ItemTransition toward democracy – Georgian problems(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Markozashvili, LashaThe process of democratisation in Georgia has its obstacles, mostly connected with cultural and socio-economic aspects. Political challenges are interlinked with societal attitudes and vice versa. The historical role of the Orthodox Church in preserving Georgian national identity throughout the centuries is over-compensated for, with frequent clerical involvements in public life. Non-democratic governments have made no effort to finalise the process of transition and for two decades the state has remained in the grey zone between consolidation and autocracy. 2012 was marked as a year for the new hopes of Georgian democracy, a new government was elected via free and fair elections, but democracy needs conditions to endure and this paper examines those conditions. ItemThe politics of language and education in Georgia (compared with the Baltic States and Ukraine)(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Dundua, SalomeIn the process of ensuring successful and full integration, one of the main obstacles is the lack of knowledge of the state language by ethnic minorities. Despite the fact that Georgia has achieved some success in building a democratic state, democratic institutions are still weak in the country. Having weak democratic institutions makes it very difficult to transform diverse religious and ethnic groups into one civil unit. A lack of trust towards political institutions on the one hand, and the weakness of these institutions on the other, leads to the mutual alienation and isolation of different segments of society. The Georgian government, unlike the Baltic States and Ukraine, by way of teaching Georgian to its minorities, set increasing their civic integration and activity in civic spaces as a goal. How successful the steps taken in this regard were is another question. ItemThe right to revolt: the European and Russian contexts(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Skiperskikh, AleksanderDoes a person have the right to revolt, or the right to public expression of disagreement? Such a right exists, and people use it periodically. In order to minimise the destructive effects of the implementation of this right, the ruling elite creates special institutions whose function could be to create a certain buffer between the individual and the government. The ruling elite is not interested in responding to the requests of the individual, as well as in private delegitimisation, because the individual’s satisfaction is associated with serious economic and reputational losses for the government. Historical experience shows that, regardless of the cultural tradition, a person can express their right to revolt, where concerned about the search for truth. From the author’s point of view, this ambitious quest for a particular individual, as well as the request on his part to official institutions, is, to some extent, associated with the cultural context. The author confirms this with examples, by drawing parallels between the European and Russian experiences. ItemThe role of the discourse of intellectuals in foreign opinion journalism in communicative evolution(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Nosova, BogdanaThe article is dedicated to interdisciplinary studies of journalistic creativity in the opinion- forming journalism of world intellectuals, forming the agenda of contemporary international journalism. The most important concepts are identified so as to complement and extend the existing theoretical works in international journalism. The academic interpretation of foreign journalistic discourse, i.e. essays, articles, interviews of journalists, diplomats, scientists, and political philosophers is conducted, opening a new perspective on the current development of journalism, and thereby contributing to solving the problems of upgrading and modernising academic courses in international journalism, which play a leading role in training experts in international journalism. The presence of how an opinion- forming journalistic component enhances new communication chains along the author–reader–protagonist line is investigated. ItemThe image of Europe in the modern media. The analysis of Ukrainian weekly Zerkalo nedeli(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Nechyporuk, AlisaDue to the fact that the European vector acts as a promising direction for the transformation of Ukrainian society, this study aims to clarify the nature and prospects for such changes. The media, in this case, are the most suitable object of study given their functional concept of integration and social interaction in the formation of a civil society. For the analysis 14 issues of the newspaper Zerkalo nedeli from 20 September to 20 December were selected, to explore the image of Europe in the current conditions of transition, as well as specific changes in the work and the views of the newspaper. The analysis is quantitative in nature. 