Studia Germanica Posnaniensia, vol. 22 (1995)

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    Die DDR-Zensur und die Selbstzensur in den Augen der Autoren des ,Prenzlauer Berges'
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Bettin, Monika
    The artist scene at ,,Prenzlauer Berg“ in the Eastern part of Berlin was one of the few possibilities for artists in the GDR to escape the onmipresent pressure by the state. This article mainly shows the conception of the artist themselves. After some years of German unity it is evident that the scene has sunk into insignificance, in the first place this is probably because it is no longer needed as a means to grapple with the system.
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    Von Bulgakow bis Loest. ,Im Osten nichts Neues'
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Muylaert, Marc
    Although the work of Bulgakov and the one of Least are widely spaced time, they present a surprising parallel. The preocupation of the two of the authors is the connection of literature to the official authorities which limit the literary production and develop their novelistic fiction from a certain real and practical problem. German and Russian analyse the administrative system in wich the literary creation should be done. The similarity of the systems is perfect and the approach of the authors is identical. They don‘t fundamentally question (as prejudiciable to the idea of freedom) all the structures wich determine the material aspects of their production. Their irony is exerced against their colleagues, mediocre writters but go getters, who invested the system and perverted it in order to ensure the adventages. Bulgakov has superbly come to reject all connection with the system, the creation finally couldn't be possible only in the axetism. When all is scred and done, Loest is strongly apposed to some practises wich are only in favorer of mediocrity and by wich a censure can be express a sweet but effective censure. Perversion is total for hemi where a system, by dint of solicitude ends smolder. But the paradoxe is that the best work from these two authors is due to the confrontation to a system where they denounced the ciseless, indeed even noxiousness for all literary creation.
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    Zur Rezeption Wolf Biermanns in den beiden deutschen Staaten
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Król, Wojciech
    The author presents negative aspects of cultural politics in East and West Germany on the example of the biography and reception of the Wolf Biermann's works. The first two parts of the article include examples of several sophisticated methods which served as means of repression towards the writer in East Germany. Among other methods there were: prevention from being published and from giving live perfomances, suppression of travelling abroad, correspondence confiscation, vexation of his family and friends with interference in private and intimatest spheres of life, continuous eavesdropping and control, trials of intimidation and the expulsion from East Germany in 1976. The suppressions were continued „succesfully“ also after 1976, during his stay in the West. A part of those „operational activities“ against the poet and his work is documented in „Stasi“ archives, which were made accessible to him 1993 (the documentation about his person includes over 40 000 pages). The last part of the article describes the history of the poet's reception in West Germany either before his expulsion from East Germany or later. The mechanism of the censorship worked there quite differently but it is possible to proove on selected examples, that for instance big, recognized publishers were afraid to publish the damned and oppressed by the East German regime artists.
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    Der unbequeme Bündnispartner. Zur selektiven Rezeption von Peter Weiss in der DDR
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Rector, Martin
    The topic ofthis article is the reaction of official GDR cultural policy to P. Weiss's conversion to Marxism that Weiss underwent between writing ,,Marat/Sade“ and „Ermittlung“' in the course of the year 1965. Rector suggests, that the GDR never managed to cleary define their attitude towards Weiss, because they were unable to accept his distinction between socialism as an inevitable development in world history and ,,real socialism“, that excludes freedom of opinium, particulary in the field of arts.
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    Bernhard Bolzano und die Zensur
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Grzywacz, Małgorzata
    Austria between 1815-1848, i.e. before it became a great power, remained under the overwhelming influence of Chancellor K. Metternich and his policy towards various liberal and national movements. This was to be reflected in the so called Karlsbad Settlments of 1820 (Karlsbader Beschlüsse), the consequence of wich was the establishment of a police state and severe censorship that would resort even to the confiscation of manuscripts. Bernard Balzano's views concerning the state, the nation and religion challenged Metternich's regime. He was professor of philosophy an an academic priest in Prague and a civil servant at the same time. He popularized his liberal views in church. His sermons against totalitarianism demanded a constitution and equality of rights for different nations within the monarchy. Such views were rather inconvenient for the establishment since they might constitute a hotbed of rebellion. Therefore, in 1819 Bolzano was dismissed as a professor. Church community, who also found his opinions inconvenient, put him a his first serious trial, which however, was not able to make Bolzano recant his beliefs. From 1820 onwards Bolzano was subjekt to double censorship, namely censorship performed both by the state and the church. This censorship continued till the philosopher's death in 1848. All texts that Bolzano had published in the course of his life, came out in neighbouring Bavaria, governed in more liberal way. Being doomed by the double censorship to scholary non-existence, Balzano's ideals and views did not stand the chance to be easily reached by the posterity and this, in turn, impeded the reception of his thought, even in the German speaking countries.
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    Pressezensur in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts in Danzig
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Chojnacka, Małgorzata
    In Danzig the magazines had to fight hard to survive. The city was in a very bad economic condition in that period, and there was also a strong stagnation in the culture. According to them, the interests with the newspapers and magazines was very small at the beginning, the periodicals which were coming into being, were being closed very soon, the censors didn't have much work to do, so that they even didn't need special instructions at all. Just in the 20ties and 30ties there are more new magazines turning up and according to them troubles and conflicts with the censorship. The Danzig editors fighted for imprimatur, tried to smuggle into their magazines political opinions, critical comments, uncommon articles; the first discussions in the press turned up. As an answer to this the Danzig magazines and their editors learnt by experience every restriction of the Prussian censor: intervenses in the contents, confiscations, prohibitions, penalties, fines and imprisonment. Never the less they became during this process of the fightening against the censorship more mature in political meaning as well as in journalistic sense.
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    Karikatur und Zensur im preußischen Vormärz
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Fischer, Hubertus
    The author shows the interdependence in the development of caricature and cencorship in Prussia from the Congress of Vienna on to the Revolution of 1848. Within this framework he gives special notice to the short period of the so-called „freedom of picture“ 1842 to 43 and ist consequence for producing caricatures. The author's analysis of several caricatures points out general tendencies, and emphasizes the close interrelationship between caricature and literature. A summary with the main results and general statements on this subject concludes this essay.
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    Das deutsche bürgerliche Drama auf der polnischen Bühne um die Jahrhundertwende (18. /19. Jh.) und die Zensur
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Jurczyk, Ewa
    This article deals with two main problems: the struggle of the Polish theatre-directors against the respective occupational powers and the work of foreign censorship in Poland. The respective (individual) heads of the Polish theatres tried to avoid being censored by mainly playing dramas for pure entertaiment. The censores were lulled into a true sense of security thus enabling the directors to stage more patriotic plays. The work of the censors will be shown with specific exemples from the German popular drama (e.g. Kotzebue, Iffland, Ziegler, Soden, Babo). The arts of censoring focussed mainly on certain characters, such as the father, the mother, the ruler and on respective instances of criticism directed against nobility and the government.
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    Verlagsgutachten und Nachworte. Zur Förderung und Zensierung deutscher Literatur in Polen nach 1945
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Orłowski, Hubert
    The system of control and disciplining of Literature in the Polish People Republic distinguished in principal way from the system in German Democratic Republic. On the ground of the documents from the former Main Office for Press, Publications and Show-Control and from the authors private collection the mechanism of functioning of censorship and the trial to lead the readers interest were reconstructed. So called intern publishing opinions and afterwords create main field of authors interest. To demonstrate the mechanism of censorship and controll in a meaningfull way the mode for treating translations of prose written by Martin Walser and Christa Wolf was distinguished.
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    Polens zentrale Zensurbehörde und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1956
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Brzezińska, Bogna
    GUKPPiW (Chief Control Office of Press, Publications and Shows) was established in 1946. Since that time a regular control of the German language publications took place. Therefore until 1953 the pieces wich were published in Poland included almost exclusively works of authors from the territory of the German Democratic Republic. For each edition of works for publication so called ,,reviews“ were prepared wich pinpointed any possible ideological imperfections. Finally they might approve a piece of literature, stop its publications or demand to remove certain sections. The most im important criterion used by the Office was the authors attitude towards the regime, ideological-political value of the pieces an its educational and didactical usefulness.
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    Thematisierte Selbstzensur deutscher Autoren vor und nach 1945
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Michalak-Etzold, Magdalena
    The increasing institutional censorship in National-Socialist Germany forced authors to control carefully those thoughts wich were to be published. This process of self-censorship is analyzed in the following, focusing on the reflections of these authors concerned. Referring to the posthumous works of Werner Bergengruen, Elisabeth Langgässer, Oskar Loerke, Ina Seidel und Willy Vesper the essay is representing the view that the authors generally could not evade internal censorship and could hardly free themselves of it, even after the institutional censorship system had collapsed. The following essay is based on research conducted at the ,,Deutsches Literaturarchiv" in Marbach (Germany).
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    Literatur-Zensur- und Gegenstrategien. Die Fälle Johannes R. Becher und Heinrich Mann in der Weimarer Republik
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Haupt, Jürgen
    Starting out from H. Mann's public statements about the trials against J.R. Becher's ,,Levisite“ and Arthur Schnitzler's ,,Reigen“ Haupt interprets H. Mann's journalistic campaign against literary censorship in the Weimar Republic as well es his role in the section ,,Literary Art“ of the Prussian Academy of Arts as being the heroic illusion of a courageous man striving to enlighten the public in the face of the emergence of fascism.
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    Hinter den Kulissen des Ostmarken Vereins. Zur Entstehung der ,Ostmarkenromane'
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1995) Wojtczak, Maria
    The cultural life of Gennans living in the Grand Duchy of Poznan established in 1815 was animated by two important institutions: the Imperial Library (Kaiser Wilhelm Bibliothek), founded in 1902, and the German Union of the Eastern Borderland (Ostmarkenverein), established in 1894. On the initiative of these two institutions a list of ,,recommended Poznan literature“ was compiled. The list included over forty novels, stories and plays by German writers, all conforming to the idea of the so-called „German mission in the East“. Similar lists that fallowed were seemingly a result of the 1913 literary contest for the best novel about the Province of Poznan. The Ostmarkenliteratur writers are unknown, difficult to identify. They were propably commissioned by Ostmarkenverein to write their novels an aim to support the contemporary Prussian policy towards Poland.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego