Uwarunkowania i skutki kryzysu demograficznego w Polsce

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Wydział Teologiczny, UAM

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The Circumstances and Effects of Demographic Crisis in Poland


The purpose of this article is to answer the ąuestion: what caused the demographic crises in Poland after 1989? Poland used to be a country with one of the highest TFR (Total Fertility Rate) in the Communist Block. During the last twenty years its TFR dropped until Poland became a country with the lowest TFR in Europe. This demographic process is responsible for an increasingly aging society, which means there is an increasing proportion of old people (60+). This process undermines the balance between those who are in the labour market and those who have reached retirement age. As a result of this situation, in the near future there will be a decrease in Poland's population. The factors include the numbers of women in procreative age, indiyidual attitude and behavior regarding procreation plans, situation within the labour market, emigration, socio-economic situation. It is obvious that improvement of demographic factors depends also on the material situation of families in Poland, improving situation in the labour market, stability of employment and easier access to flats for young families. Negative factors include the role labour plays in foreign migration, which results in the postponement of marital unions or establishes them outside Poland. If we wish to reverse very low fertility in Poland it is necessary to look at the processes characteristic of developed countries and their family policies. Many developed countries help women to combine their maternal and professional roles. Those policies have had positive results in France, Scandinavian countries and Great Britain. Population policy regarding fertility has two possibilities: to help couples in the realization of their procreation plans or to convince them to modify their plans. In the situation in Poland it appears more logical to accept the first possibility and work to remove obstacles which cause difficulties for couples making procreative decisions (for example difficulties to combine maternity and professional roles). Observation of the demographic process in Scandinavian countries shows us that building Day Care Centres for children, flexible times of work and holidays and some financial support in rearing children may increase TFR. But due to an economic gap, Poland is not able to imitate Scandinavian countries family policy. Perhaps Poland can use both approaches and attempt to remove obstacles as well as use arguments from intergeneration solidarity.




demographic crisis, kryzys demograficzny, birth rate decrease, spadek urodzeń, aging of the society, starzenie się społeczeństwa, generation replacement, zastępowalność pokoleń, population policy, polityka ludnościowa, matemity and professional roles, role macierzyńskie i zawodowe


Teologia i Moralność, Tom 7, 2010, s. 17-32




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Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego