ItemBetween Knowledge and Grotesque: how Wojciech Sady Understands the History of Religion, Philosophy, and Science, review of: Wojciech Sady, Dzieje religii...(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Spychała, Dariusz ItemHistory of the Unique Individual in a Turbulent Times, review of: Andrzej Friszke, Czas KOR-u. Jacek Kuroń a geneza “Solidarności”(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Kapica, Bartłomiej ItemFlavian Urbanisation of Africa(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Mrozewicz, LeszekThe article is concerned with urbanisation processes in Roman Africa, initiated by the Flavian dynasty (69–96). Emperor Vespasian and his successors focused their attention primarily on Africa Proconsularis. The new cities they created — colonies and municipia — were to perform an important strategic role, i.e. protect the territories of Africa Proconsularis against the southern tribes. With the great private latifundia and imperial domains, the province played a significant role in supplying the city of Rome with grain. Also, from the point of view of the state, the undertakings meant internal consolidation of the province. ItemThe Roman Conquest of Illyricum (Dalmatia and Pannonia) and the Problem of the Northeastern Border of Italy(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Šašel Kos, MarjetaThe article is a summarized overview of the Roman conquest of Illyria, later known as the Roman province of Illyricum, the predecessor of Dalmatia and Pannonia. ¬Three Illyrian wars and the defeat of the two Illyrian kingdoms (Agron and Teuta, Demetrius of Pharos, and Genthius) led to the establishment of Roman Illyria, which increased with further Roman conquests. After the foundation of Aquileia in 181 BC, the Romans began to penetrate the northern Adriatic and southeastern Alpine area, gradually extending their sway in the direction of Pannonia; an important milestone in the history of Illyricum was Octavian’s Illyrian war. Particular attention is paid to the northeastern boundary of Italy (formerly Cisalpine Gaul), which bordered on Illyricum to the east of Emona. ItemThe Cityscape: from Garden City to Park City(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Frydryczak, BeataThe main subject of the article is analysis of the relationship between urban space and nature understood as natural environment which has become acclimatised in the city. Here, three types of relation may be distinguished, where nature is “decorative”, “socialised” and “privatised”. The deliberations are accompanied by a question about the possibility of harmonious coexistence of city and nature, and about the accomplish- ment of Gernot Böhme’s utopian project of the “park city”. ItemIntimacy and Modernity. Modernization of Love in the Western Culture(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Musiał, MaciejThe aim of this paper is to confront two different accounts of contemporary trans formations of intimacy. The first account, represented mainly by Anthony Giddens and Brian McNair, concentrates on processes of democratization and emancipation; simply speaking, this approach suggests that modern intimacy contains higher amount of freedom than the pre-modern one. The second account emphasizes significance of processes of commercialization and rationalization of intimacy; according to this approach intimacy becomes more and more dependent to the capitalistic market. This point of view is represented by social scientists like Ulrich Beck, Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim, Eva Illouz and Arlie Russell Hochschild. The aim of the article is to analyze abovementioned accounts not as opposite, but as complementary perspectives, which enables to notice highly ambivalent character of modernization of intimacy and modernization in general. ItemYizkor, the Jewish Way of Memory. The Case of Christian Boltanski’s Art(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Kamczycki, ArturChristian Boltanski’s works, especially the photographic medium that he uses most oft¬en, refer to the old formulas of memory and commemoration used by Jews called Yizkor, which literally means, remember, recollect. Boltanski, by formalizing or even celebrating the impermanence and changeability of this medium, opposes the belief in permanence of a material object, which paradoxically contributes to the death of its implied idea, that is, memory. However, by negating the form, he does not negate memory but the false traditional belief in its stability and permanence. ItemTradition — How to Talk about It, How to Pass It on?(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Ziółkowska-Kuflińska, MagdalenaThe article discusses the significance and function of language in the process of socialization/enculturation. The transmission of community specific cultural contents is possible both by traditional means as well as using new solutions. The article presents numerous examples of conveying local and national traditions. ItemJerusalem — “The Heavens Tell” David Rakia — Paintings(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Ruth, DorotThe purpose of the article is to present the unique way in which David Rakia portrays both the earthly and spiritual aspects of Jerusalem. The issue is the variety of unique angles and techniques David Rakia uses to achieve his multi-faceted portrayal of the city. This is done by detailed analysis of paintings from different periods of his work showing the ever-greater depth of his skill. ItemRainer Maria Rilke and His Mystical Russia. A Portrait of the Sense of Home of an Eternal Pilgrim(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Wawrzynek, KarinThis article concerns the problem of searching for the true home(land) by one of the greatest poets and writers of the German Modernism, Rainer Maria Rilke and its reflection in his earliest and most famous works: “The Sacrifice of the Lares” (1895), “The Book of Hours” (1899) and “The stories of God” (1900). It shows the long way of an eternal pilgrim, who tries to find his true home. After leaving Prague, together with his great love Lou-Andreas Salomé he undertakes two extensive trips to Russia in 1899 and 1900, impressed by the deep and mystical relationship between the ordinary people and their land as well as God. He is convinced that he has finally found his true home in the untouched nature of Russia. ItemIntercultural Communications. Roma-Polish Relationships in School Environment — Early Education Stage(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Grzelak, Eliza; Grzelak-Piaskowska, JoannaThe authors of the article were concerned with the intercultural communal communication in a school environment. The aim of the research was to determine the barriers which impede achieving a communal goal — the increase of educational competence among Roma pupils, as well as demonstrating how the communal goals may be attained in within the boundaries of community delimited by the convention and curriculum. Finally, the authors presented the techniques of building favourable relationships at the juncture of cultures, while relying on the norms and communication strategies developed by a given community. ItemClaustra Alpium Iuliarum — Protecting Late Roman Italy(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Kos, PeterClaustra Alpium Iuliarum is a late Roman linear defence system that consisted of walls, towers, and fortresses, and was intended to defend against incursions into Italy from the eastern and northeastern parts of the Empire. In contrast to the outer borders of the Roman Empire, it was constructed in the late third/early fourth centuries inside the borders of the Roman state, along the geographical line dividing northeastern Italy from Illyricum. It lies in the mountainous area of the Julian Alps (uninhabited even in modern times), extending from the northern Adriatic (Rijeka in Croatia) to the Soča valley in Slovenia. The most important via publica between Aquileia and Emona was defended by three linear defence lines. The author presents literary sources and numismatic evidence, as well as the results of archaeological excavations, and points out the chronological problems connected with the construction of this late Roman defence structure. ItemLeszek Nowak’s Non-Christian Model of Man and the Interdisciplinarity of the Humanities(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Ciesielski, MieszkoIn the article, the author outlines the theory of action by Polish philosopher Leszek Nowak, the so-called non-Christian model of man, which may provide basis for the theoretical integration of various disciplines within humanities. The models overcomes the limitations of the concepts of rationality of action, originating from the assumption that the acting subject always maximizes their own preferences. Meanwhile, the discussed theory states that apart from the principle of rationality the principles in force in human life include the principle of counter rationality and irrationality, which consist in maximisation of someone else’s, not one’s own, preferences and counter-preferences, respectively. The previous applications and expansions of the non-Christian model described in the article demonstrate that the model has been used in the analysis of political, economic and cultural phenomena. Hence, the model may be a cognitively useful foundation for conducting interdisciplinary research. ItemPostmemory in Popular Culture Based on Krzysztof Gawronkiewicz and Krystian Rosenberg’s Graphic Novel “Achtung Zelig! Druga wojna”(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Gajewska, GrażynaThe article addresses the issue of diverse contemporary manifestations of postmemory. Although works of literature, graphic arts, architecture and sculpture, belonging to the so-called high art culture, have already been analysed with respect to post memory and post-traumatic culture, the domain of popular culture remains practically excluded from such analyses. Meanwhile, it is precisely popular culture that has a considerable impact on the attitudes and views of the people living today. The omnipresence of pop-culture, the pressure it exerts prompts re-evaluation of entire culture, not only its entertainment-related domains. Post-traumatic culture is largely shaped within and through popular culture, which is evinced in the popularity of the graphic story entitled “Achtung Zelig! Druga wojna” by Krzysztof Gawronkiewicz (art) and Krystian Rosenberg (story), displaying numerous traits defined as postmemory. A detailed analysis of the comic book permits the author to reveal those qualities. ItemDeath in Basque Culture(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Mirgos, KatarzynaThe subject of the article is reflection on the manner in which death is perceived in Basque culture. The issue is presented in relation to the beliefs and customs of the Basques, the position of women in the Basque society, and in terms of the national current. Item‘Peaceful Revolution’ as a Way of Conceptualizing the Events of 1989 in East Germany(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Dobkiewicz, MagdalenaThe author’s aim was to analyze the expression ‘die friedliche Revolution’ (peaceful revolution) in the context of changes that took place in 1989 and 1990 in East Germany. On the one hand, the expression is a continuation of the rhetoric which came into being as the German Democratic Republic declined, and on the other constitutes a useful tool in the present-day attempts to create “positive” collective memory, which unites German society around the events of the year 1989. ItemCulture and Education in Lviv during the German Occupation(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Krasiwski, OrestThis paper analyses the basic principles of German occupation policy in the Ukrainian lands, attitude of the occupying power to local people, investigates governing methods in occupied territories, the government policy on culture and education. ItemThe Coloniality of Perception: The Other as a Cannibal(Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, 2013) Kubiaczyk, FilipThe article addresses the problem of the coloniality of perception, or visual-semantic manipulation of racial context which accompanied the development of the modern/ colonial capitalism. In this regard, I demonstrate that the gure of cannibal as a cultural trope played a key role in the symbolic appropriation of the New World by the Europeans, which paved the way for its military, political and economic conquest. By drawing on the source accounts, I show how the cannibal trope changed its geographical and semantic range, arranging the colonial discourse on the Other.