ItemIntermarriages – Crossing Political and Social Borders(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Stojanova, MeriThis paper analyses Macedonian – Albanian intermarriages in Macedonia in the last fifteen years i.e. their frequency, routes and patterns set in correlation with the social and traditional relationship that existed and still exists in both „sending” and „receiving” communities. The foundation of such „new” constructions as Macedonian – Albanian intermarriages, deconstruct some of the already established norms both on the nuclear – family level and on the local – community level and reshape or construct new norms and relations within families and local communities as well. Item„The Text Was Considered Miraculous”. Magic Words in Pasternak’s „Doctor Zhivago”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Stanton, Rebeca JaneIn Doctor Zhivago, Pasternak brings scientific and political discourses into dialogue with magical ones. In an emblematic episode, two soldiers from opposing sides each wear a protective amulet containing the „miraculous” text of the 90th Psalm. One dies; one survives. While this discrepancy is easily traced to scientific and socioeconomic causes, the episode is designed to foreground the least rational explanation: that done right, magic actually works. Embodying Pasternak’s interest in the interrelationships among science, politics, poetry, and magic, the textual amulet is especially significant because it represents a magical power that is reserved for words. This article finds that Pasternak’s novel contains numerous examples of such efficacious „magical” texts – from the Gospels to peasant songs, from political slogans to Zhivago’s poems – and argues that reading Doctor Zhivago by the light of these „magic words” yields insights into the aesthetics and design of the novel. ItemSłowo magiczne jako działanie – o kilku walorach koncepcji Bronisława Malinowskiego(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Rakoczy, MartaThis article concerns Bronisław Malinowski’s ethnographical theory of magical word. His theory was a revolutionary one for two reasons (1) he claimed that magical word is not an instrument of understanding of „primitive mentality” (2) he argued that analysis of magical word demanded abandoning of textual bias which entailed our seeing linguistic genres as semantically autonomous texts. Malinowski was not so interested in the question of literacy. He remarked, though, that writing determinated our linguistic reflection and that magical word, as another oral linguistic genres, demanded a radical rejection of textual conceptions of meaning, language and folklore. Although Malinowski’s methodological stipulations were not always consistent and his rejection of textual bias was fairly half, his abandonment of the conception of „magical world view” which is a foundation for uses of magic is still up-to-date. ItemIn Search of a Perfect Form and Style: Turgenev and Conrad’s Emphasis on Visual Impression(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Pudełko, BrygidaThe human face as a mask that can both hide and emphasise the main traits of human personality and thoughts was used by Turgenev and Conrad. In the society depicted in such novels as Under Western Eyes, Virgin Soil and Smoke where secrecy and hypocrisy are a universal condition of man, face reading becomes an essential factor. The references to eyes as well as words and outside look indicate something about the characters concerned and can be considered as a means attributing a moral significance to physical appearance. As eyes are closely related to communication and knowledge, comments about the characters’ eyes implicate their knowledge and honesty with which they communicate with other people. ItemMagična moć maski kao paradigma iluzije stvarnosti u drami Ive Vojnovića „Maškarate ispod kuplja”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Pivac, AntonelaThe present paper analyses Ivo Vojnović’s drama Maškarate ispod kuplja by intending to emphasize the importance of carnival masks considered as instruments of liberation of individuals from social conformism. The protagonists of Vojnović’s Maškarate show their non-conformist faces and experience freedom only in carnival season. The carnival is described as the allegory of surreal and phantasmagoric world displaying pseudo-realistic situations that represent the deformed face or, rather, the alter of the masked reality. Masks are, therefore, perceived as shields from the frustrating reality and external influences, whereas life under masks is understood as the perfect model of concealing internal weaknesses and insecurities. The enchanting carnival atmosphere enables the protagonists to openly show the suppressed personality and personal choices. The clear model of searching for the illusion of the truth and the truth of the illusion is also shown, notwithstanding the complicating conditions of the emotional world of the protagonist-symbol who creates false identity provoked and conditioned by external factors. The influence of the Italian grotesque theatre has been reported as well, whereas the similarities have been perceived in particular in the behavioral pattern of the protagonists and perception of time and place as metaphysical categories. The determination of the level of interdependence between the Croatian author and the Italian role models has also been possible. The comparison with the Italian literary contemporaries has been performed by examining the intertextual correspondences in particular related to the selection of the „carnivalesque” motives. ItemPonavljanje, parodija ili raspadanje prazne ploče magijskih performativa u hrvatskome suvremenome pjesništvu(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Pinter, Kornelija; Sorel, SanjinIn the article, from different linguistic and literary theoretical perspectives, parodic function of anaphora is analyzed on samples of Croatian contemporary poetry. The aim is to present how a poem, especially one that is not from the contemporary lyric collection, is not a realization of „mythic time”, but in its rhythms and structures, where repetition is conditio sine qua non of lyricism, it keeps a trace, a memory of the imaginary, of the myth which in speech revives what is hidden and suppressed. ItemRękopis z zaświatów. „Hrad smrti” Jakuba Demla(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Pająk, PatrycjuszIn the story The Castle of Death (1912) Jakub Deml presents an esoteric text, which allows initiation, that is to say the revival and improvement of human spirit, because it points the way to the absolute hidden behind the words. The highest form of initiation is transcendence, which consists in the unity of life and death. To achieve this, the candidate of initiation must die in this world. Deml shows the horror of death by the conventions of a horror story. In The Castle of Death, writing and reading the esoteric text means the confrontation between the life-giving language and the ineffable silence of death. This confrontation leads to the acceptance of silence, because in the world of absolute language as the medium of the spirit loses its raison d’être. To emphasize the uniqueness of esoteric text, Deml uses the form of a found manuscript. He presents the moment of transition between temporality and transcendence as a dream that goes back to a source of human life. ItemSilata na ženskoto slovo v baladite na K.J. Erben(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Madžarova, TanjaThe power of women’s words in K.J. Erben’s ballads discusses the author’s literary texts (the collections Písně and Kytice), in which the woman is presented as a permanent character who is in the focus of significant conflict situations and moral problems. Women’s words have a broad spectrum of expression: from the intimate address to oneself, through the prayer, the blessing, the divination, and the imprecation, to the prophecy. Women’s words refer to a peculiar reflection of the collective memory and norm, but at the same time they bring the woman out of her anonymity, individualizing her in her own desires and intentions. ItemPerformativna snaga imena u zbirci priča „Inšallah Madona, inšallah” Miljenka Jergovića(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Lujanović, NebojšaThe names play a main role in understanding of Miljenko Jergović’s literary works and it is argued through analysis of collection of stories called Inšallah Madona, inšallah. The names have their history, they describe and determine actors, and function as axioms with initial stabile meaning. By decoding of related code, new complex components of semantic field of the name as symbol are revealed to us. In chosen text, the names operate as curse in form of general principle. Through curse as a main motive, it is implied performative dimension of the names which symbolize pain or misery, evoke tragedy and in the end fulfil inscribed curse. ItemMagija reči u pripoveci Momčila Nastasijevića „Zapis o darovima moje rođake Marije”(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Žižović, OliveraInterpretation of Momčilo Nastasijević’s narrative „An Account of the Gifts of my Cousin Marija” indicated the significance of the storyteller’s belief in the magic of words and in calamitous effect of words on destiny – not only his own destiny, but also that of his cousin Marija. Except the power of words – curse, and magic belief in it, important part in the events is also played by disrespect for somebody else’s word (intensified by the fact that it is the last will of a dying person), as well as by breaking of one’s word (false oath), which also turns to be fatal. Destiny of Marija and that of her cousin is viewed from the perspective of depth psychology, as well as her confronting individual and collective Shadow, and his temporary state of being overwhelmed, and later permanently engulfed by unconscious contents and family Shadow. While Marija comprehends evil in herself and in the world, and through agony and suffering reveals her light side, and experiences enlightenment, her cousin, having heard her story, begins to identify himself with dead Marija, failing to face these contents or fight them creatively. Marija has „light in her life” while expecting the second coming of Christ – coming of the Word, Logos, that will set the world free, so she spends her life doing embroidery, in order to fulfill the Word – what was foretold and announced (spoken and written). Unlike her, under the pressure of his cognition, her cousin falls silent, wishing only for death, which is the only one, he believes, that can untie the knot of his suffering. Still, in order to die peacefully, actually to be able to die at all, near the end of his life he will be compelled to speak, meaning to write down the narrative about his cousin and himself, in order for the „knot of suffering” to be