Przegląd Antropologiczny - Anthropological Review, 1997, vol. 60

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    Spis treści
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997)
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    An attempt to evaluate the criteria for diagnosing nonspecific inflammatory diseases observed on ancient skeletons
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Prejzner, Witold; Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta Julia
    The study presents the criteria for diagnosing nonspecific inflammatory diseases observed on ancient bones. It is very important to remember about two forms of ostitis - acute and chronic, and about diseases causing similar changes, e.g. tuberculosis, lues, brucelosis, cysts, osteoid-osteoma.
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    Significance of the cranial venous system in anthropogenesis in the light of contemporary clinical and experimental data
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Wysocki, Jarosław
    The manner of the appearance of the Hominidae family is still a very controversial issue, since there is no general agreement among the authors upon whether it was an isolated and extraordinary event in the natural history or rather a necessary consequence of the evolution process. Rapid augmentation of the cranium capacity which occurred in this group had been probably preceded by the development of the erect body posture. Elevation of the head created new, better conditions for the outflow of the venous blood from the cranium due to the involvement of the gravitation force into this mechanism. A new model of venous outflow from the cranium must have been developed.
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    Reconstruction of diet of population from Roman period (1st-4th c. A.D.) on Pruszcz Gdański cemetery material
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta Julia; Smrčka, Václav; Jambor, Jaroslav
    The cemeteries of the Wielbark culture in Pruszcz Gdański date back to the beginning of our era. Their location near the Baltic Sea suggests some connection with Germanic tribes. In an attempt to reconstruct the diet of the buried there, 182 bone samples were taken from 48 skeletons there and subjected to analysis for chemical elements. The data show the bone samples had a zinc-dominant microelement composition that has been also observed at Germanic burial places situated along the frontier of the Roman Empire. Our supposition is that the diet of the population was dictated by their customs rather than by the natural environment conditions there.
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    Perception of fatness
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Jałkiewicz, Małgorzata
    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.
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    Dermatogliphic distinctness of the Hel Kashubians
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Liczbińska, Grażyna
    The study consisted in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of epidermal ridges on fingers of the Kashubians from the Hel Peninsula and those from Pomerania. On the basis of the obtained data similarities and differences between the Kashubians and other Poles with regard to these traits were assessed.
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    Catch-up growth in children after acute and protracted diarrhea
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Chrząstek-Spruch, Hanna; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda
    One hundred and ten children hospitalized because of acute and protracted diarrhea in the first year of life were followed up for an average period of 13.7 months. Three anthropological parameters were taken into consideration: body height, body weight and head circumference. At the time of the first examination all the parameters measured were significantly decreased but children tend to reestablish normal somatic growth pattern during the rehabilitation period through the acceleration of growth (phenomenon known as “catch-up growth”).
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    Body dimensions and proportions in the differential diagnosis of child growth retardation
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Łysoń-Wojciechowska, Grażyna; Romer, Tomasz E.; Skawiński, Waldemar
    Abstract This study was aimed at determining the similarities and differences with regard to body build traits between two groups of short-statured children: the first one including children with growth retardation related to the growth hormone deficiency and the second one comprising of children with normal secretion of the growth hormone. Subsequently the traits useful in the differential diagnostics of growth retardation were selected. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 273 short-statured non-treated children aged from 3 to 17 years (73 girls and 200 boys). The children were divided into 6 clinical groups on the basis of the clinical picture and the results of stimulation tests assessing the pituitary reserve for growth hormone secretion. The clinical groups were differentiated using a specifically developed anthropometric test based on 9 calendar age traits (height, weight, BMI, length of upper and lower limbs, trunk length, shoulders breadth, hips breadth and chest breadth) and 4 developmental age traits (length and circumference of the head, chest circumference, thigh circumference) and the calculated value of arm fat content and the average stature of the parents.
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    A review of anthropological approaches to ageing
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Kaczmarek, Maria; Szwed, Anita
    It is evident that the pattern of ageing among humans has a unique character. Therefore, when undertaking any research on human ageing one has to specify a proper methodology and methods which are available in the anthropological perspective. The paper is aimed at providing a review of anthropological approaches to the study of ageing. On the basis of the meaning and scope of the concept of ageing, its sources and causal factors are discussed. Further, functional, physiological and morphological indicators of ageing are briefly described. Much attention is focused on the concept of biological age which is the key notion for assessment of variation in the rates of human ageing.
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    Biological effects of socio-economic changes in the rural environment of the Krosno province in 1967-1997
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Łaska-Mierzejewska, Teresa
    Village girls in the age of 9-18 , inhabiting Krosno region, were surveyed in 1967 (n=l134), 1977 (n=1028), 1987 (n=l255), and 1997 (n=1992). Based on the source of income of the families, three groups were separated: farmers, farmers-workers and nonfarmers. The girls were also divided on the basis of the number of children in the family, and the educational status of their fathers and mathers. The age at menarche for entire region was 13.94 ± 0.06 in 1967, and 13.38 ± 0.05 in 1997. During the period of 30 years the acceleration of maturation was 0.54 of a year. This result does not reflect the real socioeconomic situation inside the rural population. In the period 1977-1997 the deceleration of menarcheal age was registered in nonfarmers group, in the group of families with 5 and more children, and in the group of girls with the highest level of fathers education. In 1977 the menarcheal age o f girls from farmer group was 14.01 ± 0.21 and from nonfarmer group - 13.03 ± 0.12; in 1997 those ages were 13.52 and 13.39 respectively. The differences between compared groups changed, from 0.98 in 1977 to 0.13 of a year in 1997, as a result of socioeconomic situation in the decades 1977-1987 and 1987-1997.
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    Mortality in the populations of Danzig and the District of Danzig (Regierungsbezirk Danzig) in the second half of the nineteenth century
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Budnik, Alicja; Liczbińska, Grażyna
    The study concerning the populations of: the city of Danzig, Kartuzy County and the whole District of Danzig (Regierungsbezirk Danzig) has been based on demographic data from German yearbooks published in the second half of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century. The research has covered the period between 1855 and 1879 for the city of Danzig and between 1860 and 1869 for the District of Danzig. For selected years some demographic measures, such as: death rates, infant death rates, natural increase, and population dynamics rates have been estimated. At the same time, seasonal fluctuations in mortality within a year and the most important cultural and biological causes for death have been disscussed. Moreover, life tables for the whole District of Danzig have been built. (The authors employed two methods: firstly - Hailey’s proposal, assuming a t first a stationary type of population and then a model stable in regard to formerly calculated natural increase; secondly - a technique based on probability of death). Finally, the opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality has been estimated (Crow index Im, potential gross reproduction rate Rpot, biological state index lbs,). The results o f the own research have been compared to attainable data concerning other regions o f Poland under partition.
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    Evolution of theological views on evolution
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 1997) Hałaczek, Bernard
    Biology-oriented theology and philosophy-oriented biology have been a matter of controversy in the studies of human origins. This controversy terminates at the point when they both recognise their peculiarity: biology is concerned with the “how” man came into existence and theology with “what” of the existence o f man.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego