Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny, 1995, nr 3


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    Spis treści RPEiS 57(3), 1995
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995)
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    Sytuacja prawna małoletniej matki przed urodzeniem dziecka
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Sokołowski, Tomasz
    The Polish laws do no contain a sufficient regulation with regards the legal situation of an adolescent mother of an unborn child. The following problems appear in connection with the problem: acceptance of the fathering of the unborn child, the obligation to provide maintenance and care, the capacity of an adolescent mother to appear before court and become a party in a civil case, the right to decide upon the matters concerning the child. There are many lacunas in the existing laws. The most important problem is that the scope of the rights of an adolescent mother becomes reduced ones the child is born.
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    Dążenie do zrównoważonego budżetu. Stany Zjednoczone i Unia Europejska
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Kosiński, Eryk
    The principle of balanced budget is one of the most fundamental budgetary principles. It guarantees that the state expenditure does not go beyond the amount of the revenue received for a given fiscal year. Therefore, a possibility of budgetary deficit - so dangerous for the financial stability of the state - is precluded. The paper describes the functioning and the legal mechanism of systems which have been responsible for the balanced budget in the USA since the 1985 Gramm-Rudman-Holdings Act reform, and the system in the European Union. It is worth noticing that together with the principle of the equilibrium, it is necessary to impose a compliance of the state budget with the principle of universality, and - for technical reasons - the principles of annuality and unity.
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    Uwarunkowania handlu Polski z krajami Unii Europejskiej w zakresie artykułów rolno-spożywczych
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Czyżewski, Andrzej
    The paper consists of three parts. The first one describes the conditions in which foreign trade with UE countries is carried out. Those conditions are a result of dozens of years of Common Agricultural Policy followed by EEC countries whose objectives and system conditions for their realisation have been presented in the paper. The evolution of objectives and measures taken to achieve them have also been shown. The second part addresses the need to protect the food market in Poland, suggesting to make use of the UE's experience in that respect, including mainly the implementation of certain system conditions and necessary instruments required to provide protection of the market. The third part gives an account of what has happened so far in the area of the realisation of the Agreement about a Liaison between Poland and the European Union countries in the sector of food processing and agriculture. The 'agricultural' part of the Agreement has been presented and the possibilities of trading plus first attempts of its evaluation have also been presented. They do not look too good for Poland which seems to receive disadvantaged treatment in comparison with the countries associated in the EU. The ratification of GATT agreements relatively reduces those benefits, too. Therefore, the need to renegotiate the agricultural part of the agreement may be required if the promised benefits for Poland were to remain on paper only.
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    Spółdzielczość w gospodarce rynkowej
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Romanow, Zbigniew
    The paper first mentions those who initiated and propagated the idea of cooperatives, the types of cooperatives and their evolution in the market economy. Next, it stresses that despite the tendency to carry out mass privatisation and the negative evaluation which cooperatives set up in socialist countries have received, one should not overlook the positive aspects and opportunities which cooperatives create and which should therefore be given some room in economic activity. In the Polish environment the restructuring of the present cooperative system requires a new set of legal regulations defining its role and the principles according to which it operates. First of all, cooperative attitudes and relations promoting a system in which cooperatives collaborate and help one another in the market should be established. This will improve the functioning of cooperatives in the competitive market economy. Cooperatives should base their operations on principles of good management and income value which is the best measure of performance as a function of a goal, a criterion used in the assessment of any economic activity. To be successful, the restructuring of cooperatives requires, at least in its initial stage, external support of the state. This helps them to achieve independence and efficiency. It also needs to be supported by a set of organisational and economic assumptions and regulations adequate to its role assumed in the state's policy. However, the pro-cooperative policy of the state should not merely provide a protective umbrella and tolerate poor management, inefficiency and a policy of the so-called profitable minimum prices. The state's involvement should never interfere with the principles of market economy.
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    Rolnictwo niemieckie - przeszłość i teraźniejszość
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Radkiewicz, Wacław
    In the period after 1955, the traditional German agriculture has transformed into a modern one. Radical changes have taken place and they cannot be compared to anything before. As a result, modern agriculture in Germany produces much more crop than ever in the past. However, nowadays only a small number of farmers can find employment in agriculture. For many generations peasants have lived with a deep belief that nothing can destroy the stability and immunity of their life. Technical and economic transformations have brought about a social shock. New technologies have caused a degradation of the natural environment has, in a way and led agriculture astray. Today, the main objective of agrarian policy in Germany is to reach a balance between the economic and environmental goals.
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    Marketingowa orientacja warunkiem przystosowania gospodarstw chłopskich do wymagań rynku
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Chabierska, Ewa; Gotówka, Elżbieta
    The transition to market economy requires appropriate changes to take place in the agricultural environment, including the conditions in which farms operate. Peasant farms as well as other businesses need to change from the traditional to the market approach. Market economy is nowadays a necessary condition for the success to be achieved in the changing market environment. The results of a research carried out in July 1994 among farmers selling their produce at Wielkopolska Giełda Rolno-Ogrodnicza SA in Poznan (Wielkopolska Agricultural and Garden Produce Exchange) show that only a small number of farm owners use marketing instruments in practice, whereas the majority represent a 'surviving' attitude. This can be explained by inadequate knowledge of the principles and rules of market economy. Lack of marketing knowledge may very soon lead to a loss of a competitive advantage, leading in consequence to a loss of the market share. Farmers must realise that a change in their attitude from a production focus to a market focus is a pre-condition in the process of the changes implemented in farms to suit the requirements of a market economy.
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    Rolnicy ekologiczni o szansach i zagrożeniach swoich gospodarstw
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Łuczka-Bakuła, Władysława
    The paper discusses the results of a research carried out in 1994 in which farms producing crops in a ecological form were analysed. The research was to identify the opportunities and threats brought about by the implementation of new production methods on farms. The results show that 75% of the respondents have taken the risk to produce food in a ecological form. Out of those 38% do it to be competitive in the Polish market, and 33% have done so to compete with foreign food producers. Only 25% of the farmers decide to produce crops in a ecological way because they want to use production means better. The most frequently quoted threats were: lack of interest in natural food among consumers (72%) and instable sales structure for that type of product (69%). Other threats included a decline in income (33%) and a demand barriers caused by high prices of natural food (29%). The economic situation of ecological farms is not uniform and depends on the attitude of a given farmer to the requirements of the market. Pro-market attitudes account for about 30% of all farmers. Those farmers follow active business strategy and present optimistic views on the future chances of healthy food and the potential income growth resulting from increased sales of such products. The others see their income growth as dependent on a number of different, sometimes quite extensive, forms of state's assistance.
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    Teoria kosztów transakcyjnych wg O. Williamsona
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Pańkowska, Małgorzata
    The paper focuses on outsourcing, one of the theories lying at the grounds of successful cooperation. The issues concerning virtual organisation, H. Simon's theory, the market, hierarchy, specifics of the human assets, site specificity and material resources are briefly discussed. The complexity of the product description, typical and exceptional transactions and certain types of contracts are also considered. It has been pointed out that within one company several outsourcing firms, each of a specific specialisation, may operate. Consequently, a so-called virtual organisation develops. Such an organisation benefits from the fact those different businesses cooperate with one another.
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    Problemy kształtowania się więzi integracyjnych w spółdzielczości mleczarskiej w Polsce
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Skawińska, Eulalia
    The purpose of the paper was to present the conditions and possibilities of integration of milk cooperatives in the sphere of distribution. Two research hypotheses have been therefore considered: 1. Lack of own distribution network as an element which limits efficient management in milk cooperatives. 2. Integrated distribution channels providing an opportunity of good performance and development of milk cooperatives at different levels of economic development. The paper describes negative effects resulting from the lack of functional relations among milk cooperatives. They apply to milk producers as well as food processors and consumers. Next, external conditions influencing the need for such integration in milk cooperatives have been identified. That need is created by the international environment and a number of factors including economic, legal, production, technical/technological and organisational. Therefore, different models of theoretical integration of milk cooperatives in the sphere of distribution have been presented: (1) a financial holding; (2) a cooperative milk business association or a cooperative distribution company . That integration may be vertical or horizontal. Strengths and weaknesses of those models have been presented and the basis for the motivation system for the functioning of those relations has been described. Implementation of the proposed concept might improve competitiveness of milk cooperatives, provide protection of consumers' rights and a protection of a number of milk products from being eliminated from the market. The last is of a particular importance in the activation of rural areas.
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    Pojęcie klasy średniej a kategoria małego i średniego przedsiębiorstwa prywatnego
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Łuczka, Teresa
    Traditionally, the concept of the middle class is defined by the determining of its place in the general structure of a society against the background of two other classes poles apart and are defined as the high and the low class. The in-between position of the middle class in the social structure determines its main characteristics: private ownership and work performed personally by the owner. Those two features differentiate the middle class from the other two classes. So positioned in that structure, the middle class has formed over the years of its development a separate type of business whose character is determined by certain structural quality characteristics. The process of classification and aggregation ofthat type of business is carried out on temporary basis through the defining of quantity features because quality features are neither measurable nor countable. This assumes a relation of adequacy between the character of the business (defined by its quality features) and its size (defined by its quantity features). This relation should be perceived in the process of the measurement of the size, the classification and aggregation of an enterprise ofthat type.
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    Historia wykorzystywania dokumentów osobistych w socjologii
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Leoński, Jacek
    The paper outlines brief historic information on the engagement of research techniques in social sciences which make use of personal documents, particularly since W.J. Thomas's and F. Znaniecki's work. It also gives an account of the beginning of the development of psychobiographic documents.
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    Dyskusje RPEiS 57(3), 1995
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995) Piechowiak, Marek; Wronkowska, Sławomira; Paprzycka, Katarzyna; Jarmołowicz, Wacław
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    Komunikaty i sprawozdania RPEiS 57(3), 1995
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995)
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    Przegląd piśmiennictwa RPEiS 57(3), 1995
    (Wydział Prawa i Administracji UAM, 1995)
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego