ItemSprawozdanie z Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Naukowej „Muzea a rynek sztuki. Aspekty prawne”, Poznań, 9–10 kwietnia 2014 r.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kowalska-Benasiewicz, Ewelina ItemSprawozdanie z Ogólnopolskiej Konferencji Naukowej „Dekada zmian. Unia Europejska 2004–2014. Przeszłość. Teraźniejszość. Przyszłość integracji”, Poznań, 7 kwietnia 2014 r.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kruczek, Jakub ItemSprawozdanie z konferencji naukowej „Dyskrecjonalność w prawie administracyjnym”, Poznań, 2 kwietnia 2014 r.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Jakubowski, Aleksander ItemKarola Kiczka, Krajowy organ administracji publicznej w prawie unijnym, Seria Prawo Publiczne Porównawcze, Wydawnictwo Kolonia Limited, Wrocław 2013, ss. 465, ISBN 978-83-60631-56-0.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Kosiński, Eryk ItemAnja Seibert-Fohr, Die völkerrechtliche Verantwortung des Staats für das Handeln von Privaten: Bedarf nach Neuorientierung? (Prawnomiędzynarodowa odpowiedzialność państwa za działanie podmiotów prywatnoprawnych: potrzeba reorientacji?), „Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht” 2013, Bd. 73, H. 1, s. 37–60.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Wojtczak, Przemysław ItemPiet Hein van Kempen, Four Concepts of Security – A Human Rights Perspective (Cztery koncepcje bezpieczeństwa z perspektywy praw człowieka), „Human Rights Law Review” 2013, vol. 13, no. 1, s. 1–23.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Narożniak, Agnieszka ItemDominic McGoldrick, Developments in the Right to be Forgotten (Rozwój prawa do bycia zapomnianym), „Human Rights Law Review” 2013, vol. 13, no. 4, s. 761–776.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Narożniak, Agnieszka ItemMarkus Krajewski, Schadenersatz wegen Verletzungen des Gewaltverbots als ius post bellum am Beispiel der Eritrea-Ethiopia Claims Commission (Odszkodowanie za naruszenia zakazu użycia siły jako ius post bellum na przykładzie Erytrejsko-Etiopskiej Komisji ds. Roszczeń), „Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht” 2012, Bd. 72, H. 1, s. 147–176.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Wojtczak, Przemysław ItemScott Rempell, The Board of Immigration Appeals’ Standard of Review: An Argument for Regulatory Reform (Standardy rozpatrywania odwołań w sprawach imigracyjnych: argumenty na rzecz reform prawa imigracyjnego), „Administrative Law Review” 2011, vol. 63, no. 2, s. 283–323.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Staniszewska, Lucyna ItemGregory D. Jones, Electronic Rulemaking in the New Age of Openness: Proposing a Voluntary Two-Tier Registration System for Regulations.gov (Stanowienie prawa drogą elektroniczną w nowej erze otwartości: Propozycja dobrowolnego dwustopniowego systemu rejestracji Regulations.gov), „Administrative Law Review” 2010, vol. 62, no. 4, s. 1261–1282.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Staniszewska, Lucyna ItemHannah Tonkin, State Control over Private Military and Security Companies in Armed Confl ict (Kontrola państwa nad prywatnymi fi rmami wojskowymi i bezpieczeństwa w konfl ikcie zbrojnym), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2013, ss. 339, ISBN 978-1-107-61314-0.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Wojtczak, Przemysław ItemAnna Musiała, Porozumienie zbiorowe jako źródło prawa pracy, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2013, ss. 253, ISBN 978-83-232-2566-9.(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Trela, Anna ItemGlosa do Uchwały Naczelnego Sądu Administracyjnego z dnia 25 listopada 2013 r., sygn. I OPS 12/131(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Trela, Anna ItemKrąg stron postępowania w sprawie powołania notariusza i wyznaczenia siedziby jego kancelarii(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Gajewski, Sebastian ItemZobowiązanie cudzoziemca do powrotu – nowa jakość w polskim prawie o cudzoziemcach? Refleksje o wdrożeniu dyrektywy powrotowej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Narożniak, AgnieszkaThe subject of this article is the obligation to return as a new instrument in the Polish law on foreigners. This obligation to return has been in force since 1 May 2014 and replaces the previously functioning expulsion and the obligation to leave the territory of the Republic of Poland. New legal solutions result from the transposition of so called ‘Return Directive’, agreed in 2008 and the entry into force of the Foreigners Act of 12 December 2013. The question is whether these solutions constitute an absolute novelty or whether they are a stage in the evolution of the Polish law on foreigners. Is it merely a correction of the former standards or a totally new quality? The answer to these questions is crucial, as the regulations concerning the status of illegally staying foreigners are a measure show whether the balance between the protection of human rights and the protection of public interest in its numerous aspects is achieved. Seeking for the answer, the author fi rstly presents the provisions of the Return Directive and subsequently introduces the institution of the obligation to return against the background of the legal regulation of expulsion and obligation to leave the territory of the Republic of Poland. The analysis addresses types of administrative decisions in these matters, their premises, contents, legal consequences and execution as well as a tolerated stay permit and a permission to stay for humanitarian reasons. Competent authorities and different forms of aid and assistance offered to foreigners are also discussed. The deliberations end with a few refl ections. In the conclusion it is stated that the obligation to return is not, as such, revolutionary in the Polish law on foreigners. However, many of the new solutions constitute important developments, generally in favour of the above mentioned balance between the protection of human rights and public interest. Despite this principally positive evaluation, it is noteworthy that some of them may pose a certain risk. ItemSpojrzenie na zasadę określoności w kontekście jej źródeł(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Dziewulska-Gaj, IzabelaThe sources of the principle of certainty constitute the fi rst phase of the search for answers about the purpose, understanding and practical application of the principle. The basis for the considerations in the subject matter is primarily the Polish Constitution, the case law of the Constitutional Court and the much more modest achievements of the doctrine. Because the principle of certainty does not only bear its legal aspect but also the linguistic one, the literature within the scope of linguistics has been also taken into consideration. In its legal aspect, the principle encompasses its relation to the law in general and as well as its axiological and normative foundations. The principle of certainty is undoubtedly a legal issue. It arises from the very concept of law, as certainty is an inherent feature of the law, especially of positive law, and hence its linguistic aspect. The principle of certainty in the axiomatic foundations protects human dignity setting out the framework for the activities of the state in the sphere of the regulation of restrictions of rights and freedom, the protection of which is an integral element of the rule of law. It is the guarantor of the implementation of the idea of lex est rex, which is a determinant for a constitutional clause of the rule of law. To provide effective protection to the citizen against the omnipotence of the state, the principle had to obtain the rank of a constitutional one, while in order to pursue its practical objective, the rule of law must obtain a linguistic dimension. Thus, the principle of certainty being a legal category cannot exist outside the language realm. Defi ning is primarily a linguistic activity. The linguistic aspect of the principle of certainty allows to determine a clear boundary between what is and is not lawful, a boundary which forms the basis of the principle of ignorantia juris non excusat. The principle of certainty in its axiomatic foundations protects not only the dignity of a man, but also the balance in the functioning of the state. A failure to implement he rigour of the principle of certainty in the sphere of the regulation of restrictions of rights and freedom causes confusion and fear of an unidentifi ed threat. It suggests that the rights granted are only apparent. The principle of certainty as a value is therefore a guarantee of legal security and its implementation is an act of loyalty of the state authorities to the citizen. Conclusively, there arises an assumption that a lack of a regulation is always a conscious action of a rational legislator, therefore the silence of a legislator regarding rights restrictions means that such restrictions do not exist. ItemPrzesłanki udzielenia koncesji w ustawie Prawo energetyczne a koncepcja swobody prognozowania w procesie podejmowania decyzji koncesyjnej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Trela, AnnaIt is increasingly frequent nowadays that tasks undertaken by public administration in the economic sphere are not, or cannot be, precisely defi ned. It may also be noted that the regulations of the decision-making process contain specifi c legal solutions which impose on the administrative body a duty to establish and assess the actual state of affairs and to refer to the intended one. In German science of public law, such manner of setting standards or regulating tasks of public administration is termed ‘freedom to predict’. This subject is analysed in the practical as well as theoretical sphere. Thus, it was fi rst necessary to focus on the legal forms of the functioning of public administration, different ‘gaps’, or freedoms in deciding by administrative bodies, and the judicial (court) manner of their supervision. Provisions of the Energy law of 10 April 1997 are certainly a refl ection of the regulation of this ‘freedom to