ItemAdolf Januszkiewicz jako pośrednik oraz spoiwo łączące kulturę kazachską i europejską(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Kenżalin, ŻumabiekThe paper is devoted to the role played by Adolf Januszkiewicz, a poet and insurgent in the November uprising, in Polish-Kazakh relations. A graduate of Vilnius University, Januszkiewicz was among eminent Polish activists sent by the Tsar into exile in Siberia and Kazakhstan. Over twenty years spent in close contact with the inhabitants ofthe Great Steppe shaped Januszkiewicz’s peculiar attitude to the Kazakh nation. His journals and letters have been translated into several European languages. They still remain an interesting source of knowledge about the culture and customs of Kazakhs then. They are highly appreciated in Kazakhstan as an example of the thorough approach taken by an educated representative of a progressive European culture towards the life of a nomadic people. The positive image of Poles generated by the 19th century exiles has laid the foundations for the friendly attitude the Kazakh have had towards successive groups of Poles who found themselves in their country. At present, the sizeable Polish minority is well integrated with Kazakh society. The legacy of such activists as Adolf Januszkiewicz provides excellent foundations for the advancement of Polish-Kazakh relations. ItemSejmowe komisje Śledcze w systemie politycznym RP. Bilans dotychczasowych doświadczeń(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Secler, BartłomiejThe purpose of this paper is to reflect upon the experience related to the appointment and operations of parliamentary commissions of inquiry in Poland. The author ponders whether the commissions appointed so far have contributed to improving the quality of political life and provided reliable explanations of scandals in circles of power, or perhaps they have rather become an instrument of political struggle, allowing political rivals to be easily discredited. The analysis conducted indicates that, on account of the composition of commissions (including politicians), so far their main focus has been political rivalry, instead of the actual investigation of scandals. The author also has reservations about the ineffectiveness of commissions of inquiry, which stems from imperfect legal provisions. The considerations refer to the supervisory function of the Polish parliament. ItemRola służb specjalnych w demokratycznym państwie prawa(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Grochowski, RobertThe name of special services is applied to the civil and military services that orga-nize and conduct intelligence and counterintelligence activities. Their operations are an element generating social and political trust between the political authorities and citizens. Given the current conditions of international relations and the international situation, a state is required to have efficient special services at its disposal. A negative impact of globalization on state functioning, both in its external and in-ternal dimensions, forces Polish special services to strengthen their fundamental func-tion, that is providing information. The weakness of military intelligence and counterintelligence follows from the dissolution in 2000 of the Military Intelligence Services (WSI), and wasting their potential for political reasons. The role and task of special services in a democratic state should be to protect the liberty and democracy of the political system’s principles, as set out in the Constitution, instead of protecting particular interests. The nature of the transformations occurring in security circles in Poland and related globalization processes, as well as civilizational, cultural and tech-nological changes and the emergence of a civil society, demand a different attitude to the special services to be taken both by the public authorities and society, and make changes in their functioning necessary. This also calls for the need for a theoretical in-terpretation of the operations of modern Polish special services in a democratic state of law. ItemReferendum w opinii elit politycznych III RP(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Rachwał, MarcinThis draft was inspired by the intention to describe the attitude of the political elites of contemporary Poland to referendums at the national level. To this end, reference is made to the opinions voiced in the period 1989-2011. Consequently, the analysis spans the experience of twenty two years, which is a sufficient period to identify certain regularities. The surveys conducted indicate that Polish citizens have the right to participate in a referendum, but they do not have a right to referendum, that is to initiate a public vote. This shape of the legal foundations for national referendum is a consequence of the fact that political elites are inclined to apply this institution of direct democracy only provided that it is beneficial to them. Therefore, at the national level there is only a top-bottom referendum (supervised by the political elite). It appears that it contradicts the possibility of treating this institution of direct democracy as equal to representative forms of governance. ItemPubliczny a prywatny. Próby demonopolizacji płatnika trzeciej strony w Polsce (aspekt polityczny i ekonomiczny)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Bromber, PiotrThis paper is an attempt at an assessment of the discussion and steps taken in order to demonopolize a third party payer in Poland, in particular as regards a patient’s right to choose the payer. For the purpose of this analysis it is assumed that a patient should have the right to choose a third party payer. It is also assumed, however, that a patient’s attitude transforms from being demanding into the attitude of an active and aware patient caring for his own health. The author indicates that the manner of operation of a third party payer should be a result of the system of health protection, its scope and objectives. Finally, the concept of introducing competition is considered, but only in the case of voluntary health insurance policies and a single but decentralized payer in the public health insurance. ItemBanksy a sprawa palestyńska – przypadek jednego politycznego muralu w Betlejem(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Lorenc, MagdalenaThe aim of this paper is to analyze a mural, namely a large wall painting, depicting in this case a white dove with wings spread, carrying an olive branch in its beak and wearing a bulletproof vest, which is in the crosshairs of an unseen weapon. The mural was painted in