Studia Romanica Posnaniensia, 2012, vol. 39, nr 4

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Studia Romanica Posnaniensia, 2012, vol. 39, nr 4. Interfaces de la syntaxe et de la sémantique lexicale. Synchronie & diachronie (red. nauk. Agnieszka Kaliska & Józef Sypnicki).


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    Étude contrastive franco-polonaise sur les adjectifs référant aux traits de caractère
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Tkaczyk, Magdalena; Sypnicki, Józef
    The present inquiry is designed to reveal how meaningful components, variously interrelated, eventually result in semantic differences discovered in adjectival synonymous clusters in French and in Polish. The method of conducting this comparative analysis is to match lexical paraphrases of synonymous items in both languages. The data are underpinned by well documented and authentic examples. The concept of cross-language equivalence of selected lexical units is highlighted, thus enabling further developments to be carried out in the fields of foreign language teaching and translation practice. The study of empirical material is complemented with a concise sketch dealing with theoretical aspects of synonymy.
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    Les aspects évolutifs des exposants de la réciprocité médiévaux. Anciennes et nouvelles méthodes de recherche
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Nkollo, Mikołaj
    The present paper revolves around unusual paths of grammaticalization of Old French (12th century) reciprocal markers. This methodological framework requires medieval means of expressing reciprocity to be compared both with their parent forms in Classical Latin and with the markers introduced in subsequent stages of the history of French language. The first hypothesis deals with how parallel markers, i.e. ones that have a common origin and that are used inside the same area of grammar (se… entre- and entre eux < Lat. inter se), are different from each other. This path is claimed to materialize provided one of the two terms begins to serve a particular function not performed by the other one. The second hypothesis accounts for what means were used to prevent ongoing reflexive / reciprocal homonymy. This task happened to be provisionally fulfilled by cors a cors and coste a coste until the advent of adverbs ending in -ment in 14th century. As a consequence, body-part nouns lost most of their grammatical potential. The third hypothesis, formulated in terms of exaptation, explains how and why languages are likely to recycle erstwhile peripheral lexical elements. This evolutionary path takes place in response to a need to convey a given meaning unambiguously. Attempts at avoiding reflexive / reciprocal homonymy prompted the revival of seemingly forgotten Latin items reciprocus / mutuus. Concluding remarks address the problem of whether the concept of exaptation is useful in historical linguistics and contain a proposal towards constraining its scope. As for current views of grammaticalization, this notion seems to call for further refinements, as well.
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    La fragmentation actancielle : vers une analyse « interfacielle » des infinitives de perception directe
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Marsac, Fabrice
    This study proposes an alternative analysis of syntactic infinitives of direct perception: the current approach, spanning various fields of linguistics, attempts to articulate the morphosyntactic characteristics of these structures with their different logical, semantic, cognitive, lexical and grammatical properties. The perspective adopted for this purpose is based on a well known computer process: (de) fragmentation.
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    Les discours de l’identité féminine dans les publicités automobiles
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) López Díaz, Montserrat; Kacprzak, Alicja
    The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles) targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.
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    Les anglicismes dans le dicours électronique médié
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Lazar, Jan
    Although French is a Romance language descendant ffrom the Latin, there is of course some influence of other languages on it. English is perhaps the most important source of loan-words for the present French language. Our article is focused on new forms of written communication, mainly computer-mediated communication (CMC). The main aim of this article is to analyze the loan-words, especially the anglicisms that are used by chatters in various French chats. After examining the motivations of loan, the article studies the frequency of anglicisms in three chats and observes their grammatical adaptation in the context of CMC. A huge richness of anglicisms is illustrated by concrete examples taken from our corpus.
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    La distinction procès vs résultat à l’exemple de substantifs verbaux (gerundia) et dérivés nominaux polonais
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Kaliska, Agnieszka
    The purpose of our research is to analyze the processual and the resultative reading of verbal nouns (gerundia) in Polish and to compare them with the corresponding standard derivational forms. Our research is based primarily on the analysis of the co-occurrence with the special kind of support verb named verbe support d’occurrence and the possibilities of using the plural, including the impact that the plural may have on the interpretation of verbal nouns and corresponding derivational forms.
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    L’autocentrage ou l’évolution dans la structure énonciative du discours politique
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Jereczek-Lipińska, Joanna
    This study is based upon discursive and logometric analysis of the political speeches delivered by the candidates during the campaign and pre-campaign phases of the 2012 presidential elections in France, taking into account the results of previous studies related to the 2007 presidential elections. The present paper aims at tracing the different representations of the speaker within his own speeches and at analyzing the way he verbalizes himself in his campaign by observing the use, the distribution, the role and the possible impact of “I” and of the other personal pronouns within the frame of political communication. The analysis of statistical data tends to emphasize syntactic as well as morphological, stylistic, lexical, and gramatical distinctive features of the speeches delivered by the candidates to the presidential elections, especially in relation with the new possibilities conveyed by internet.
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    Expressivité du discours de la presse
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Dyoniziak, Jolanta
    The present paper attempts to give an otline of the expressiveness of the discourse encountered in the mass media. Examples are drawn from selected Polish and French periodicals retrieved from the Internet: le Monde, Libération, Tribune, Newsweek, Gazeta Wyborcza. The political stance of these titles is characterized alongside. Main focus is laid on headlines which on account of their localization usually abound most with conspicuous discursive effects, including the ones having specifically expressive character. A priviledged position of the mass media in approaching real life problems is discussed first. Then, various wording techniques implemented in press titles are subject to a thorough analysis. Expressiveness and establishing a particular ranking of values are viewed as two concurrent and close-knit phenomena. Furthermore, expressiveness is shown to reflect current political trends and to comply with main characters of political regime in a given community. Finally, examples exhibiting a high degree of expressive markedness are analyzed. Their peculiar linguistic features result, among others, from delexicalization, NPs exhibiting a strong axiological bias, and neologisms.
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    Quelle serait la quantité d’informations nécessaire et suffisante pour une définition ?
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2012-12-30) Alic, Liliana
    In this paper we intend to prove the importance of cognition in the difficult and complex task of finding the right definition for a term or a collocation. The principles of categorization can be successfully applied in order to find the needed and structured information about the perceived world. They can also help finding the attributes that distinguish representatives of one category. Categorizing by using prototypes contributes to the development of individuals’ vocabulary in various fields and also in discovering the most important distinctive features in order to define object, beings or abstract notions of the perceived world. A good definition must contain not only distinctive features but also specific attributes, in order to increase its accuracy.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
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