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- ItemChosen Aspects of the Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Poland(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2008) Menkes, MarcinAnalizując udział Polski w realizacji międzynarodowych norm ochrony i prewencji w sytuacji konfliktu zbrojnego zauważyć można pewne ogólne trendy. Będąc członkiem społeczności międzynarodowej, Polska brała wraz z innymi państwami zachodnimi udział w procesie rozwoju międzynarodowego prawa humanitarnego od odzyskania niepodległości po pierwszej wojnie światowej. Na proces ten ogromny wpływ wywierał jednak ZSSR. Znacząca stagnacja trwała aż do końca lat siedemdziesiątych, ponieważ wszyscy członkowie bloku niechętnie podejmowali jakiekolwiek zobowiązania międzynarodowe, zwłaszcza w sferze militarnej. Jedną z licznych oznak tego stosunku niech będzie polityczna decyzja o nieumieszczeniu w polskim kodeksie karnym zbrodni wojennych jako odrębnego przestępstwa. Polityczny przełom w latach dziewięćdziesiątych oznaczał także odrodzenie międzynarodowego prawa humanitarnego w Polsce. Wprawdzie wiele już osiągnięto, jednak wiele jeszcze zostało do zrobienia, żeby wspomnieć chociażby ratyfikację Traktatu Ottawskiego z 1997 r., odłożoną do 2015 r.
- ItemJózef Retinger – polski orędownik zjednoczenia Europy(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2008) Barabasz, AdamJózef Retinger was a great advocate of the continent’s unity. He had all the skills that are necessary in diplomacy: he spoke foreign languages and knew the customs of foreign countries; therefore he could always behave appropriately. He traveled extensively and thus he established numerous foreign contacts. He lacked only one feature: he could not speak in public and his sparkling personality did not come across during such performances. He was considered to be of gray eminence, a person who did not seek accolades. He would remain in the shadow of great personalities, but not of great events as he was more than their participant – he co-created them. He could always infect great personalities with an idea which would present in a dazzling way. Although he remained in exile until his death he was never indifferent to the fate of Poles under the yoke of Soviet communism.
- ItemAnaliza porównawcza służby cywilnej w Polsce i w instytucjach Unii Europejskiej (stan prawny – grudzień 2008 rok)(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2008) Jurga-Wosik, EwaThe civil services in Poland and EU institutions undergo similar processes. France (at the time of the 3 rd Republic) was the cradle of civil service, therefore the administrative systems of Western Europe (and others) have sought examples there. The Polish model of civil service can be described as a mixed one, with the prevalence of regulations typical of a career model. In the career model the state is the master that employs a servant. Similar solutions are applied in France, Germany and Austria. They have been modified for the purpose of the specific functions which the civil service performs in EU institutions (a so-called closed career model). In the position system, particular authority is granted the civil servant’s employer rather than the state as a whole. A civil servant is employed in a particular position rather then in the civil service ‘in general’. The stability of employment and guarantee of remuneration are lower. The UK, Nordic countries and Italy apply solutions that are similar to this model.
- ItemWpływ rozszerzenia wschodniego na rynek pracy w UE(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2008) Kacperska, MagdalenaThe EU enlargement involving the Central and Eastern Europe states set a prece- dent, as never before in the history of European integration were so many states admitted. On May 1, 2004 the European Fifteen was joined by ten new states thus forming a group of 25 states. The objective of this paper is to present the desirable direction for Polish macroeconomic policy on the basis of the experience provided by integrationist processes, with particular emphasis on the experience of Ireland, Greece, Portugal and Spain. The main task of both the ‘old’ and the ‘new’ Union is to take advantage of the opportunities that result from this enlargement. Joint activities and policies should aim at the achievement of the EU strategic aim, established in Lisbon, i.e. at taking advantage of the technological change to achieve the maximum competitiveness and rapid growth pace of the EU economy so that appropriate conditions are created to provide full employment and increase the extent of regional cohesion in the EU.
- ItemIdea Wspólnego Europejskiego Domu a egoizmy narodowe i regionalne: przykład Hiszpanii(Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM w Poznaniu, 2008) Jaroszyk, JoannaThe term ‘Common European Home’ was coined in 1987 by Mikhail Gorbachev to describe the future policy of the Soviet Union towards Eastern Europe. At present this notion has lost its disquieting tone, which was related to the statement made by the So- viet Political Bureau: ‘a stifling embrace, a suffocating hug’. Nowadays, this idea cov- ers various models of European integration, and is expressed in both the hopes and concerns of the states that participate in this process. The economic and political inte- gration of European states has been a continuous and dynamic process. The question of its further direction has become particularly important after the French said ‘ non’ to the European Constitution. This has refueled disputes over existing integration models, which are focused around the opposing concepts of a Federal Europe and a Europe of Homelands as a confederation. It is of significant importance since the process of Europeization has been parallel to the process of regionalization inside the national European states. Regionalization mainly followed from the demands of autonomists, but sometimes was initiated by central governments as part of the process of decentralization. At present, European regions have increased their economic significance and have won more rights and authority inside their states. Consequently, they have aspired to become independent forces for globalization and Europeization. This process can be exemplified by Spain. After forty years of Franco’s dictatorship, where any form of regional autonomy whatsoever was rejected, in 1975 a slow democratization process began.