Bethlehem, Palestine, in 2007 and is attributed to the best known British graffiti artist, who goes by the nickname of Banksy. This white dove mural exemplifies how art can be used for political purposes. This is a gesture of support for the Palestinian issue, namely the Palestinian right to land and, at the same time, it is an expression of criticism of the behavior of Israelis in the territories occupied as a result of the six-day war of 1967. The artist utilized the medium of an urban space painting, with symbols that are easy to understand and interpret in order to convey a political message, while obtaining the following results: the esthetic outcome of making an urban space more attractive; a mobilization effect, by showing methods other than combat for fighting for one’s rights; a promotional one, by making Bethlehem more popular; and commercial, by providing Palestinians with the ‘Banksy’ brand, which is recognized by tourists, to advertise their goods and services. ItemNarodowy Bank Polski wobec transformacji ustrojowej: pozycja prawna – organizacja – funkcje(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Myślak, EwaThe central bank of a country is closely related to its economy, in particular to one aspect, namely monetary policy. The political transformation that began in Poland in the 1980s brought about changes to the political, social and economic system. The reality of a free market economy challenged the National Bank of Poland (NBP), creating conditions different to those of a centrally planned economy. The status, tasks and internal organization of the NBP, the central bank of Poland since 1945, evolved along the same lines as other elements of the state system. Modern legal solutions are based on the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2,1997 and the Law on the National Bank of Poland of August 29, 1997. They give the central bank of Poland the status of one of the most independent central banks in the world. This is primarily illustrated by the constitutional ban on the bank’s direct financing of the budget deficit and ensuring the bank’s right to independently shaping and executing monetary policy. The ultimate result of the political transformation was the designation of the NBP’s functions in the Constitution of Poland: the exclusive right to issue money, formulate and implement monetary policy, and to bear responsibility for the value of the Polish currency. The Law on the National Bank of Poland from 1997 complemented the above provisions with an obligation to support the economic policy of the government, provided that this does not restrict the fundamental goals of the Bank. Given the current legal solutions, the NBP as the central bank performs three fundamental functions: that of an issuing bank, the bank of banks, and the central bank of the state. The internal structure of the Bank has also been altered: one-man management has been replaced with an actual tripartite division of power vested to three organs: the President, the Monetary Policy Council and the Board, which has resulted in a deconcentration of power. At present, the NBP enjoys a high position in the structure of the organs of the state. Including it in the Constitution has concluded the period of evolution, transformation and seeking the best place for the Polish central bank. ItemLiga Kobiet – organizacja „reprezentująca” interesy kobiet w Polsce Ludowej. Zarys działania(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Lubik-Reczek, Natasza; Reczek, RafałThe end of WWII did not bring the freedom Poles had desired so much. The activities of the Communist authorities right after the war resulted from their weakness. Their operations were initially possible thanks to the Red Army, and later on due to the extensive repression system of a Communist state. Under such political circumstances, only political parties and other entities that submitted to the Communist authorities and did not attempt to set new directions or political and social trends were allowed to operate. Operating in the reality of a Communist state, they complied with the vision propagated or recommended as appropriate by the Communist authorities. This was the case of the Women’s League. Established in August 1945, the League was among the first organizations formally registered after the war. It is difficult to evaluate the activities of the Women’s League in the period discussed. The organization operated under the peculiar conditions of a Communist state; what is more, its emergence was even initiated by the structures of this state, aimed at winning over women’s circles in order to legitimize the authorities on the one hand, and to eliminate other women's organizations, thus giving the League the exclusive right to represent women, as approved by the authorities and in line with their policy. Bearing in mind all the negative aspects of the activities of the Women’s League, which stemmed from the complex political situation in Poland, the organization made a considerable effort to improve the situation of women. ItemUkraiński ruch kobiecy – Femen(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Lesiewicz, ElżbietaThe subject of consideration in this paper is the feminist movement Femen, which emerged in Ukraine in the early 21st century. The movement came into being under post-Soviet conditions, where the protection of women’s rights was marginal in the activities of women’s organizations operating at the time. This common, spontaneous movement was mainly initiated by young women, who struggle against violence using their own bodies in happenings and performance events. Half-naked women resort to the tactics of sextremism, protesting against violence directed at women, sex tourism, male domination and objectification of women. Their naked bodies are frequently displayed during demonstrations, with the intention of addressing issues that are frequently ignored by the authorities when traditional forms of protest are used. There are few places in the world where such protests have not taken place so far. The activities have stirred considerable controversy and provoked a public debate on the discrimina-tion of women. Oppressed by the Ukrainian authorities, Femen activists moved to France in 2013. ItemRada Federalna i Prezydent Konfederacji Szwajcarskiej. Specyfika i ewolucja rozwiązań kreowania władzy wykonawczej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Musiał-Karg, Magdalena; Duda, KrzysztofSwitzerland is an example of a state that has adopted specific solutions as regards the election and execution of executive power, which has generated the common conviction that