ItemA spatial and temporal analysis of land use changes in two mountain valleys: with and without dam reservoir (Polish Carpathians)(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Wiejaczka, Łukasz; Olędzki, Jan Romuald; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna; Kijowska-Strugała, MałgorzataThis study analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in land use taking place in two adjacent river valleys, located within the Polish Carpathians. The land use in 1977 and 2009 was presented for selected areas. In one of the valleys, a dam has been operating since 1994 along with a retention reservoir, which is an additional factor influencing the direction and scale of the land use changes. An analysis using GIS techniques showed that the general directions of transformation in both valleys in the land use structure are similar but with different intensity. In studied valleys a decrease of area with agricultural land and gradual increase in the forested area have been observed. In the valley with the reservoir few more changes were noticed. The decrease of the forested area by 5.5% and farmland by 8.2% on the areas submerged by reservoir was observed. The strip fields pattern has been changed into more dispersed. The road network development was also observed, as well as the change of nature of residential/agricultural buildings into residential/recreational. ItemFuture of allotment gardens in the context of city spatial policy – A Case Study of Poznań(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Poniży, Lidia; Stachura, KamilaMultifunctional allotment gardens are an important part of the green infrastructure of cities. In spite of this, they are given little attention in the plans and policies of cities. One of the major threats to the existence of allotment gardens within the spatial structure of cities is the pressure of investment, which results from an underestimation of the role of gardens. The task of preserving allotment gardens in the ecosystems of cities rests with the local spatial planning. Urban spatial policy towards allotment gardening is exemplified by the case study of Poznan. The bases for the analysis include the study of the conditions and directions of spatial planning, as the spatial policy document that sets forth the city and local spatial development plans, which are Acts of local laws. ItemMapping spatio-temporal changes in climatic suitability of corn in the Philippines under future climate condition(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Salvacion, Arnold R.This study assessed the spatio-temporal changes in corn climatic suitability in the Philippines under future climate condition. Using extracted climatic data from WorldClim database for the country under baseline and future climate condition, changes in corn suitability was assessed using fuzzy logic approach and published rainfall and temperature requirement of the crop. Based on the data, the large portion of the country will experience increase in monthly total rainfall (88%) while increase in monthly mean and minimum temperature under future climate condition is projected for the entire country. These increases in rainfall and temperature resulted in changes of corn climatic suitability in the country depending on the month and location. On the average, changes in rainfall resulted in reduction (8%) and improvement (6%) in corn suitability while increase in temperature resulted in 5% and 0.4% reduction and improvement, respectively. ItemSemi-automated classification of landform elements in Armenia based on SRTM DEM using k-means unsupervised classification(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Piloyan, Artak; Konečný, MilanLand elements have been used as basic landform descriptors in many science disciplines, including soil mapping, vegetation mapping, and landscape ecology. This paper presents a semi-automatic method based on k-means unsupervised classification to analyze geomorphometric features as landform elements in Armenia. First, several data layers were derived from DEM: elevation, slope, profile curvature, plan curvature and flow path length. Then, k-means algorithm has been used for classifying landform elements based on these morphomertic parameters. The classification has seven landform classes. Overall, landform classification is performed in the form of a three-level hierarchical scheme. The resulting map reflects the general topography and landform character of Armenia. ItemDiscussion of the “hottest year on record” in Australia(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Parker, Albert; Ollier, Clifford D.The global temperature trends provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are artificially exaggerated due to subjective and unidirectional adjustments of recorded values. The present paper aims to promote the use of the raw stations’ data corrected only for urban heat island formation. The longer temperature records of Australia exhibit significant oscillations with a strong quasi-60 years’ signature of downward phases 1880 to 1910, 1940 to 1970 and 2000 to present, and upwards phases 1910 to 1940 and 1970 to 2000. A longer oscillation with downward phase until 1910 and an upwards phase afterwards is also detected. The warming since 1910 occurred at a nearly constant rate. Over the full length of the long Australian records since the end of the 1800s, there is no sign of warming or increased occurrence of extreme events. The monthly highest and mean maximum temperatures do not exhibit any positive trend. The differences between monthly highest and lowest, or monthly mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures, are all reducing because of urban heat island formation. ItemMapping spatial and temporal changes of global corporate research and development activities by conducting a bibliometric analysis(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Csomós, GyörgyCorporate research and development (R&D) activities have long been highly concentrated in a handful of world cities. This is due to the fact that these cities (e.g., Tokyo, New York, London, and Paris) are home to the largest and most powerful transnational corporations and are globally important sites for innovative start-up firms that operate in the fastest growing industries. However, in tandem with the rapid technological changes of our age, corporate R&D activities have shifted towards newly emerging and now globally significant R&D centres, like San Jose, San Francisco, and Boston in the United States, and Beijing, Seoul, and Shenzhen in East Asia. In this paper, I will conduct a bibliometric analysis to define which cities are centres of corporate R&D activities, how different industries influence their performance, and what spatial tendencies characterise the period from 1980 to 2014. The bibliometric analysis is based upon an assumption that implies there is a close connection between the number of scientific articles published by a given firm and the volume of its R&D activity. Results show that firms headquartered in Tokyo, New York, London, and Paris published the largest combined number of scientific articles in the period from 1980 to 2014, but that the growth rate of the annual output of scientific articles was much greater in Boston, San Jose, Beijing, and Seoul, as well as some Taiwanese cities. Furthermore, it can also be seen that those cities that have the largest number of articles; i.e., that can be considered as the most significant sites of corporate R&D in which firms operate in fast-growing industries, are primarily in the pharmaceutical and information technology industries. For these reasons, some mid-sized cities that are home to globally significant pharmaceutical or information technology firms are also top corporate R&D hubs. ItemImpacts of geomorphic disturbances on plant colonization in Ebba Valley, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Stawska, MonikaGlobal warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E) in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard), where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes. ItemPhysical and chemical properties of surface waters in the Różany Strumień catchment in the years 1988–2012(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Okońska, Monika; Pietrewicz, KatarzynaThe Różany Strumień catchment located in the north of Poznań is an example of a small anthropogenically-induced catchment. The main aim of this study is to analyse the variability of selected physical and chemical properties of surface waters in the catchment area in the years 1988–2012. It was found that surface waters in the catchment can be classified as hard and very hard, with slightly basic pH. The deterioration of Różany Strumień water quality concerns chemical oxygen demand, conductivity, chlorides, sodium, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen concentrations. The authors of the study have noticed a decrease in the amount of phosphates and sulphates in the water. As observed, the hydrogeochemical type of water changed from calcium-hydrogen carbonate-sulphate into calcium-sodium-hydrogen carbonate-sulphate-chloride. Changes in water chemistry are probably a result of anthropogenic impacts, and they can be associated with the transformation of land use in the catchment area, i.e. the ongoing urbanization of the area. ItemGeotourism potential of the Drawskie Lake District area as a support for the planned geopark named Postglacial land of the Drawa and Dębnica rivers(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Górska-Zabielska, Maria; Kamieńska, KatarzynaThe geotourism potential of ten geosites, occurring within the Drawskie Lake District, north-western Poland, was evaluated to demonstrate the need for the establishment of a geopark named “Postglacial land of the Drawa and Dębnica rivers”. Each site was investigated in respect of its scientific (geological and geomorphological), educational, economic, conservation, and added values. It has been found that two geosites, being also cultural heritage sites (Drahim Castle and Pottery Settlement in Sikory), have the greatest geotourism potential. Different aspects of inanimate nature are promoted in both geosites. Thanks to the existence of such objects there is a good chance for the successful development of geotourism, which is a tool for the sustainable socio-economic development of the region. ItemCrowdsourcing-based geoinformation, disadvantaged urbanisation challenges, sub-Saharan Africa: Theoretical perspectives and notes(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2017) Ingwe, RichardScholars and practitioners concerned with geoinformation, cyber-cartography, development studies, and other subjects increasingly explore crowdsourcing and its huge advantages for development. Some have advocated it for adoption/promotion by government as a means of citizen engagement. The objective of this article is to increase the appreciation of the contribution that crowdsourcing can make towards resolving challenges associated with disadvantaged urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We review urban challenges of SSA and three practices of crowdsourcing: volunteered geographic information (VGI), Citizen Science (CS), and Participatory Mapping (PM). Then we examine problems associated with the advocacy for government adoption of those practices in SSA. We argue that civil society collaboration with an international governmental organisation (IGO) instead of government promises a better way of adopting and promoting them. This suggestion is based on the fact that work related to this strategy is carried out by a global coalition of civil society, the UN-NGLS. This strategy promises a more rapid way of taking advantage of fast-tracking public engagement in the economic region, SSA.