ItemHeinrich Manns historischer Roman Henri Quatre in der polnischen Rezeption 1936 – 1985(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Dziergwa, RomanThe problem of purposefulness of creating historical novels and problems connected with their artistic shape became the subject of critical-literary debate carried on in the 30's of this century in Poland. The people taking part in debates connected their own reflections and thoughts on this subject quite often with critical discussion of the selected historical novels of German emigration writers: Thomas Mann, Alfred Döblin, Alfred Neumann, Lion Feuchtwanger, Hermann Kesten and Henry Mann. The first critical opinions after “Henry IV” was published were typical of Polish literary criticism of those years - it was under great influence of French literature and culture. It is worth mentioning that the genre, i. e. historical novel was distinctly determined, in contradistinction to the then popular biographical novel, by the first reviewers (among others Karol Irzykowski). After the Second World War Henry Mann's novel was published several times. Its critical reviews, especially those written at the beginning of the 50's were, however, written from the point of view of doctrinally understood socrealism and contained numerous simplifications and shallowing of the complex problems of the novel. “Weltanschauung weaknesses” were reproached and the reviewers said how it might be better written. This attitude changed in principle in the second half of the 50's. Henry Mann's innovations were begun to be perceived in confrontation with the real invasion of fashionable biographical novels at this time in Europe. The authors of critical reviews thought that Mann opposed the temptation of making the past up to date, he also avoided excessive psychologism. In Polish German studies Henry Mann's novel was treated only marginally. ItemHistorisches Sujet und aktuelle Bezüge. Zu Bertolt Brechts Erzählung „Die Trophäen des Lukullus“ (1939)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Ignasiak, DetlefStories of Bertolt Brecht written at the end of the 30's deal with, among other things the problems of an intellectual who emigrated. It also concerns the story "Trophies of Lucculus" (1939). The Location of the meeting of Lucretius and Lucculus, after the former has already completed his conquests made it possible for the author to confront the character of wars of conquest with the vision-dream wish of peace, reconciliation of the fighting parties. The story contains also references to the contemporary (Munich 1938) situation just before the outbreak of the Second World War; the actual waiting of political parties in Rome (in connection with Lucculus's attitude after his return from a victorious expedition which was difficult to predict) brings associations with the attitude of governments of a number of European states towards the Third Reich. The story is based in fact, on the checked facts (sources: Roman historians Theodor Mommsen), however, Brecht introduces everywhere the "fabricated" historical facts where he thinks it is necessary for the problems of the dialectics of "history". "Fabricated" is also the very meeting of Lucretius and Lucculus; a number of verses of the recited poem “On the nature of things” is by Brecht himself. ItemDas historische Prosawerk von Bruno Frank(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Łukomska-Woroch, AleksandraIn many works by B. Frank, one of the most eminent German writers of the 20th century historical problems, critically treated, is dominant. He is often concerned directly with contemporary times. On the example of the main heroes of his historical works the writer conducts a real historical origin of ideas from the past, according to G. Lukács's typology. In his novel “Trenck” (1926) B. Frank shows on the example of the fate of the main hero the realistic picture of Prussia of Frederick William and of the Austrian court during the reign of Maria Theresa. In “Politische Novelle” (1928), devoted to the German statesman, F. Stresemann the writer accounts for the phenomenon of the growing Nazism in Germany. The short story “Der Magier” (1929), devoted to the director Max Reinhard is also a survey of various social and political conflicts of the interwar period. In the novel “Cervantes” (1934) which is a biography of the great Spanish poet and the history of Philip II's rule. Between the historical novel's problems and the problems of Nazi times during which the novel was written there are many analogies. In the novel “Der Reisepaß” (1937) the writer shows the fate of emigrant combined with political situation during the Third Reich. In a little known novel “Die Tochter” (1943) the author presents, against the background of development of the main hero, a critical picture of the reality in Poland, particularly in the Galicia between the two world wars. ItemZwischen fragwürdiger Historiosophie und utopischen Entwicklungsperspektiven: Das weltanschauliche Angebot der beiden ersten Romane von Johannes Mario Simmel(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Bialik, WłodzimierzIn the article the author writes about two novels „Mich wundert, daß ich so fröhlich bin“ (1948) and „Das geheime Brot“ (1950). The problematic historiosophic conceptions which were at the basis of the first of the two novels by Simmel, and which pointed one time to the unmasking of the (false) historical consciousness of German society by the author, and another