ItemPrzekład pieśni I 1 Tibullusa wraz z komentarzem(0302-7384, 2011) Arndt, AleksandraBy dint of efficient compilation of genres, Tibullus changes his elegy I 1 into a syncretic form, vivid combination of comedy, hymns, bucolic elements and others. The poet raises many themes, like love to a girl or affection to the country. His elegy is no less erudite than the poetry of Propertius. ItemPantes theoi, Polemos and Ares on the Battlefield. The Greek Concept of the War Deity(0302-7384, 2011) Kostuch, LucynaThe Hellenes created a concept of potential military engagement by all the gods. In martial contexts, Greek authors often included the concepts of “all the gods” (pantes theoi), “the gods” (theoi), “god” (theos), divine being (daimonion) and holy power (hieros), which signify interference by unidentified divine forces. The relationship between war and gods may thus be defined ex definitione. The question arises as to the basis of this way of thinking. It seems that the answer should be sought in the basic definition of war – polemos. War is only occasionally personified. The answer to the question of why Polemos never became a clearly defined divine figure and mythological hero can be found in Homer. In the Iliad many deities, although not all, have military might (polemos) at their disposal and participate in directing martial activities. It is for this very reason that this force never became an independent one – war arises as a result of what can be termed a divine “chain reaction”. The existence of war is thus dependent on the gods who make it active as the result of a stimulus. It is significant that Ares, just like Polemos, is not fully autonomous. Other deities also carry out the “work of Ares”. Item„Return of the rightful gods”? Kolonizacja, władza i utopia w Ptakach Arystofanesa(0302-7384, 2011) Kostek, SzymonThe article titled „Return of the rightful gods”? Colonization, Violence, and Utopia in Aristophanes’ “Birds” is an interdisciplinary project which was placed in the scope of research of classical studies, drama and theatre studies, and cultural studies. The book Aristophanes. Myth, Ritual, and Comedy written by Angus M. Bowie was used in this paper as a principal inspiration of inquiry and interpretation. ItemHarmonia lyrica w potrydenckiej twórczości polskich poetów metafizycznych – problem trwałości tradycji i nowatorstwa(0302-7384, 2011) Fischer, JakubThis article concentrates on question, which was the essence of the Old Polish poetry, in the beginning of seventeenth-century. Especially: what was the source of this poetry and which were the relations between this new model of poetry and literary tradition. Very interesting are also the connections between rhyming and rhythmic schemes, used by Grabowiecki, Grochowski and Twardowski, and music. The main attitude of this group of polish metaphysical poets was to attain musical effects in poetry – real lyric harmony (harmonia lyrica). They created new poetry: very innovative, but as well grounding in tradition. ItemJak to było na filologii klasycznej przed wielu laty?(0302-7384, 2011) Starnawski, JerzyEssay on classical philology from the end of the 19 th century till the middle of the 20 th century in the Polish universities. ItemAntyk w prozie J. R. R. Tolkiena(0302-7384, 2011) Piętka, RadosławThe article tends to analyse the problems concerning the reception of classical texts and ideas in twentieth century, using as an example the prose works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ItemODWIECZNY SPÓR FILOZOFII Z POEZJĄ W TRAKTACIE HERAKLITA ALEGORETY(0302-7384, 2011) Domaradzki, MikołajThe paper investigates the complex interrelationship between philosophy and poetry as it was presented by Heraclitus the Allegorist in his famous Quaestiones Homericae. It is shown here that the apology of Homer which emerges from the treaty builds on two fundamental assumptions. First of all, the Allegorist aims to prove that Homer’s poems ought to be read as intentionally composed allegories that actually prefigure all subsequent philosophical and scientific views. Secondly, Heraclitus argues also that Homer had to have recourse to allegory, since it is the only appropriate mode of expressing certain ideas. Consequently, Homer transpires to be not only the greatest poet of ancient Greece, but also its greatest philosopher.