resolved by words, meaning, by the very concept that tied it in the first place. ItemLeksičke osobitosti odrješenja grijeha u Klimantovićevu zborniku iz 1512. godine(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Lozić Knezović, KatarinaThis paper presents the lexical and linguistic characteristics of absolution of sins in the Croatian Church Slavonic Klimantović’s Miscellany I, in which the patterns of release and absolution from sin are powerful oral mechanism adjusted to population of that time. In the analysis, the author used her own transliteration of the miscellany. Considered are the sacraments of reconciliation in chapters 32. Otrišenie op’ĉeno, 36. Ovo ẽ od’rišenie od’rišiti od’ velikoga prok’lats’tva and 37. Ovo estь od’rišenie od’rišiti nemoĉnika muž’ku i žen’sku gl vu. The study shows how much the language is considered archaic in those chapters as well as how much there are younger lexical influences, conditioned primarily by neighborly contacts that influenced vernacular. Archaic features of the vocabulary are recorded in domestic words from Protoslavic period as well as from dialectal Protoslavic layers, with a significant number of Moravisms (West Slavic lexemes) such as zakonь, suffix -kratь, adjective nebes’ki, verb otpustiti. Contribution to that are loanwords from Protoslavic period. Among other linguistic features, confirmations of archaic features are the older verb present tense forms -ši. The rejuvenation of lexis is obvious in the influence of vernacular on texts of absolution – in many Italianisms that entered into our system directly through Čakavian dialect such as eneralь, pun’ta, purgatorii, and in numerous Croatisms as a result of direct influence of vernacular which is not part of a joint Church Slavonic and Croatian lexis such as personal pronoun ĵa, the dative singular mani, interrogative pronoun čakoli, connective ako. Also, among other linguistic features are present for example younger suffixes -ega, -oga of the genitive singular of adjectives and pronouns. ItemConjuring Life: Magic in the Poetics of Marina Tsvetaeva(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Lane, ToraThis article discusses the notion of magic in the poetics of Marina Tsvetaeva (1892–1941) against the backdrop of romanticism and Russian modernism. Magic is related to the poet’s explorations of folklore, and also to Romantic, symbolist and futurist invocations of it. Concepts of magic are central to Tsvetaeva’s poetics; she considers conjuration to be a property of language that facilitates contact with the demonic, elemental and natural aspects of the world. These elemental aspects are not to be considered merely as the poet’s mythologisations of the world, but also as her reflections on the capacity of poetic language to speak of what is otherwise hidden in the world. ItemSłowo w ewolucji. Kłamstwa, seks, plotki i… znajomi na Facebooku(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Wężowicz-Ziółkowska, DobrosławaThe essay shows the main conceptions upon a biological power of a word: the macchiavellian theory/ theory of a lie, the mating mind theory, that means a theory of handicaps, and the social selection theory of S. Dunbar. The author proposes a thesis that a speech takes its power from the biological determinants of the origin of a language, and proves it by fusing various contemporary biological concepts. It is a biological evolution that founds the power of words, and also explains the magic of words in the various types of relations – among society, but also between sexes, generations and finally, among individuals considered in a biological sense. ItemKletva i pokušaj zaštite od kletve u pripoveci „Kumova kletva” Janka Veselinovića(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Kostić, LjiljanaIn his rural themed short stories, Janko Veselinović gave snippets of life in the Serbian village of the XIX century that represent a valuable material for ethnological study. Folk meditations on sin, punishment, oath, damnation etc. were often the driving force behind his short stories. The subject of our work is Veselinović’s short story The Godfather’s Curse where the author wanted to depict the way in which a curse, just like in the beliefs of the ancients, strike the one who had committed a sin. No one can escape the curse, not even the strongest ones, nor their descendants, because in the short stories by Janko Veselinović evil must be punished. ItemTropem magii słowa w literaturze chorwackiej i serbskiej XX wieku(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Czapik-Lityńska, BarbaraThe essay titled „Pursuing the Magic of Words in the Twentieth-Century’s Croatian and Serbian Literature” discusses transformations of the awareness of the avant-garde and postmodernism from the perspective of its relation to magic thinking. The essay advances a vision of poetic language and the main figures of the avant-garde’s imagination, especially the aesthetic conceptualizations of the messianic archetype. The avant-garde thinking about the world of unity (of the world-man-language) is utopian and not infrequently magic-esoteric. Postmodernism deconstructs symbolic language; it does not share the avantgarde’s belief in the existential and creative power of imagination and the word. The virtual culture of postmodernism reduces the value of the language sign and the referential function of language; it disenchants the conceits of the magic word. ItemTeurgický element slova v estetickém systému Andreje Bělého(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Vorel, JanAccording to aesthetic theories of Russian symbolist A. Belyj every real art is in its deepest essence a symbolic one, it represents an organic connection of two orders – phenomena of the inner world and the living consciousness. The connection is thus the union of the inner and outer world. Its sense can be unveiled in metaphysics and mystic, the indexes of the way to a complex re-structuring of the human being and discovering new forms of existence. Consequently Belyj understands the symbol as the interaction of its three parts: 1) as a picture of the visible reality, causing certain emotions in our consciousness, 2) as an allegory expressing the ideological meaning of the picture (the philosophical, religious and social meaning) and 3) as an appeal to the creation of the real life. Together with Wagner and Nietzsche, Belyj can see the essential ideals of the culture in antique mystery dramatic art that represented the primary interconnection of all the art forms. Heading to the complex renaissance of the culture he concentrates on the phenomenon of the word – the essential base, „key for unlocking the world”. The essence of the symbolic expression consists of the words, through those the creative human strives to express his inexpressible impressions in a logical way. The living speech is thus always certain „music of inexpressible”. The creative word constitutes new, „third world” – „the world of the sound symbols”. The relationships between the sounds and evolution of the Cosmos is formulated in another essay „Глоссолалия – поэма о звуке” (1922). ItemNeoliberalizm w Europie Środkowej – magia, religia czy nauka?(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Buchowski, MichałExpansion of capitalism to former communist countries was presented, especially by many intellectuals, as a scientific endeavor based on rational choice theory, management techniques and precisely measured market forces. For many practitioners of ‘transformation’ the neo-liberal project became also similar to proselytizing religion that has to be spread among infidels, i.e. communism-ridden populations. In the process of applying supposedly scientific principles for missionary purposes, many mechanisms identified by anthropologists as magic were used. The same modes of thinking apply to the explanations of reform failures. In magical thinking symbols are treated as signs; in a supposedly cause-and-effect chain of events a symbolic element is instantiated and the status of this symbol is perceived as equivalent to the empirical constituents. Symbolic factors, distinguished as such in an analytical process, have the same power of affecting reality as the physically perceptible factors. Communism was often blamed for using magical tricks, particularly in the domain of magical power of words. Words, through their symbolic power, were supposed to excuse for failures in practical domains. In the notions describing advantages and shortcomings of the neoliberal system such unspecified elements can also be identified. In conclusion one can say that neo-liberalism is a science, but only for its believers who in their reasoning apply magical modes of thinking. ItemFigura žreca u Dežmanovu "Ljutovidu"(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Brunčić, DubravkaThis article analyses a construction of figure of žrec in the introductory canto of historical epic Ljutovid written by Croatian romantic writer Ivan Dežman. Žrec is a religious-magical figure which comprises functions of priest, prophet and magician. By applying reviewed readings of Austin’s speech acts theory, the article focuses on the performative dimension of žrec’s prophetic utterances, different types of prophetic speech and their effects of national integration. ItemElementy verbalnoj magii v rossijskom oficioznom diskurse(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Vasilev Dmitrijevič, AleksandrThe article is dedicated to phenomena of verbal magic, which exploit in modern Russian semi-official discourse for the purpose of social consciousness’ manipulation. ItemSličnosti i razlike u Wittgensteinovom i Derridaovom shvaćanju jezika kao djelovanja(Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2013) Peternai Andrić, KristinaThis research paper offers a comparison of the concepts of language as action presented by J. Derrida and L.Wittgenstein, including the concept of „performative” by J.L. Austin. The conclusion is that they maintain a non-representational character of language. Relationship between sign and referent is arbitrary and signs can not have a direct reference to independent objects; rather they produce meaning through relationships with other signers. In social practice, through the use of „language games”, meaning can be stabilized and systematised by the habitual use of signs; however, this stabilization of meaning is always provisional. Regardless of the differences in the approaches by Wittgenstein and Derrida, in the end is turns out that their mutual similarities are more important. The concept of language derived from their theories has a significant role in the understanding of self and identity, which leads to a discursive-performative conception of the formation of identity. Also, some common arguments and theoretical apparatus by Wittgenstein and Derrida may contribute to a new way of thinking about democratic politics.