ItemKrajowy mechanizm prewencji – funkcje i zadania Rzecznika Praw Obywatelskich(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Czerniawski, RyszardThe paper points out that the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection of Poland performs the functions of a visiting body for the prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (national preventive mechanism) as understood in the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York on December 18, 2002. ItemKomunikowanie polityczne w Ameryce Łacińskiej na przykładzie aktywności prezydenta Wenezueli – Hugo Chaveza(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Filipiak, AgnieszkaStudies into the content of the local and regional press expand our knowledge about the life of local communities. The author limits herself to studying the narrow issue of women’s sporting interests, whereby she analyzes their active (as athletes and trainers) and passive (administering various sports, as fans) participation in amateur and professional sport. The paper also indicates which factors are decisive for the domination of a given sport in a region and considers to what extent the picture presented is true, reflects reality and exhausts all aspects of women’s interest in sport. The way in which press materials are presented is also interesting and confirms the observation that local and regional media have become tabloidized to a greater or lesser degree (depending on the type of periodical). The qualitative study has shown that women’s need to practice sport is not only an expression of their emancipation, a development of their skills, and a desire to break records, but at present it has primarily become a way of living a ‘healthy life’. The local and regional press fulfill two roles in this regard: they provide a wider presentation of professional and amateur sport and, to a lesser degree, persuade their readers to practice sport themselves (propagating a ‘healthy lifestyle’ accounts for an average of two articles out of eighteen qualified as ‘sport articles’). The research field encompassed a wide range of female sporting passions, while the examples discussed confirm that women live active lives. ItemSportowe pasje kobiet. Przyczynek do jakościowych badań nad zawartością treści w prasie regionalnej i lokalnej Wielkopolski oraz jej pogranicza(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Jurga-Wosik, EwaThe transformation of the political communication models in Venezuela and other Latin American states is related to the evolving political culture in this region, together with a bold use of media communication approached both as a means and a goal. Video-politics, defined as a process of the mediatization of the constructs of political reality, is becoming a key notion for the citizens and voters there. Using the public means of social communication Hugo Chávez has made the Aló, Presidente show an arena of political decision-making and a space focused on political personalism. An analysis of selected elements of the show provides detailed information on the rhetorical tools and other mechanisms of exerting influence applied by Hugo Chávez. On a macro-scale the media strategies applied in the show turn out to be instruments of consolidating the image of executive power in Venezuela. ItemZideologizowanie przekazu prasy radyklanych ruchów społecznych w kontekście tabloidyzacji mediów (przykład prasy ruchu anarchistycznego)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Malendowicz, PawełThe anarchist movement, aiming to remove all ruler – ruled relations, is a radical social movement. The movement has its own means of communication. The phenomenon of tabloidization, understood as the propagation of properties typical of tabloid media, concerns the anarchist press as well, but only marginally. It is manifested by the ideologization of the content of this press. The communications of the anarchist movement are directed at its social surroundings and also occur within the movement. Tabloidization is an ineffective means of achieving an intangible benefit (winning supporters for the movement). The tabloidization of the message aimed at obtaining a benefit is only meaningful in the internal communications, where it helps maintain the headcount on account of the ideologization, simplification and sensational character of the message. While criticizing the tabloidization of traditional media, anarchists have developed their concepts using simplified messages for the purpose of social mobilization, riots and future insurrections. In these concepts, shallow messages referring to irrational human emotions become a source of revolutionary attitudes. ItemInstrumentalisation and Objectification of Human Sexuality(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Rosicki, RemigiuszArtykuł podejmuje problematykę instrumentalizacji i uprzedmiotowienia cielesności i seksualności człowieka. Problem rozważany był w kontekście przekazów, możliwych za pomocą środków społecznego przekazu. Punktem wyjścia jest tabloidyzacja przekazu w ogóle we współczesnej kulturze, która zmienia się dzięki nowym technologiom produkcji, utrwalania i przekazywania treści. Ciało, nagość i przemoc stają się narzędziem wywoływania szoku, epatowaniem wulgarnością i przełamywaniem tabu w celu zaspokojenia potrzeb seksualnych, jak i ciekawości. Możliwość dostępu do treści wcześniej zabronionych lub treści, które wcześniej były nieosiągalne z powodu braku powszechności przekazów, powoduje, że przekazy te znajdują swoich odbiorców. Problem ten został sprowadzony do tzw. „pornografii twardej” (pornografia z użyciem i prezentacją przemocy), jednakże należy zwrócić uwagę na szerszy zakres tej problematyki czyli m.in. 1) faktycznej przemocy seksualnej, 2) faktycznych relacji seksualnych partnerów BDSM i 3) przemocy seksualnej w filmach pornograficznych. W zasadzie w każdej z wymienionych sytuacji będziemy mówić o różnych formach instrumentalizacji i uprzedmiotowienia cielesności człowieka. W tekście przedstawiono tezę, że znaczny wpływ na życie prywatne ma przestrzeń prawna związana z ius publicum, która kształtowana jest przez partycypację w sferze publicznej. Stąd dominacja poszczególnych narracji społecznych (ideologii, etyki itd.) wpływa na przestrzeń prawną, a ta ingeruje w szerokim zakresie w sferę prywatną człowieka. Należy również zwrócić uwagę na zmianę znaczenia czegoś, co określano mianem pornografii - od narzędzia wyrażania idei politycznych do przekazów mających jedynie za cel dostarczanie rozrywki i satysfakcji na różnych poziomach. Problem prawny związany z tzw. twardą pornografią (pornografia z użyciem i prezentacją przemocy) w ogólnym zarysie przedstawiono na przykładzie rozwiązań w polskim kodeksie karnym. Szczególne znaczenie ma art. 202 § 3, który określa odpowiedzialność karną za rozpowszechnianie, produkcję, utrwalanie, sprowadzanie, przechowywanie i posiadanie „twardej pornografii” (w tekście ograniczono się do analizy pornografii z użyciem i prezentacją przemocy). ItemMetoda door-to-door i jej zastosowanie przez lubelskich radnych w trakcie kampanii wyborczej do Rady Miasta w 2010 r(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Łukasik-Turecka, AgnieszkaThe paper concerns door-to-door canvassing and its use by Lublin councilors during the 2010 election campaign for the City Council. The results of the survey presented in the text show to what extent the method was applied by the winners in the elections. In February 2011 the author approached the councilors via the President of the Lublin City Council asking them to fill in a questionnaire on door-to-door canvassing. Twenty out of thirty one councilors returned the questionnaires, accounting for 64.5% of all the respondents. These questionnaires provided the research material for analysis. Item“Gatemania” jako przykład tabloidyzacji śledztw dziennikarskich(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Adamczyk, WojciechThe author of the paper analyzes the phenomenon of ‘gatemania’ in the mass media, paying particular attention to its influence on investigative journalism. Both the origins and evolution of this disturbing trend are discussed, beginning with William Lewis Safire. The author presents a broad range of definitions of the notion of ‘gatemania’, coined by the British journalist working for The Guardian, David Marsh. The paper enumerates a number of media scandals the media have referred to using thegate suffix, ordering them by the three most frequent criteria. The relations between the stages of a classical model of muckraking and the components of a scandal are discussed, along with the elements that distinguish investigative journalism from tabloid-like journalism. In the opinion of the author, excessive use of the-gate suffix serves the purpose of the tabloidization of the message and is usually inadequate in relation to the event described; another reason for its use is to mislead readers, by implying that the articles are a result of investigative journalism. ItemStosowanie technik tabloidyzacyjnych jako element strategii wydawniczej w prasie regionalnej – przypadek Szczecina(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Flasiński, KrzysztofThe paper examines the local version of the Głos Dziennik Pomorza newspaper, on the assumption that in order to maintain levels of readership, viewership and listenership even the quality media are beginning to resort to what has so far been the source of the popularity of tabloids. A total of 298 front pages of the Głos Dziennik Pomorza – Szczecin were examined, accounting for every issue published in 2010. The analysis covered the headlines and content of leading articles. Symptoms of tabloidization techniques were found in 169 of front page leading articles, which accounted for 56.71 percent of the material investigated. Therefore, it can be concluded that the editorial board of the Głos Dziennik Pomorza – Szczecin has adopted linguistic techniques typical of a tabloid-like style, applying them to the headlines of the leading articles published on the front page of the newspaper. Some results of the quantitative analysis appear to be quite low. Only a small percentage of the articles analyzed show some symptoms of tabloidization. This impression can be misleading, though. The analysis covered only the leading articles from the front pages of the newspaper, which are most influential for its image and most represen tative of the policy of the editorial board. ItemTabloidyzacja programów informacyjnych na przykładzie wrocławskich stacji telewizyjnych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Szynol, AdamWroc³aw is the capital city of one of the few Polish regions where regional and local terrestrial television stations compete with one another. The regional broadcaster is represented by a branch of public television, while the privately-owned Telewizja Dolnoslaska, a part of the Odra network, represents the local one. Both stations provide current affairs and journalistic programs. This paper is an attempt at a comparative analysis of the main news programs of Telewizja Wrocław (Fakty) and Telewizja Dolnośląska (Informacje). The analysis particularly focuses on the proportions of hard and soft news, which the author believes may be a confirmation of the tabloidization of the media. The comparison of the content presented by the two competing stations provides certain grounds, albeit limited, due to the scope of the analysis, to assess the state of regional and local television in Poland. ItemInfotainment a ochrona prywatności osób powszechnie znanych(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Zawadzka, ZofiaThis paper focuses on the personalization of information, in particular as regards commonly known individuals and the issue of privacy infringement. It should be indicated that tabloids and infotainment are characterized by mixing entertainment with news, paying more attention to people than to issues, and transforming social and human tragedies so they become a topic of public discussion for the purpose of providing entertainment. Information is now conveyed by means of human stories, concrete examples taken from the world of well-known people. This leads to the privacy of this category of people being infringed. ItemTabloidyzacja programów informacyjnych – przyczynek do badań(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Ossowski, SzymonThe text presents and briefly discusses the methodological premises and partial research results of a study fully presented in a book by D. Piontek, B. Hordecki and S. Ossowski Tabloidyzacja dyskursu politycznego w polskich mediach [The tabloidization of political discourse in the Polish media], published by the academic publishing house of the Faculty of Political Science and Journalism of AMU (Poznań 2013). On the basis of the criterion of viewership of Polish channels as well as news programs, the news service Wiadomosci TVP1 and Fakty TVN were selected as the object of the study; the timeframe covered the first two weeks of every month beginning in September 2011 and finishing in August 2012. The research sample amounted to 154 issues of each program. A single news item constituted the object of analysis, while every news item classified as political underwent additional in-depth analysis. A total of 1,421 news items were analyzed (including 350 political ones), 783 from Wiadomosci and 638 from Fakty. ItemTabloidyzacja przekazu krakowskich mediów regionalnych na temat wyborów samorządowych – płaszczyzna treści(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Szymańska, AgnieszkaThe paper deals with the issue of the social roles and functions of local and regional media in the modern democratic system as regards the mediatization of local politics during local government elections. It presents the results of surveys on the content of daily newspapers in Kraków conducted by Agnieszka Hess and Agnieszka Szymańska during the elections in 2006 and in 2010. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the tabloidization of the coverage of local government elections by the Kraków press in relation to its content. The results of the studies of media coverage in 2006 and in 2010 indicate a changing range of communication tasks and roles assumed by various newspapers and the intensification of the tabloidization process of media coverage as regards the manner and content of reports on the local elections. ItemMałopolskie dzienniki regionalne w procesie tabloidyzacji przekazu na temat wyborów samorządowych – płaszczyzna formy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Hess, AgnieszkaThe tabloidization of political journalism is inseparable from the developing process of the mediatization of politics, which is based on political entities adjusting their activities to the logic of the media, and the consequent changes this causes in media coverage. The purpose of this paper is to answer the question of whether the coverage of the local government election campaign by the regional dailies of Małopolska showed features typical of tabloids. The author presents the results of an analysis of the Kraków dailies (Dziennik Polski, Gazeta Krakowska and the local insert to Gazeta Wyborcza), in terms of five criteria of discourse differentiation: entertainization/infotainment, the rhetoric of dispute, personalization, markedness, and simplification. The analysis covered two aspects of the discourse: its form and content. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the tabloidization of media coverage in relation to its form and compares the results of surveys in 2006 and 2010. ItemPolityczność, polityka i Pan Nergal w kontekście tabloidyzacji polskiej sceny politycznej(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Walecka-Rynduch, AgnieszkaThe purpose of this paper is to analyze public discussion on the place of the artist Nergal in Polish society (or outside of this society). This discussion has significantly expanded the present context of the tabloidization of political stage and the dimension of politicality. As indicated by Chantal Mouffe, modern politicality is played out in the “moral register”. The conflict between “right and left” wing is replaced by the “struggle between good and evil”. Politicians have ‘used’ a private individual, or the artist-celebrity - Adam Darski, to create a powerful social dichotomy, dividing society into good, religious, Catholic believers who condemn the staged artistic expression of the Behemoth band and the bad, non-religious, non-Catholic non-believers who are indifferent to how religious symbols are used. What is peculiar is the fact that this discussion took place in the opinion-forming press on the one hand and in tabloids and gossip services on the other. This undoubtedly demonstrated the tabloid-like dimension of the Polish political stage, which has been observable for some time now, although all sides were convinced they were acting as a defender of Polish democracy. ItemEuropejskie standardy swobody wypowiedzi a fenomen tabloidów – między obowiązkami a odpowiedzialnością(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Sobczak, JacekThe paper emphasizes that the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg has never differentiated standards of freedom of speech with regard to the medium used to present one’s views. The Court has thus vested the controlling function mass media can play both to the quality press and tabloids. On the other hand, however, the Court did not agree with a concept that was particularly strong in Polish journalism, that the red tops cannot be treated as seriously as the quality press. If this concept were to be accepted, the freedom, or rather irresponsibility, of the tabloid or sensational press addressed at a mass reader would be significantly larger than the field of freedom defined for the ‘serious’ mass media. Therefore, the sensational character of the press does not provide it with greater freedom, nor does it justify a more restrictive approach to its coverage. ItemTeoria i praktyka celebrytyzacji politycznej. Celebryci polityczni w internetowych serwisach plotkarskich(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Olczyk, TomaszCelebrities are becoming a subject of growing interest for researchers and journalists. Studies on fame and popularity have become a separate research field with its own academic periodical. There are emerging books devoted solely to celebrities in the world of politics discussing the phenomenon of the increasing role of fame in modern politics, given the context of tabloidization, post-politics or the ‘entertainization’ of politics. Although the corpus of literature dealing with studies on political celebrities is increasing, this field continues to struggle with at least two fundamental issues. The first difficulty concerns the operational application of the concept of celebrity to describe the realm of politics. The second one concerns the limited number of empirical analyses of the phenomenon of political celebritization. The aim of this paper is to begin to fill this gap. The first part analyzes terminological difficulties concerning the concept of political celebrity. Next, the author suggests a new approach to this concept. ItemObraz polityki i polityków w polskich serialach telewizyjnych. Na przykładzie „Rancza” i „Ekipy”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Piontek, DorotaThe functions of popular culture go far beyond merely providing entertainment. Popular culture describes phenomena, events and issues in a manner that is highly indicative of how social reality is perceived, defined and assessed. In line with the concept of framing, popular culture also influences the cognitive frame of politics. Entertainment contains elements of political representation that are significant in shaping recipients’ opinions about politicians and politics. The paper analyzes the relation between popular culture and politics, and in particular the representation of politics in television series based on the examples of Ranczo [The ranch] and Ekipa [The team]. Politics is the main topic of both, but they present it in two contrasting ways. The former exemplifies the reconstruction of the socially dominant cognitive frame in which politics is perceived as a conspiracy and a soap opera, while the latter presents the less popular in mass culture frame of searching and bureaucracy. ItemReprezentacje biedy i wykluczenia społecznego w tabloidach i mediach głównego nurtu(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Lisowska-Magdziarz, MałgorzataWhile modem, capitalist consumer societies have solved the problem of extreme poverty to a large extent, indigence, destitution, the scarcity or lack of access to basic financial means or consumer practices that provide prestige, satisfaction or a sense of selffulfillment continue to be experienced by a portion of society and constitute a significant theme of social reflection, political platforms and media discourse. The mass media could provide an arena where people who are economically marginalized could find an image of their own existence, the representation of their interests, and solutions for their practical and emotional problems. However, the mainstream press, radio, and television, as well as the new interactive media, are interested in the poor only to a limited degree. The poor have almost no media at all, unless simplistic and primitive tabloid dailies and some tabloidized television channels are considered as such. The question can be posed, then, of whether their problems are tabloidized also in the mainstream media, and where to search for the presentation and illustration of poverty when considering the issue of the tablo- idization of poverty in the media. ItemO pojmowaniu infotainmentu i nadmiernej rozrywkowości mediów masowych we współczesnym medioznawstwie(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2013) Fras, JaninaThe excessive focus on entertainment in the content of the modem mass media has become the subject of academic reflection in Poland over the last decade. In the West this issue has been discussed for at least thirty years. Out of the various concepts that serve the purpose of describing and analyzing the focus on entertainment in the mass media the author focuses on the concept of infotainment, borrowed from American English; the meaning and scope of this concept in academic and journalistic texts is analyzed. It is indicated that the concept has a limited explanatory value when taken over without its cultural and linguistic context, and it is particularly useless as the name of a genre, used instead of the news. Discussing contemporary academic reflections on the focus on entertainment in the mass media and their content, three main currents are indicated and briefly described: the functional, historical and critically-discursive; the issue of the focus on entertainment of professional journalists is also addressed.