Przegląd Antropologiczny - Anthropological Review, 2002, vol. 65

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    Comparison of various decalcificators in preparation of DNA from human rib bone
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Żołędziewska, Magdalena; Gronkiewicz, Stanisław; Dobosz, Tadeusz
    Various calcium-binding buffers and agents in DNA preparation from fresh human rib bones were compared. We showed that the buffer described by Kuntze et al. [1996] yielded the highest quantaties of DNA, but the obtained DNA was strongly degraded. The best quality DNA was obtained using two buffers: of Hänni et al. [1994] and Ivanov et al. [1995]. Among the new calcium-binding agents that were not examined before, the most efficient were Bismuth III Oxide and Na/FeEDTA, and - in two-step decalcification - sodium citrate.
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    Paradigms of anthropology as causes of taxonomic controversies
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Tomczyk, Jacek
    The thesis of the paper is that the paradigms espoused by scholars affect their taxonomic decisions, which points to a philosophical source of such controversies. The paradigms the author discusses as holding in anthropology, at various times, include: (1) the "fixity-of-species" paradigm, (2) the "Asian roots" paradigm, (3) the "encephalization" paradigm, and (4) the "mid-Tertiary" paradigm.
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    Anthropometric craniofacial pattern profiles in microcephaly
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Abdel-Salam, Ghada M.H.; Gyenis, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E.
    Craniofacial measurements were taken in 60 cases prsenting with microcephaly. The cases were classified etiologically and morphologically and the letter was further subclassified. Craniofacial pattern profiles, cranial capasity, and the pattern vriability index were calculated and compared with normal Hungarian controls of the same age and sex. In addition, correlation analysis between cranial capacity and IQ was done. Our results show significant similarity of the craniofacial pattern profiles between isolated microcephaly (IMC) and multiple microcephaly (MMC), and between primary microcephaly (PMC) and secondary microcephaly (SMC). The pattern variability index of the microcephalic caseswas 4.77. There was no correlation between cranial capacity and IQ in the icrocephalic patients.
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    The effects of menstrual and menopausal factors on bone mineral content in healthy Polish women
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Szklarska, Alicja; Jankowska, Ewa; Łopuszańska, Monika
    The aims of the study were the following: (1) An evaluation of which factor, aging itself or the occurence of menopause, revealed a more detrimental effect on bone mineral content (BMC) of healthy women; (2) An assesment of influence of other factors (the menarcheal age, the total number of reproductive years and the lenght of the period after menopause) on BMC. Our sample material comprised a group of 928 healthy females (715 pre- and 213 postmenopausal), aged 20-62. BMC at the ultra-distal radius was assessed by pQCT. BMC differences between particular groups were tested using a two-way ANOVA. The menopause was related to BMC decline and the impact of menopausal hormonal alterations was much stronger than that of chronological age. Among postmenopausal women, the total number of reproductive years was not an independent predictor of better bone status. In premenpausal women the beneficial effect of earlier menarche on bone tissue is maintained.
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    Recent trends in stature of 14-year-old boys from Wrocław, Poland
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Kołodziej, Halina; Kozieł, Sławomir
    The im of this study was to investigate the educational grup-specific secular trends in stature of 14-year-old boys from Wrocław. The study was based on two cohorts of boys measured in 1987 and 1997. On the basis of mother and father education level divided into three categories, social sub-groups were selected. During the period 1987-97 the mean stature of 14-year-old boys has risen from 163.6 cm in 1987 to 165.6 cm in 1997. Growth trends were positive in all sub-groups selected on the basis of father education. The analysis of secular changes in body height within the separated social sub-groups showed hat boys whose fathers had a university education were the tallest and boys whose fathers had basic vocational or elementary school education were the shortest. The greatest increment in boy height (2.82 cm) took place in the sub-group of boys whose fathers had secondary school education. In all of the sub-groups selcted on the basis of mother education the growth trends were positive. The boys from the sub-group where the mother had the secondary school eduction experienced the largest increment in body height during the period 1987-97.
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    Adolescent growth and its relation to menarche, dental and somatic maturation
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Kaczmarek, Maria
    Relationships between growth in height during adolescence and menarche, somatic, and dental maturation were analyzed on longitudinal data for 181 boys and 176 girls from the Poznań Growth Study. It was found that the correlation pattern between variables shifts during the spurt indicating the following regularities: The younger and smaller the boys and girls were at the onset of the spurt, and the lower the height velocity at that time, the longer their spurt was likely to last, and the adolescent height increment was larger. Neither the timing of the spurt, nor the spurt duration or height gain had and influence on the final height. The maturation of the dentition was weekly, or no significantly, correlated with growth in height. The age at menarche revealed significant correlations with all characteristics of the growth spurt except for adolescent increment and adult height.
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    Effect of diurnal variation on body composition under consideration of selected chronobiological marker systems
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Dittmar, Manuela; Raschka, Christoph; Koch, Horst J.
    Diurnal variation in body composition in relation to chronobiological parameters was analyzed in 27 healthy students (22-29 years) four times over one day from 5:35 to 0:15 h. Body composition was determined by multifrequency bioimpedance analysis at fixed frequencies (1, 5, 50, 100 kHz). Resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were measured. Total, extra and intracellular body water (TBW, ECW, ICW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) were derived, and blood pressure and body temperature were measured. Friedman's ANOVA with post hoc Wilcoxon matched pairs tests revealed a diurnal variability. R and Xc declined in the course of the day. Weight, TBW, ECW, ICW, LBM and ECM increased, whereas height decreased. Chronobiology did not significantly influence FM. Body composition variables displayed inverse associations to RRdiastolic. The diurnal decrease is probably influenced by food and fluid intake. the representative values for body composition should be the morning measures.
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    Sexual dimorphism in the robusticity of long bones of infants and young children
    (Polskie Towarzystwo Antropologiczne, 2002) Coussens, Anna; Anson, Tim; Norris, Rachel M.; Henneberg, Maciej
    It is difficult to determine the sex of subadult skeletal remains because there is a little sexual dimorphism present pre-pubertally. In a historic sample of 24 children aged 0-4 years from St. Mary's Anglican Church,Marion, South Australia, the robustness of femora and of humeri was correlated with sexually dimorphic mandibular morphology. Ratios of midshaft circumference to diaphyseal length of humeri and femora and the ratio of minimum circumference to diaphyseal length of the humerus showed correlation with sex determined by mandibular morphology, male indices being greater than the female ones. The humerus midshaft circumference index showed the greatest difference between sexes (P value=0.0002). The results need confirmation on known-sex skeletal remains, but for the moment this robusticity dimorphism seems to be a new discovery for osteological practice.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego