ItemDokąd zmierzamy? Socjologiczna analiza działań podejmowanych wobec rodzin wieloproblemowych przez pomoc społeczną(Wydział Teologiczny, UAM, 2010) Trawkowska, DobroniegaDifficulties in providing help to families on social welfare stem from various reasons. One of the more important reasons is that the families are stigmatized by the local environment, but other reasons include a negative stereotype of the family on social welfare among social workers, difficulties in defining adequate determinants of the range of problems of these families, as well as difficulties in creating a local system of support and its coordination. It is not easy to clearly and precisely define families that avail themselves of social welfare. Some of the terms (pathological family) are stigmatizing. Hence the author suggests applying the term "a family with a wide range of problems" or "problematic family", and indicates a number of problems that social workers come across while helping families in their local environments. Three main tasks carried out by the Centers of social aid for families were subjected to detailed analysis: preparation of families to accept help, execution of social work, building/organization of an integrated system of support for families in their local environment. The main difficulties with their execution are shown, many of which are beyond the system of social aid. ItemKryzys jako kategoria filozoficzna(Wydział Teologiczny, UAM, 2010) Stachewicz, KrzysztofThe word "crisis" is one of the most popular words in public and political discourse, but also in private conversations. We talk about economical crisis, moral crisis, civilization crisis, crisis of science, of philosophy, crisis of man, of society, of democracy etc. We simply haye to ask whether in the human worid there exist things, processes, relations that are crisis-proof, which this notion cannot be referred to. It results in a strong semantic blur of this category. Negative senses of the word "crisis" connected with some deconstructions are mixed with positive ones which indicate possibilities of understanding and interpretation. Crisis can be a dramatically positive or tragically negatiye phenomenon. Crisis seems to be immanently inherent in the human condition and eo ipso in cultural structures built by man. Crisis has two components: a negative component - destruction of some structure or form, and a positive one - construction, building something new that takes into consideration and avoids the weaknesses of the old. All these distinctions and findings seem to play an important role in solving the crisis of marriage and family in the contemporary and (post)modem world. ItemUwarunkowania i skutki kryzysu demograficznego w Polsce(Wydział Teologiczny, UAM, 2010) Balicki, JanuszThe purpose of this article is to answer the ąuestion: what caused the demographic crises in Poland after 1989? Poland used to be a country with one of the highest TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in the Communist Block. During the last twenty years its TFR dropped until Poland became a country with the lowest TFR in Europe. This demographic process is responsible for an increasingly aging society, which means there is an increasing proportion of old people (60+). This process undermines the balance between those who are in the labour market and those who have reached retirement age. As a result of this situation, in the near future there will be a decrease in Poland's population. The factors include the numbers of women in procreative age, indiyidual attitude and behavior regarding procreation plans, situation within the labour market, emigration, socio-economic situation. It is obvious that improvement of demographic factors depends also on the material situation of families in Poland, improving situation in the labour market, stability of employment and easier access to flats for young families. Negative factors include the role labour plays in foreign migration, which results in the postponement of marital unions or establishes them outside Poland. If we wish to reverse very low fertility in Poland it is necessary to look at the processes characteristic of developed countries and their family policies. Many developed countries help women to combine their maternal and professional roles. Those policies have had positive results in France, Scandinavian countries and Great Britain. Population policy regarding fertility has two possibilities: to help couples in the realization of their procreation plans or to convince them to modify their plans. In the situation in Poland it appears more logical to accept the first possibility and work to remove obstacles which cause difficulties for couples making procreative decisions (for example difficulties to combine maternity and professional roles). Observation of the demographic process in Scandinavian countries shows us that building Day Care Centres for children, flexible times of work and holidays and some financial support in rearing children may increase TFR. But due to an economic gap, Poland is not able to imitate Scandinavian countries family policy. Perhaps Poland can use both approaches and attempt to remove obstacles as well as use arguments from intergeneration solidarity.