Badania Fizjograficzne, Seria A, Tom 58, 2007

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    Podatność wód podziemnych na zanieczyszczenie jako czynnik determinujący stopień ich zagrożenia - na przykładzie zlewni Mogilnicy
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Graf, Renata
    The dynamics and tendency of change in surface- and groundwater systems depend, among other things, on their susceptibility to various kinds of natural and man-made factors as well as the intensity and duration of their impact. The study presents stages in the assessment of the vulnerability of shallow groundwater to the migration of pollutants coming from the land surface. It was carried out for a typical agricultural catchment situated in the Wielkopolska Lowland (the Mogilnica catchment). Following the basic assumptions of the ranking methods of assessment of groundwater vulnerability (the GOD index), an analysis was made of a selected group of physical parameters of the catchment, including hydrogeological elements which determine the response and resistance of shallow aquifer systems to the impact of man-made factors. Empirical formulae (Bachmat and Collin’s) were employed to calculate the potential time taken by the pollutants to reach the water-bearing horizon, which provided a basis for a classification of the extent and degree of risk to groundwater. The areal distribution of the index of groundwater vulnerability to pollution was presented and analysed against information about the way of development and land-use pattern in the catchment. It was found that its groundwater displayed a low degree of vulnerability due to the fact that most of the catchment area is covered with till which screens the shallow groundwater from the inflow of pollution. An assessment of risk to groundwater resulting from the time of migration of water through the aeration zone showed that more than half of the study area (about 56%) was at medium risk and nearly 20% was at high risk. This means that the migration of potential pollutants can take from 5 to 25 years and from 2 to 5 years, respectively. Attention was also paid to the numerous links of shallow groundwater with surface waters and the deep groundwater system of the Wielkopolska Buried Valley, which is the principal operable aquifer in the study area. Taking into consideration the level of human impact in the catchment, areas least and most exposed to risk were identified; they should be considered especially carefully when planning new investment. The quantification of parameters of the individual catchment subsystems, including the shallow groundwater system, is a starting point for analyses of spatial variability of the parameters and for comparative studies of various units, e.g. catchments, groundwater bodies, or areas with similar land-use patterns. An assessment of the degree of vulnerability of groundwater to pollution can be a crucial element in the preparation of a strategy of sustainable management of water resources in the catchment.
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    Rola uwarunkowań przyrodniczych w rozwoju gospodarki ściekowej na przykładzie terenów wiejskich województwa wielkopolskiego
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Stępniewska, Małgorzata
    Planning and implementation of sewage management investments require the consideration of environmental aspects. This is because the structure of the environment is decisive for the ecological efficiency of technical solutions used in the sewage management. A detailed analysis of environmental factors should form the basis for the distribution of funds to communes. The objective of the research is to check a hypothesis about the relationship between condition of sewage management and natural environment susceptibility to the influence of sewage. The research concerned the rural areas of the voivodeship of Wielkopolska. Seven factors were selected for analysis. Two of them concern the condition of sewage management, three are linked with the natural conditions, and two characterize the economic situation. It has been shown that in practice natural conditions are not taken into account in improvement of the sewage management. Condition of sewage management is not determined by affluence of their residents, but through activity of local leaders in acquiring public funds.
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    Wpływ opadów atmosferycznych i temperatury powietrza na wahania stanów wód gruntowych w profilu Buk - Skórzewo - Poznań-Szczepankowo w latach 1961-1983
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Nowak, Anna
    This study depicts analysis results of influence of precipitation and air temperature on fluctuation of the level of the groundwater table in Buk – Skórzewo – Poznañ-Szczepankowo profile in years 1961–1983. It is assumed in this work, that the level first groundwater table primarily depends on meteorological conditions, however local conditions, as relief, geology, etc. have minor influence. Therefore chosen observation posts characterize comparable conditions of aquifer occurrence (similar geomorphology, petrology). In this study foregoing data were used: groundwater table, daily precipitation and average daily air temperature from the period 1961 to 1983. A groundwater table was measured in three stations: Buk (52°21’ N, 16°32’ E), Skórzewo (52°23’ N, 16°48’ E) and Poznañ-Szczepankowo (52°22’ N, 17°01’ E). However meteorological data originate from Poznañ-£awica (52°25’ N, 16°50’ E) station, which was chosen as a representative. On the basis analysis of variability of groundwater level and distribution of precipitation and air temperature in years 1961–1983, as well as correlation analysis, some mutualdependences between mentioned hydroclimatological elements can be affirmed. On the basis of variability of average annual level of the groundwater table (approximate to three analyzed posts) and annual precipitation, the relationship between both elements has been found out: along with increasing precipitation groundwater table rises up. However analysis of the correlation matrix can affirm, that precipitation in July and December have a largest impact on groundwater table. Moreover, usually the correlation coefficient takes a highest value for precipitation in relevant month and groundwater table in successive one, which could prove of one-month delaying factor during groundwater recharge or bailing. Despite confirmed relationship between meteorological conditions and fluctuations of groundwater level, there is still need of such studies. Kind and intensity of precipitation seems to be an important factor for groundwater recharge and renewal mechanisms. The above could help in creating mathematical models and prediction of quantity and quality of groundwater.