38 publications devoted to European topics were identified and analysed. In order to form an objective sample, publications were selected according to the category specified in the Internet-version of the publication. ItemThe dilemmas of the Eastern Policy of the Republic of Poland. From dynamic equilibrium to imbalance(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Janowski, Karol B.In analysing the mode in which Poland settled its relations with Russia, the conclusion comes to mind that Poland remains under the spell of the syndromes which were either disposed of, or dealt with by other European nations. The challenge to solidify Poland’s position within the safety zone that is vouched by the West, while establishing pragmatic, rational and conflict free relationships with the East – Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic countries, and particularly Latvia, remains. Thus, the ability to comprehend Polish national interests, or raison d’état, is required, taking into account realistic and rational arguments and the limits of the existing geopolitical situation where competition plays a substantial part. Poland should also take a long-term view securing its competitive advantages, entering into alliances and making compromises. ItemThe specificity of the electoral system to the European Parliament in the Republic of Austria(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Bezubik, Kamila M.; Olechno, ArturOn 1 February, 1994 the Republic of Austria concluded the Accession Treaty and on 1 January, 1995 became a full member of the European Union. Membership obliged Austrians to ‘provide’ the Community with appropriate personnel to take up different posts in various EU authorities, as well as in the European Parliament. The most important issue was to alter particular statutory regulations and the Austrian Constitution to adjust to the new situation. The paper aims at presenting the Austrian solutions in this matter in the context of European Union law, with particular emphasis on regulations which are uncommon or specific to the Republic of Austria. The matter of interest is the constitutional practice of EU member states and the reader’s perspective is taken into account. The latter approach not only evaluates the Austrian solutions in the context of the electoral law to the European Parliament contained in the Election Code, but could also suggest some ideas in regard to prospective amendments. The authors would, in particular, like to pay attention to two issues: the lowering of the voting age, and the single constituency electoral system. The Austrian solutions might be valuable to refer to in the countries where a system of correspondence voting is just being introduced. These resolutions are particularly interesting taking into consideration prospective, possible amendments to the electoral laws of the EU member states. ItemEvolution of the constitutional position of selected German-speaking countries’ heads of state in the 20th/21st century(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Łukaszewski, MarcinThis paper is an attempt to show the evolution of the constitutional position of the head of state in the years 1920–2013 in Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland, with special reference to the specificity of these systems (Austrian federalism, Liechtenstein’s strong position of the monarch and collegial head of state in the Swiss case). It is based on a comparative analysis of the constitutional provisions of constitutional acts and their corresponding amendments. The timeframe of the paper is based on the period 1920–2013, due to the fact that at the very beginning of the 1920s two of the constitutional acts were created in the countries which are the subject of the paper: Austria (1920) and Liechtenstein (1921), which, despite many changes, exist today. The aim of the paper is to indicate differences in the position of the political head of state in 1920, and almost a century later. ItemFree movement of persons between Switzerland and the European Union and state security(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Kraśnicka, Izabela; Perkowska, Magdalena; Wrońska, IwonaThe paper presents the phases of introducing free movement of persons, common rules within civil aviation between the EU and Switzerland, and the Schengen Agreement. Analysing this based on the currently applicable Swiss and EU legislation, the authors present the regulations in this area. As those regulations influence migration, the paper also presents statistical data on the permanent and non-permanent foreign population in Switzerland and contains a thorough analysis of that data – as part of the paper’s empirical research. The further empirical part is an empirical analysis of data on the penalties for: 1) unlawful entry, exit, and period of stay and working without a permit, 2) encouraging unlawful entry, exit or an unlawful period of stay, 3) employment of foreign nationals without a permit, and 4) fraudulent conduct towards the authorities penalised under the Federal Act on Foreign Nationals. These crimes mostly concern illegal border crossing, encouraging and helping illegal border crossing and other illegal actions aimed at aiding the activities of illegal migrants. The crimes are strictly linked to the issue of the free movement of persons, the common rules of the EU and Switzerland within the field of civil aviation and the Schengen Agreement between Switzerland and the EU. For this reason, the paper presents statistical data on the criminality of foreigners, related to the problem of migration. ItemThe decision-making process in Swiss foreign policy at the beginning of the 21st century(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Tomczyk, MichałAvailable scientific studies on modern external relations of Switzerland provide us with extensive interesting information about their current condition and foundations. Most of them also contain in-depth analyses of the outcomes of Swiss foreign policy, but rarely address the specificity of the decision- making process. The latter is currently undergoing major changes due to the growing influence of Europeanisation and internationalisation. In recent years we can observe some shifts in the distribution of power and the rise of new actors, the modification of consultation procedures or a reduction in the level of conflict. This is especially evident in European policy, which still remains a special case. Based on the available scientific studies and analyses of different