time to the unmasking of his (the author's) own problematic historical consciousness. These conceptions were "replaced" in the second novel additionally by the “utopian naive” conceptions of the further historical development of Germany. Early novels of Simmel are an evidence of world-view convulsions of the German society in the first post-war years and of helplessness of the author himself as far as the world-view. ItemZur Bedeutung Eichendorffs in den Romanen von Horst Bienek(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Orłowski, HubertIn a cycle of novels of Horst Bienek (the so called Gliwice tetralogy: The first Polk Earth and fire, September light, Time without bells which cocreates the phenomenon of the new "Heimatliteratur" or the new "Grenzliteratur" (The literature of the border) we can find a distinct polemic with the understanding of the concept "Heimat" which (may be) was valid during Romanticism, when Eichendorff lived. Analysing four most important fragments of Gliwice tetralogy in which Horst Bienek - using varying narrations - gives subject and problems on the "presence" of von Eichendorff's works in the German community in Silesia of the 20's, 30's and 40's of our century; the author draws a conclusion that through the clash of experiences of the German Jew Montag with the evocated images of von Eichendorff of "Heimat", on the native land there occurs a kind of shattering of illusions of existence of the world - still possible during Eichendorff's times - based on "non-asymmetrical" categories (in Reinhard Kosellecks' understanding). ItemDeutsche Literatur nach dem Dritten Reich. Die fünfziger Jahre im „toten Winkel“ der Geschichte(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Karolak, CzesławThe article takes up some aspects of historiosophic attitudes of some West German writers in the 50's. The research material are mostly non-literary utterances of the authors - their opinions and so on. As a result of research work the author showed that the central phenomenon influencing historiosophic attitudes of writers of those times was the suggestion of transferring attitudes towards the society of the Third Reich to the post war years. The authors clearly referred to the principle of “double negation” shown in the rejection of Nazi ideology and in opposition attitudes and preferring as “the third road” an attempt to take “the middle position”. This attitude being a (belated) simulation of the picture of “Germany of moderation and humanism” had an important influence on the attitude of writers towards history: one can see a distinct attempt to “avoid all costs” of taking up and explaining historical phenomena. ItemDie Geschichtsauffassung von Alexander von Bronikowski. Zur Geschichte Polens und ihrer fiktionalen Komplementarität(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Kałążny, JerzyThe article is an attempt at presentation of Aleksander Bronikowski - author of many historical novels, popular in Poland and in Germany - as a historian who used results of his own research of sources in the creation of literary fiction. The fundamental element of his artistic programme, formulated in the preface to his first historical novel “Hipolit Boratyński” (1825) and realized consistently in subsequent novels devoted to the history of Poland was historical revisionism. In contradistinction to Walter Scott this novelist places in the central point of action not a fictional hero but historical events. "History of Poland", published in 1827, is an outline of the history of the Polish state divided in to five periods since the legendary beginnings until the third partition. To each of these periods may be ascribed the relevant novels on Polish subjects in which Bronikowski gave a novelized and expanded pictures of the presented epoch. Analysis of the list of sources and studies which he used makes it possible to say that he had an excellent knowledge of the achievements of German historiography of those times - Polish, German and French. Interpretation of the fall of Poland, according to the ideas of Enlightenment, as a result of unavoidable ageing of the nation and of structures which it created was criticized by J. Lelewel - the founder and leader of Polish historiography. It is surely for this reason that “The History of Poland” has not been translated into Polish. An open question remains what was the influence of this work and of historical novels, which were like as if a supplement and development, on Polish national awareness of Poles in the years immediately before the outbreak of the November Uprising. ItemKarl von Holteis Kościuszko-Verehrung(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) Połczyńska, EdytaThe article deals with the subject within studies on motives and problems of Poland in German literature. It describes the origin of the drama about Tadeusz Kościuszko “Der alte Feldherr” [The Old Leader] by the German playwright and novalist Karl von Holtei. At the same time it reflects repercussions which were caused by the staging of the "Old Leader" in 1825 in Königstädter Theater in Berlin. Karl von Holtei who was himself an actor, practised mostly a rare profession of a declaimer, played many times the role of Tadeusz Kościuszko, contributing for its popularity. In his autobiography “Vierzig Jahre” [Forty Years] Holtei says, when describing his life full of travels, that it was the spirit of Kościuszko which made him a constant wonderer. The article traces the truthfulness of his words.