 4, fig. 3). Cc, St, Си and Cb clouds are mainly associated with the NWc circulation. ItemMiędzydobowe zmiany ciśnienia atmosferycznego w Poznaniu na tle cyrkulacji atmosferycznej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Półrolniczak, MarekRelying on data concerning atmospheric pressure noted between 1951-2000 in Poznań, interdiurnal changes of the average atmospheric pressure has been addressed. In accordance with biometeorological literature, the following ranges of atmospheric pressure felt by the human organism are assumed: weak (the change of 1-4 hPa), moderate (5-8 hPa) and strong (> 8 hPa). Furthermore, an additional range of change was adopted for a situation when the change does not take place or is less than 1 hPa. This situation is considered imperceptible to human organism. In the present article the ranges of pressure change are treated as types of change and marked as: a (< 1 hPa), b (1-4 hPa), с (5-8 hPa), d (8 hPa). The adopted pressure change ranges are here studied in terms of the occurrence of various types of atmospheric circulation as well as in terms of the direction of air mass influx. The analysis that has been conducted demonstrates that the average values of diurnal air pressure changes, as well as of the frequency of days the changes, occur in a specific cycle within the period of the whole year. The largest interdiurnal changes, as well as the greatest number of days with significant fluctuations, take place in the colder seasons of the year. In contrast, the slightest changes and the highest frequency of days when the changes are insignificant or none occur in the warmer seasons of the year. The average annual value of interdiurnal pressure changes in Poznań is 4.4 hPa, which means that the average bioclimatic conditions occur within the scope of weak stimuli. During the entire year 27 days with a scope of imperceptible stimuli may be expected (type a), 196 days with the stimuli that are hardly perceptible (type b) and 92 days with the stimuli of average perceptibility (type c) and 49 with the stimuli of strong perceptibility (type d). The attempt to associate the diurnal changes of atmospheric pressure with types of atmospheric circulation and the direction of air mass influx have proved a vivid relationship between the cyclic types and influxes from the west and the frequency of day with high fluctuations of atmospheric pressure changes. The days with large interdiurnal pressure changes often coincide with cyclonal circulations: the north-west circulation of the type CB (more than 20%) and south-west of type D (about 10%). The days with no or little pressure changes coincide the following anti-cyclonal types: north-east E (21%), south-east and east Ei (10%) and west C2D (about 10%). ItemZastosowanie kartograficznego systemu informacji w waloryzacji przyrodniczej na przykładzie gminy Tarnowo Podgórne(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Kubiak, Jarosław; Ławniczak, RadzymIn the present research work it is showed the available cartographic resources which find practical application, particularly, in the works within the sphere of regional planning. It is confined to the ones which are made accessible by the government, trade offices or educational establishments. There are presented the ones which are published on the basis of technical instruction which determinate recurrence in respect of theme regardless of place, time and the author study. There have been taken into consideration cartographic materials in the analogue and numerical form. There are presented the topographic maps in system "65", "92", topographical data base, VMapL2, geological maps, soil-agricultural maps, hydrographie maps and sozological maps. The above mentioned materials were used in eco-physiographic study for Tarnowo Podgórne Community. The studies are documentations written out to needs of regional planning and studies which describe particular components of natural environment and their interrelationships. The final effect of this work was to determine usefulness of community area for the invest needs. In the synthetic way, in the cartographic form, there was presented the helpfulness of analyzed components. There was obtained the spatial layout of putting together value of analyzed parameters and afterwards the areas were classified. The classification allows to show terrains which are the most advantageous for the definite directions of management, in the case of the present study - for building purposes. ItemInwentaryzacja obiektów krenologicznych dorzecza Odry(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Choiński, Adam; Ptak, MariuszOn the basis of analysis of hydrographie maps at a scale of 1 : 50 000 an inventory of crenological objects located in the Odra River basin has been made. Altogether 393 map sheets cover the whole area. The studies objects were found on 159 sheets. The obtained data originate from field works or mappings carried out in the years 1998-2005. In total 2611 objects were recorded; most of them are perennial springs (1309), then seepage areas (568), bog-springs (336), intaked perennial springs (129), groups of springs (111), periodical