socio-economic statistics, a few interesting conclusions can be drawn about the conditions and determinants of the decision-making processes. A point of reference here is provided by the Schengen/Dublin agreement, which was negotiated and signed in 2004, as a part of the second package of bilateral agreements. Based on this interesting example, the issue of the modern shape of decision-making process in foreign policy and its development over the last few years can be addressed. ItemCitizens’ initiatives in Switzerland(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Rachwał, MarcinThe aim of this study is to determine the role of popular initiative in the political system of Switzerland. The term ‘popular’, or ‘citizens’ initiatives’ refers to the procedures that allow citizens to bring new issues to the political agenda through collective action, that is, through collecting a certain number of signatures in support of a policy proposal. Citizens’ initiative in Switzerland allows for any group outside parliament to put a proposal on the table. The proposal has to suggest a constitutional amendment. Changes to laws or any other government regulations cannot be the subject of a popular initiative at national level in Switzerland. Of the 174 initiatives that have made it to the polls, only 18 (10 per cent) had been approved prior to 2010, all the others were rejected. Initiatives are launched for numerous reasons. The agenda-setting effect is relevant for all initiatives. Parties and interest groups also launch initiatives for more strategic reasons. In Switzerland the institutions of direct democracy, including the popular initiative on constitutional amendments, play a most prominent role, both in terms of frequency and in terms of impact, in a political system shaped by consensus politics and a rather stable party system. ItemThe Swiss model of federalism. Some lessons for the European Union(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Nitszke, AgnieszkaThe federal principle in Switzerland has been developing for centuries. It was a process that has not always proceeded in a peaceful manner. The creation of Swiss statehood required reconciling different groups and interests. Today’s federal solutions in Switzerland allow for the peaceful co-existence of different language and religious groups. Another challenge is to reconcile the interests of wealthy and poor cantons. Understanding how this happened can provide guidance for further integration within the European Union, which in many aspects might be compared to Switzerland. ItemMulti-cultural Switzerland – multicultural public service media?(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2014) Ratajczak, MagdalenaIn this article a special attention is paid to the to the role of public service broadcaster in cultural diversity societies. The main aims of the author was answering the following questions: how cultural pluralism is implemented by the public service broadcaster in Switzerland? How the Swiss PSB implements the principle of cultural pluralism, particularly in the context of the access of national, language communities and the migrants minorities to the media? Are all groups recognized by the public broadcaster in the same way? The second goal of the author was delivering answer to a question about the manner of how public broadcaster has adopted to the new situation and how the new ethnic groups are recognized by SGR SSR. The considerations are related to a cultural pluralism, which assumes that the media provide a guarantee of cultural diversity in a society. This article is a case study of Swiss public service broadcaster – SGR SSR idee suisse. ItemThe protection of internal security and constitutional order as exemplified by the tasks and activity of the Internal Security Agency – a critical analysis of de lege lata and de lege ferenda regulations(WNPiD UAM, 2014) Rosicki, RemigiuszThe main objective of the paper is to present the issues of the protection of internal security and constitutional order in view of the tasks and activities of the Internal Security Agency in Poland. The author of the text seeks answers to the following questions. (1) To what extent does the lack of clear-cut frames for the ISA’s activity influence the instrumental use of this agency? (2) Do over-generalised legal regulations on the ISA’s activities lead to poorer efficiency of this agency’s operations? (3) Does faulty regulation related to the ISA’s range of activities result from inadequacies in Polish legislation, or maybe from the intention to endow the special services with greater freedom of action? In reference to the above questions, the author puts forward the following theses: (1) the selected and analysed legal instruments exert an infinitesimal influence on the scope of the application of “special measures”, such as the operational control or access to telecommunications data. Art. 3 of the Bill of 2014 contains too many vague terms or expressions whose legal definitions are missing from Polish legislation; (2) it seems reasonable that the range of the ISA’s activities has been restricted, e.g. as regards drug-related crime. However, other areas of the ISA’s interest have witnessed few changes, and its impromptu involvement with specific threats and offences is left to the ‘political decision’ of the Head of the ISA and the Minister of the Interior; (3) the impractical solutions are partly a result of an inadequate ‘legislative culture’, in this case, at the level of the Ministry of the Interior. This shortcoming might be the result of excessive haste during work on the Bill; nevertheless, such works always carry a political load, which means that the interests of the services themselves, as well as of the state, played an enormous role in this project.