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    Zmiany powierzchni jezior na Pojezierzu Wielkopolsko-Kujawskim w XX w.
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Nowacka, Agnieszka; Ptak, Mariusz
    The study presents the changes of lake surfaces in Wielkopolsko-Kujawskie Lake District in the 20th century. The changes are the result of natural processes (the oscillations of climate, sedimentation) as well as artificial ones – caused by man (the barring of rivers, the drainage of the terrain etc.). The above mentioned area, as one of the most economically developed in the country, was quite early subjected to hydotechnical works. It is stated, based on the calculations, that in the discussed area there are 1212 lakes (of the surface bigger than 1 hectare) whose total surface is 40037,7 hectares and these are much smaller than the ones noted at the beginning of the 20 th century which were surface changes, this area was correlated with natural factors, such as for example the size of precipitation. This analysis, did not bring the clear answer to our question. To provide a detailed answer to this question, one has to carry out a multi-faceted analysis however, this exceeds the scope at the present study. Assuming that present disappearance, that is 19.2%, would remain constants for a hundred years (19.2%/100), we can state that the lakes of Wielkopolsko- Kujawskie Lake District will disappear in about 500 years.
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    Wpływ całkowitego zaćmienia Słońca na wartości wybranych elementów meteorologicznych w miejscowości Side w Turcji w dniu 29 marca 2006 r.
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Małecki, Jakub; Wojnicz, Barbara; Durkiewicz, Anna
    The eclipse of 29th March 2006 was the last total eclipse in two nearest decades which was easy to be observed by europeans. The path of totality crossed Turkey, where main meteorological elements were measured. Those were: air temperature at 150 cm, relative humidity at 150 cm and global solar radiation. Also observations of cloudiness and wind speed were made. The weather conditions during the eclipse were very good. The solar eclipse caused in the observing site (Side) a dramatic change in illumination and amount of reaching radiation. In period of 77 minutes global solar radiation dropped from nearly 1000 W/m2 to 0. As a result of it temperature drop was 4.3°C (Tmax1 = 22.1°C; Tmin = 17.8°C). After the maximum phase the temperature rised at 4.5°C (Tmax2 = 22.3°C). The minimum of air temperature occurred with a dozen minutes delay, a similar shift was observed on 3rd October 2005 during annular solar eclipse in Spain. A radiation drop also caused a change in relative humidity, which reached maximum (62.1%) when temperature touched the lowest measured value. Daily amplitude of relative humidity was 27.5%. Local variations of air pressure could be a cause of gradual rise of wind speed and also its drop during a total phase of eclipse. Change of wind direction may be explained by influence of Moon’s shadow but also as an effect of regular breeze circulation. Cloudiness begun to increase just after the beginning of the first partial phase and soon before the end of the second partial phase it became stable at level of 3/8. High level clouds dominated.
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    Zmiany natężenia transportu materiału zawieszonego w dolnym odcinku Obry
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Młynarczyk, Zygmunt; Słowik, Marcin
    Research concerning changes of intensity of suspended load transport was done in the lower course of the Obra river near Miêdzyrzecz (Western Poland). Hydrological measurements were realized within 1 km long and 70–150 m wide section of the Obra river valley, which is situated about 3 km north-west of Miêdzyrzecz. Detailed analysis of relation between suspended sediment concentration and discharge afforded possibility for preliminary determining the way of suspended sediment supply to the river bed during high water stages. It was supposed that exposures of glacial and fluvioglacial sediments in high concave banks could be an important factor influencing the amount of delivery of suspended material. On the other hand, normal hysteretic loops (oriented clockwise) were observed in cross-sections 4 and 5. That fact would suggest that transported material originates form the Obra river bed or its nearest neighborhood. Besides, the process of sediment accretion was observed on the fragment of drowned floodplain during high water stages. This investigation allowed to illustrate the mechanism of forming floodplain sediments both at present and in the past. The problem of changes of amount of suspended load in longer time periods also was discussed. On the basis of measurement data and hydrological data from Miêdzyrzecz water-gauge, annual amount of suspended load was calculated for years 1971–1991. The main factor, which influenced the amount of sediment transport, was frequency of high water stages and hydraulic conditions of flow in the river bed. Flood events also were very important because of increased possibilities of suspended sediment supply from floodplain and steep bank slopes.
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    Dynamika zmian powierzchni leśnych na terenie gminy Suchy Las w okresie 1940-2000
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Macias, Andrzej; Michalczyk, Aleksandra
    The article presents the results of a research on the dynamics of change in the woodland area of Suchy Las commune in the 1940–2000 period. The commune was chosen because of its interesting spatial division resulting from the existence of the Biedrusko military ground within its limits. A comparison was made of the level of afforestation of the commune as provided by its topographic maps from the years 1940, 1960, 1980, and 2000. An analysis was also made of the number of woodland complexes as well as the extent of deforestation and afforestation. Throughout the study period the commune was divided into two characteristic spatial units. The lasting separation of functions and totally different land-use patterns has made them develop radically dissimilar landscapes. Over the study period the commune’s total woodland area grew from 23.75 ha to 43.5 ha, but in the military ground it increased from 24.45 ha to 42.04 ha, while beyond it there was a decline from 2.3 ha to 1.46 ha. The military ground in Suchy Las commune greatly restricts the possible uses of land there and reduces the area of potential investment by more than a half, but on the other hand such an extensive green space (the woodiness index for this part of the commune equals 36.1%) is its great natural wealth, enhances its landscape attractiveness, and facilitates natural vegetation growth. By contrast, the area outside the military ground features very sparse woodland (the woodiness index for this part of the commune is a mere 1.2%), which is due to the necessary concentration of many functions in a small area. The economic development of the commune may lead to further loss of woodland in this part.
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    Wpływ cyrkulacji atmosferycznej na występowanie dni z burzą w Poznaniu w latach 1951-2000
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Kolendowicz, Leszek
    The study concerns research into the connection between atmospheric circulation over the area of Central and Eastern Europe, and the occurrence of days with thunderstorms in Poznañ (Poland). The analysis of lower synoptic maps for the researched period 1951–2000 made it possible to isolate seven types of synoptic situations characteristic of days with thunderstorms on the area of Poland. During research based on the use of logistic regression, a determination was made of the influence of various synoptic situation types on thunderstorm activity in one of the polish meteorological station – Poznañ. An indication was made of type 2 of synoptic situations that is particularly conducive to the appearance of days with thunderstorms. This type is also characterised by the highest probability of the occurrence of stormy days. It has to be pointed out that type 2 synoptic situation may be the cause of very violent storms not only in Poland, but also in Europe or the USA. This is reflected in the descriptions of individual cases of violent storms or their accompanying phenomena occurring over Europe (PIAGET 1976; COURVOISIER et al. 1979; KURZ 1985, 1986; KOLENDOWICZ 2003, 2005), and the results of the studies conducted by CHANGNON (1985, 2001), WALKNER (1992) and KOLENDOWICZ (1998) pertaining to the analysis of a greater number of violent storms.