springs (87), mineral springs (66) and observed springs (5). Basing on the output of individual objects the total discharge has been estimated at 1.645 cubic meters per second, that is comparable with the mean annual discharge of such rivers as Lutynia, Mogilnica and Ołobok. Moreover, two maps have been compiled: the first one presents the number of crenological objects on respective sheets, while the other illustrates the summed up output on these sheets. From the point of view of the number of the objects a clear difference between the mountain areas and lowlands can bee seen, however, the difference is smaller if consider the output of the objects. The most abundant springs reach an output of about 50 dm3 • s"1, while only a dozen exceeds 20 dm3 • s '. The sum of 10 most abundant springs makes as many as 23% of the total output of all studied objects. It has to be noticed that as many as 76% of all objects have very low output, that means less than 0.5 dm3 • s-1. Realized inventory of springs seems to be useful, since it makes possible to record future changes in the number and output of crenological objects on a large area. ItemSpecyfika hydrochemiczna wód jeziora Modła wynikająca z uwarunkowań geograficznych(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, AlicjaThere is a lot of articles about coastal lakes where Modła Lake is unfortunately pass over. Modła Lake is situated on Polish coast of South Baltic. The results of research indicated that Modła Lake should be classified to coastal lakes because of being similar to typical coastal lakes in spite of some attributes differentiating it from that group. Occurrent periodically the increasing salination of waters in Modła Lake and moreover batymetry of describing Lake, is main attribute that testifying about its coastal character quality. ItemProcesy renaturalizacyjne w Dolinie Kamionki (Pojezierze Poznańskie) w ostatnich stu latach(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Szuszkiewicz, Tomasz; Latocha, AgnieszkaThe article presents the complex processes of renaturalisation in the middle part of the Kamionka valley in the Poznańskie Lakeland. They are the result of socio-economical and landscape changes, which occured in the study area in the last 100 years - mainly land use changes due to withdrawal of former intense human activity, abandonment of agriculture and development of secondary vegetation succession. The main aim of the research was to analyse the reaction of natural environmental system to changes of the intensity of human impact, as well as to recognize the persistence in the landscape of former anthropogenic landforms. The research method comprised: field investigations, mainly detailed geomorphical mapping (with special focus on anthropogenic landforms), analyses of plant communities and extent of secondary succession, as well as analyses of archival sources, mainly topographic maps from various periods and air photographs. The study proved a strong relationship between the changes of land-use pattern and their environmental effects both on biotic and abiotic elements of the ecosystem. A substantial increase of forested areas in the last 100 years, together with an activity of new introduced fauna species like beaver, influenced the type and intensity of other environmental and morphological processes. The following changes are observed in the study area: reduction of erosion on slopes, increase of water retention in the drainage basin, increase of organogenic accummulation, local increase of sinuosity of stream channels, fastening of development of denudational valleyheads and spring sapping. Additionally, the anthropogenic landforms, connected with former human activity, dissappear gradually from the landscape, mainly due to denudational processes and encroachment of secondary vegetation succession. Further development of renaturalisation of the study area is likely to become locally more diverse. However, its progress and environmental results are highly dependent on the protection strategy and policy, which will be conducted by the Pszczewski Landscape Park and by the regional forestry council. ItemRola symbolizacji kartograficznej w promocji przestrzeni miejskiej Poznania(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Postaremczak, KarolinaThe basic aim of this publication is to determine how to symbolize the objects on the promotional map with reference to the traditional cartographic principles and the perception of area presented on the map. Every city area is specific and have unique characteristic features. This features should be exhibited in promotional campaigns of the cities. The suitable medium for city promotion is the map. The subject of a cartographic visualization is one of the most important events in Poznan - the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship. It will be a great opportunity to promote a city. The initial phase of a map design is to determine the map concept including map's usage and its user, map scale, format, geographical reach and how the content will be presented. In the second stage we have to choose and classify the objects that will be presented on the map and then to arrange them in a hierarchy. In this research the three groups of objects were chosen: objects that are directly connected with, ,Euro 2012", obj ects connected with means of transportation and representative buildings in Poznań. The main phase of this research is the construction of cartographic signs. The three selected objects categories have to be symbolize in three another ways due to the map perception. To diversify this categories two graphic variables were used - color and shape. To create the most effectively cartographic signs the map designer have to make repeated attempts. ItemZapiski z historii turystyki w Polsce(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Kłysz, PiotrTourism can be defined differently. The World Tourist Organization defines tourism as activities of people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited". Tourism in Poland dates back to the beginnings of the previous millennium. One of the earliest and well documented tourist trips in Poland was that made by Beata Łaska with her servants to the Tatra Mountains in 1563. The first rafting on the Dunajec River was organized in 1839. The foundations for the Polish tourism were laid by many persons, representatives of different social groups, among them Stanisław Staszic, Mieczysław Karłowicz, Tytus Chałubiński, Wincenty Pol, Oskar Kolberg, Stefan Żeromski. Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie (The Tatra Society), established in 1873 ( 1872?) is considered the first Polish tourist and sight-seeing organization. In the following years many tourist organizations were founded in different regions of Poland, among them the Polskie Towarzystwo Krajoznawcze (The Polish Sight-Seeing Society), Akademicki Klub Turystyczny (Academic Tourist Club), Poznańskie Towarzystwo Turystyczne (Poznań Tourist Society), Liga Popierania Turystyki (Tourist Support League). The largest tourist organization in Poland is Polskie Towarzystwo Turystyczno-Krajoznawcze (The Polish Tourist and Sight-Seeing Society), which was reestablished in 1950. Its main mission is promotion of tourism and sight-seeing, expression of love for one's home country through trips and travels around it, protection of historical monuments and nature (Photo 1-3). There were many organizations and enterprises, which organized tourist, activities as part of their regular operations. Although they were not perfect, they laid solid foundations for the present-day tourism. ItemZastosowanie technik modelowania trójwymiarowego przy aktualizacji inwentarza jaskiń Sudetów na przykładzie Jaskini Błotnej(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Czernecki, Bartosz; Szukała, PiotrPrzedmiotem badań przeprowadzonych w Jaskini Błotnej w Górach Kaczawskich była aktualizacja Inwentarza Jaskiń Sudetów. Ostatnie wydanie z roku 1996 uległo w znacznej mierze dezaktualizacji wskutek dewastacji starych jaskiń i licznych odkryć nowych obiektów. Oprócz informacji zawartych we wcześ- niejszych wydaniach inwentarza zaproponowano dodanie kilku rozwiązań modelowych, które przeprowa- dzono na przykładzie Jaskini Błotnej w Górach Kaczawskich. Dotyczą one głównie nowych form prezentacji wyników kartowania uzyskanych za pomocą oprogramowania Therion, uwzględnienia trudności technicznych jaskini, panujących w niej lokalnych warunków i związanego z tym odpowiedniego przy- gotowania odwiedzających. Standardowy opis dojścia do jaskiń został wzbogacony o zdigitalizowaną ścieżkę dojścia do otworu. Rezultaty badań mają charakter wstępny i stanowią podstawę do dalszych prac badawczych realizowanych w ramach projektu aktualizacji Inwentarza Jaskiń Sudetów (PuLINA 1996) kierowanych przez Sekcję Speleologiczną SKNG UAM od 2006 r. ItemCharakterystyka topoklimatyczna fragmentu wybrzeża klifowego w rejonie Białej Góry (Woliński Park Narodowy)(Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2009) Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek; Szyga-Pluta, KatarzynaW opracowaniu wykorzystano pomiary: albedo, bilansu promieniowania, temperatury i wilgotnooeci wzglêdnej z siedmiu stanowisk obserwacyjnych rozlokowanych w profilu poprzecznym do brzegu morskiego od pla¿y do buczyny na wysoczyŸnie morenowej. Stwierdzono zró¿nicowany przebieg dobowy analizowanych elementów meteorologicznych, zale¿ny od konfiguracji i pokrycia terenu. Punkty pomiarowe zlokalizowane na obszarze ods³oniêtym charakteryzuj¹ siê wiêkszymi amplitudami temperatury i wilgotnooeci powietrza ni¿ usytuowane na terenie zalesionym czy na stokach klifu. Wystawienie na bezpooerednie promieniowanie s³oneczne powoduje znaczny wzrost temperatury przy pogodzie bezchmurnej. Ods³oniêcie terenu pozwala te¿ na wiêksze wypromieniowanie w zakresie d³ugofalowym w nocy, co obni¿a poranne minimum temperatury. Specyficzn¹ termik¹ charakteryzuje siê obszar pla¿y.Wyniki pomiarów potwierdzaj¹ oddzia³ywanie Ba³tyku, który znacz¹co zmniejsza dobow¹ amplitudê temperatury powietrza. Termika analizowanych stanowisk pomiarowych jest oecioele powi¹zana z wartooeci¹ bilansu radiacyjnego, która g³ównie zale¿y od natê¿enia bezpooeredniego promieniowania S³oñca docieraj¹cego do pod³o¿a, albedo oraz pojemnooeci cieplnej gruntu.