the Swiss Confederation is among the most solid democracies in the world. Recent years have shown, however, that political practice has brought about a significant evolution of Swiss solutions as the distribution of power in the parliament has resulted in the abolition of the ‘magical formula’ that guaranteed the great (and stable) government coalition, and the emergence of initiatives aiming at changing the principles along which executive power is elected in Switzerland. The purpose of considerations presented in this paper is to analyze the specific character of how the executive institutions function in the Swiss Confederation, answer the question of what directions the changes to the composition of the Federal Council are taking, as well as address the directions of evolutionary changes to the principles of electing the members of the Swiss government. ItemGospodarka to kobieta – kobiety w życiu gospodarczym Polski – rola, miejsce, wpływ(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Kacperska, MagdalenaThe situation of women in the labor market has long been the subject of numerous academic studies and discussions at various levels. This paper touches on the issue of the roles women play in the economy. These roles are related both to the unpaid housework performed by women at home and professional work at different levels (performed either as selfemployed workers or as employees in the labor market). The considerations presented in the paper unfortunately corroborate the common conviction that the situation of women in the labor market is worse than men’s. The first group under analysis are housewives, who are frequently unable to make a free decision about whether they should work or stay at home. The second group are profes¬sional women who find employment or are selfemployed. Women in the former group are frustrated by the fact that they do not generate any income in their household, although their work is in fact extremely valuable. The second group faces the ‘glass ceiling’ phenomenon, finds employment in the socalled pink collar sector, sees a prevalence of women working in the public sector, and faces problems with balancing work and family obligations. The paper also indicates the instruments that could improve the situation of women in economic life in Poland, primarily including flexible forms of employment, improved availability (in terms of price and amount) and quality of child care facilities (nurseries, kindergartens, and others), more extensive activities to promote the equality of the sexes (fighting stereotypes) and more opportunities to share childcare responsibilities (on top of extant legal solutions). It has also been observed that women themselves frequently adapt to fit the stereo-types, that they have lower expectations in terms of remuneration, do not allow themselves to be assertive and become overloaded with responsibilities, and they imprint the stereotypes of social and economic roles of men and women on their children. It is concluded that steps need to be taken to ensure greater appreciation of house-work, and to make becoming a housewife a conscious decision rather than a compulsion. As regards women who opt for employment or selfemployment, they need to be ensured appropriate remuneration that corresponds to their qualifications, experience and achievements, as well as professional advancement regardless of sex. ItemOchrona praw kobiet w systemie Rady Europy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Wojnowska-Radzińska, JuliaThe legal system of the Council of Europe is of crucial importance for the protection of women’s rights and preventing discrimination based on sex. The European Convention on Human Rights constitutes one of the most efficient tools for establishing standards for the protection of women’s rights. Despite the fact that the Convention does not include detailed provisions on protection of women’s rights, it has been adopted and implemented in the spirit of equal rights for men and women and the prohibition of discrimination. The potential power of the Council of Europe in the area of protecting women’s rights is also evidenced by the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, which supervises whether the provisions of European Convention on Human Rights are complied with or not. In case any state that is a party to the Convention breaches its provisions, women can lodge individual complaints with the Court, regardless of citizenship. ItemKobiety w polskiej administracji publicznej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Klejdysz, NataliaThe amendments made to the electoral law, and effective as of 2011, introduced a quota system but they did not solve the problem of women’s participation in public life. Each sex was guaranteed a minimum of 35% of seats on electoral lists, without the requirement of alternating the candidates of different sexes, allowing certain political parties to only appear to implement the legislation. Despite the legal regulation imposing a requirement to increase the number of female candidates on electoral lists, the number of women currently in parliament increased only marginally, which raises the question of the degree of women’s participation in those executive organs of the state which are not required to observe a quota. There is much to be desired as regards the participation of women in the organs of state administration at both central and local levels in Poland. Political posts are clearly dominated by men. As regards administrative positions, the proportion of women depends on the degree of power connected with them: the higher the level in the hierarchy, the fewer women there are. As concerns ‘executive’ posts, we can talk not only about a balance of sexes, but even about the prevalence of women, in some cases. Therefore, it is increasingly often postulated in public debate to introduce a quota system into the organs of state administration, the more so as some European countries have already applied similar solutions. ItemMechanizmy zwiększania partycypacji kobiet w wyborach(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Stelmach, AndrzejThe degree to which women are represented in the organs of national authorities stirs considerable emotions. Proposals for legal regulations providing guarantees for the adequate representation of women in parliament are presented more and more often. The paper analyzes the means and methods for increasing women’s participation in politics, with particular attention placed on how this is provided for in electoral law. The paper places particular attention on the situation in Poland.