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    Zróżnicowanie przestrzenne elementów meteorologicznych i ich wpływ na rozwój kasztanowca zwyczajnego (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) w warunkach miejskich Poznania
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Łukasiewicz, Szymon; Oleksyn, Jacek
    We explored differentiation of topoclimatic conditions in the center of Poznañ. Studies were conducted on 21 sites, between March 10 and December 12, 1999. On an hourly basis, four meteorological parameters were automatically measured using battery-operated HOBO data loggers: air temperature, dew point, absolute and relative air humidity. Based on these measurements, humidity deficit was calculated. We found significant differences in air temperature and humidity among studied sites. The main factors affecting observed meteorological differences were substrate parameters and the modifying effect of surface cover in an urban environment on variation in air humidity.
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    Stan i zagospodarowanie zieleni miejskiej w zachodnim klinie Poznania jako podstawa wytyczenia szlaku turystycznego
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Lorek, Dariusz
    The basic aim of the article is to analyse the state and level of development of green urban spaces in the western wedge of Poznañ in terms of their usefulness for a tourist trail. The research was carried out in several stages: a field (GPS) inventory of the trail, followed by a study of the quality and state of elements of its natural environment, with special attention paid to the human impact on the green spaces of this area. The field survey and an analysis of source materials showed the idea of a tourist trail in the area to be justified. The following facts were established: the trail is about 21 km long and while mainly for hikers, it can also be used for bicycle tourism; the trail connects interesting objects and forms of both natural and man-made character; the plant communities found in the western wedge of greenery are largely transformed ones with a predominance of pine stands of mixed age structure; the dominant habitat types are useful for tourism because of their great aesthetic and curative properties combined with a high resistance to recreational uses; the human impact is most readily visible in areas near the centre and bathing beaches; road and rail transport has a detrimental effect on the state of the natural environment of the area; there is a declining pressure on the aqueous environment, mainly due to a reduction in the amount of untreated waste discharged into the Bogdanka; the recreational infrastructure is generally good, but there is a shortage of information tables, rain shelters, and dustbins; and a problem is the poor state of repair of some roads resulting from the use of the area for horse riding.
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    Rozwój doliny dolnej Łupawy w późnym plejstocenie
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Czerniawska, Jolanta
    The lower £upawa valley is situated in the Gardno Phase marginal zone. The Gardno Phase represents a short ice readvance on the North Polish Plain. According to ROTNICKI (2001) Gardno Phase should be situated between 14 700 and 14 500 years B.P. The fossil ice-dammed lake has been discovered in the lower £upawa valley. Based on the analysis of the materials the extent of ice-dammed lake has been determined. Its dimensions are: width – 1,2 km, length – 5 km. During the first ice recession phase the ice-dammed lake disappeared. The first ice recession phase is situated between 14 300 and 14 000 years B.P. (ROTNICKI 2001). After that the aggradation of the alluvial fan of the £upawa began. Fossil channels of braided £upawa can be found in its top part. The oldest organogenic infillings of these channels started to accumulate 13 800± 270 years B.P. (ROTNICKI & BORÓWKA 1995). According to ROTNICKI & BORÓWKA (1995) one of the youngest organogenic infillings of these channels started to accumulate 6 700±70 years B.P.
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    Ewolucja hydrograficzna jezior Ptasi Raj i Karaś (Polska Północna)
    (Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk, 2007) Cieśliński, Roman; Raśkiewicz, Justyna
    Jeziora Ptasi Raj i Karaś stanowią przykład zbiorników, których geneza powstania związana jest w początkowym stadium z działalnością naturalną, a w następnym okresie z działalnością antropogeniczną. Obserwuje się tu charakterystyczne zjawiska występujące w typowych jeziorach przybrzeżnych. Ich wody wyróżniają się bardzo dużym zasoleniem, jednym z największych wśród jezior polskiej strefy brzegowej. Z kolei liczne procesy zlewniowe prowadzą do zmniejszenia powierzchni obu jezior. Pomimo bardzo interesujących warunków hydrologicznych panujących w zlewniach obu jezior nie obserwuje się większego zainteresowania nauki polskiej tymi obiektami. Dlatego też celem pracy jest przedstawienie warunków hydrologicznych panujących w zlewniach jezior Ptasi Raj i Karaś. Jednocześnie analizą objęto oddziaływanie wód Zatoki Gdańskiej i silnej antropopresji na oba zbiorniki. Równie ważne wydaje się opracowanie charakterystyki limnologicznej samych zbiorników włącznie z wykonaniem dla obu planów batymetrycznych i obliczeń morfometrii niecek.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego