ItemZu einigen Schwächen in der Lexikbehandlung im Fremdsprachenunterricht(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1993) ZAWADZKA, ElżbietaThe aim of the article is an attempt to answer the question of if, and to what extent, it is impossible to achieve communicative competence in school conditions. The author analyses the lexical material contained in school textbooks, some of the techniques of presentation and practice, as well as the problems of memorising lexical material. She points out to major shortcomings, weaknesses and inconsistencies in the area, which make the task of achieving communicative competence in school difficult, or even impossible, to attain. In conclusion, some suggestions are offered on how to work best with the lexical material. ItemLa communication non verbale et l’enseignement des langues(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1993) LELENTAL, ElżbietaThe recent studies in the field of communication must be considered in a broad multidisciplinary context Communication is now considered as a complex system of interdependent codes. During a face-to-face act of communication each party sends and receives an overall and heterogeneous statement which is a total of several elements. The study of the language sounds and of the visual stimuli to be found in the audio-visual methodology demontrates that comparatively little attention is paid to the non-verbal factors. Changes in language teaching can only be understood in the context of transformation within its methodological foundations. This implies a new definition of commornication as a psycho-social discipline. ItemStrategies of second language learners: some research findings and their pedagogical implications(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1993) Droździał-Szelest, KrystynaThis article deals with a question of how much we know about the processes accounting for success in learning a second/foreign language, and whether and how this knowledge can be used to plan learner-training activities. Some major research findings in the area of language learning strategies are presented together with suggestions as to how they may have a positive effect on language learning. In particular, the so-called “good language learner” studies and studies attempting to identify relationship between range, type, and frequency of learning strategy use and the learning tasks involved are discussed by the author. ItemComputer-assisted language learning (CALL) and a method of foreign language teaching(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1993) Dębski, RobertThis paper has been written in the process of developing a theoretical background for the employment of microcomuputers in teaching Polish as a foreign language in the Polonia Research Institute of the Jagiellonian University. The author points out the influence various methods and techniques of language instruction have had on CALL, and he provides some evidence that CALL is not a single instructional method. His purpose in discussing some of the unique features of CALL is to show that CALL may be an effective tool in language instruction which in addition provides teachers with some new perspectives. The lack of any significant research in CALL in Poland forces the author to illustrate his points with foreign experiences in the field, mostly American. Finally, conclusions are drawn which clarify the role of the microcomputer in the instructional process and constitute valuable implications for the future research in the field of teaching Polish with the aid of the microcomputer. ItemThe acquisition of phonology in a dynamical model of human information processing: a preliminary account(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1993) Puppel, StanisławThe problem of the acquisition of first language phonology is dealt with within the general information-processing perspective. In this sense, language acquisition is viewed as a process of biologically founded pattern formation due to information exchanges between an adult and a child. Moreover, the process is cognitive in that the child, as a goal-seeking and error correcting individual, undertakes an intricate task of compressing a huge variety of linguistic stimuli in order to build an effective information code. It is further assumed that the basic mechanism which leads to the establishment of fully articulate linguistic ability is that of simulation. The mechanism works through a compression of a set of initial variables (i.e. initial conditions) into a minimum length algorithm and a subsequent construction of an integrated system of language-specific attractors. It is only then that the language user is capable of participating in an information transaction in a fully developed manner. ItemRight hemisphere versus left hemisphere: what is wrong with the teaching of reading scientific literature?(1993) KOSILOVA, MargaritaNew findings in the investigation of the functional asymmetry of the brain shed light on many problems of human cognition. Reading in a foreign language (L2), being a kind of cognition, is subject to its laws. The experiments show that by processing verbal information the left hemisphere applies the analytical strategy and the right hemisphere the holistic one. The probabilistic structure of the world makes the holistic way of processing information very efficient; this strategy corresponds to the principle of least effort. But working with descriptions of highly probable events and thus having the possibility of using the holistic strategy at the first stages of learning L2, the students fail to master the formal grammatical means of the foreign language and are not able to use the analytical strategy where it is necessary: while dealing with scientific texts whose contents is predictable only to a small degree. The analytical strategy, as running counter the principle of economy, is very difficult to develop. A method, aiming at achieving this goal, is proposed. ItemQualitative vs. quantiative research on FL teaching and learning process(Wydawcnictwo Naukowe UAM, 1990) KOMOROWSKA, HannaPart 1 of the article contains a discussion of quantitative research projects described as structuralistic, deductive, statistical and objective. Main lines of criticism directed against quantitative research projects are also presented. Part 2 contains characteristic of qualitative research projects described as holistic, inductive, descriptive and subjective. Theoretical affiliation of qualitative research projects to ethnometh-odology, ethnography, phenomenology is also analyzed. Part 3 deals with possibilities of applying qualitative research assumptions to classroom research in general and to research on foreign language classrooms in particular.