predict’. The authoress places this freedom within the framework of discretionary powers requiring an assessment of a situation in the context of the intended (future) condition. The following have been analysed: availability of fi nancial resources guaranteeing that the applicant will be capable of proper conduct of economic activity, and documenting the possibility of procuring the necessary funds, availability of technical resources ensuring proper execution of business, human resources and availability of appropriately qualifi ed personnel. Another premise is a warranty of performance of the activity under concession, including observance of energy safety and energy policy provisions. Finally, reader’s attention is drawn to the differences in judicial supervision of acts-at-law taken in the process of administrative approval and freedom to predict. ItemUtrzymanie dróg w okresie zimowym – problematyka prawna zakresu obowiązków i odpowiedzialności zarządcy drogi publicznej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Bujny, Jędrzej; Kudra, AnnaThis article is an attempt to reconstruct legal regulations, including the existing solutions in the doctrine and judicial decisions, regarding the scope of duties of public road managers when it comes to road maintenance in winter time and liability thereof. The relevant provisions regulating this matter are highly laconic and are practically reduced to a general indication that it is the public road manager’s duty to clear roads of snow and fi ght slippery winter surfaces. There is no mention though, of the degree to which these measures must be taken, or the legal instruments available for organising work on roads. Interpretation of the existing provisions suggests that maintenance of roads in winter is a very complex process and covers a number of activities undertaken to reduce traffi c disturbances. Public roads managers enjoy a certain freedom as regards organisation of the work and the type of work to be conducted on roads. This freedom manifests itself, among other things, by different standards adopted for winter road maintenance, depending on the road category and its importance in the overall road network. The analysis of the existing solutions and judgments allows to conclude that the liability of a public road manager for losses incurred by road users in winter time is not strict (absolute). Thus, in the assessment of a road manager work, a reference must be made to the principle of due care expected from a professional, having regard however, to the objective premises and circumstances. Public road managers’ liability is also correlated with the liability of road users for unsafe driving under increased caution conditions. In light of the conducted analysis it may be stated that ensuring full passability of roads in winter time is not an absolute duty of a public road manager. Public road managers are merely obliged to maintain a road in a condition guaranteeing safety in given weather conditions, having account to the fi nancial and human resources they have at their disposal. ItemŁad korporacyjny w gminach(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014) Szczepaniak, RafałIn this article, the author analyses the applicability of the concept ‘corporate governance’ in the context of units of local self-government, and in gminas in particular. ‘Corporate governance’ is a concept developed in the science of law which regulates the functioning of companies listed on a stock exchange. In that respect it has a defi ned meaning and is termed ‘soft law’ the regulations of which are complementary to the provisions of private law, or which amend or precise these provisions. Such role of principles constituting ‘corporate governance’ in private law is a natural consequence of the openness of the private law system. Although there is considerable similarity between the organisational structure of a gmina and the organisation of a large listed public limited company, both being entities of corporate character, the legal nature of the gmina regime regulations differs signifi cantly from the legal character of norms that regulate the organisational structure of stock exchange companies. The regime of a gmina as a subject of public law is regulated by provisions of administrative law and are part of the generally binding laws, while the regulations of corporate governance in public companies are largely provisions of so called corporate law and are quasi-legal instruments, hence their term ‘soft law’. It is concluded that the differences between the essence of private and public law leave no room for the principles of corporate governance as described above to be incorporated in a gmina regime. This, however, does not mean that its regulation is detached from axiology. On the contrary, there are many examples confi rming that axiology is present in abundance in the regulations of a gmina regime, but void of non-generally binding regulations such as good practice or corporate governance in the meaning as they function in public companies.