ItemMonitoring the secondary forest succession and land cover/use changes of the Błędów Desert (Poland) using geospatial analyses(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Puchała, MartaThe role of image classification based on multi-source, multi-temporal and multi-resolution remote sensed data is on the rise in the environmental studies due to the availability of new satellite sensors, easier access to aerial orthoimages and the automation of image analysis algorithms. The remote sensing technology provides accurate information on the spatial and temporal distribution of land use and land cover (LULC) classes. The presented study focuses on LULC change dynamics (especially secondary forest succession) that occurred between 1974 and 2010 in the Błędów Desert (an area of approx. 1210 ha; a unique refuge habitat – NATURA 2000; South Poland). The methods included: photointerpretation and on-screen digitalization of KH-9 CORONA (1974), aerial orthoimages (2009) and satellite images (LANDSAT 7 ETM+, 1999 and BlackBridge – RapidEye, 2010) and GIS spatial analyses. The results of the study have confirmed the high dynamic of the overgrowth process of the Błędów Desert by secondary forest and shrub vegetation. The bare soils covered 19.3% of the desert area in 1974, the initial vegetation and bush correspondingly 23.1% and 30.5%. In the years 2009/2010 the mentioned classes contained: the bare soils approx. 1.1%, the initial vegetation – 8.7% and bush – 15.8%. The performed classifications and GIS analyses confirmed a continuous increase in the area covered by forests, from 11.6% (KH-9) up to 24.2%, about 25 years later (LANDSAT 7) and in the following 11 years, has shown an increase up to 35.7% (RapidEye 2010). ItemAssessing the level of popularity of European stag tourism destinations(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Iwanicki, Grzegorz; Dłużewska, Anna; Kay, Melanie SmithThe primary objective of this article is to determine the degree of popularity of stag tourism destinations in Europe. Research was based on the search engine method, involving an analysis of the highest positioned offers of travel agencies in the most commonly used search engines in Europe (Google, Bing, Yahoo). The analysis divided the studied cities into four categories in terms of popularity. Conducting the said analysis is strongly justified, because academic publications have so far not provided studies which have determined the degree of popularity of stag destinations on a continental scale. ItemColdspot of decelerated sea-level rise on the Pacific coast of North America(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Parker, AlbertWe show here the presence of significant “coldspot” of sea level rise along the West Coast of the United States and Canada (including Alaska). The 30-years sea level for the area are mostly falling also at subsiding locations as San Francisco and Seattle where subsidence is responsible for a long term positive rate of rise. The 20 long term tide gauges of the area of length exceeding the 60-years length have a naïve average rate of rise –0.729 mm/year in the update 30- Apr-2015, down from –0.624 mm/year in the update 14-Feb-2014. Therefore, along the West Coast of the United States and Canada the sea levels are on average falling, and becoming more and more negative. ItemRunoff variability in the Scott River (SW Spitsbergen) in summer seasons 2012–2013 in comparison with the period 1986–2009(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Franczak, Łukasz; Kociuba, Waldemar; Gajek, GrzegorzRiver runoff variability in the Scott River catchment in the summer seasons 2012 and 2013 has been presented in comparison to the multiannual river runoff in 1986–2009. Both in particular seasons and in the analysed multiannual, high variability of discharge rate was recorded. In the research periods 2012–2013, a total of 11 952 water stages and 20 flow rates were measured in the analysed cross-section for the determination of 83 daylong discharges. The mean multiannual discharge of the Scott River amounted to 0.96 m3·s–1. The value corresponds to a specific runoff of 94.6 dm3·s–1·km2, and the runoff layer 937 mm. The maximum values of daily discharge amounted to 5.07 m3·s–1, and the minimum values to 0.002 m3·s–1. The highest runoff occurs in the second and third decade of July, and in the first and second decade of August. The regime of the river is determined by a group of factors, and particularly meteorological conditions affecting the intensity of ablation, and consequently river runoff volume. We found a significant correlation (0.60 in 2012 and 0.67 in 2013) between the air temperature and the Scott River discharge related to the Scott Glacier ice melt. ItemWater quality of Lake Ełk as a factor connected with tourism, leisure and recreation on an urban area(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Tandyrak, Renata; Parszuto, Katarzyna; Grochowska, JolantaLake Ełk as an important element of the urban landscape is associated with tourism and active recreation and because of it with the economy of the town. Since 1999 the renovation method with the use of artificial aeration with simultaneous phosphorus inactivation and also as a biological filter – BIO-HYDRO structures were applied on the lake. This process was lasting 10 years and brought only a short-term improvement. At the same time, the shores of the lake were managed to develop of lake tourism: beach, swimming pool, tennis courts, a promenade, and two a water equipment rentals. The illuminated fountain, the road bridge and well – developed catering – accommodation base were made as well. ItemThe optimization of rural landscape in the light of the idea of sustainable development – the example of Poland(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Sobala, Michał; Myga-Piątek, UrszulaContemporary rural landscapes in Poland are being changed intensively and adversely. These changes lead to landscape disharmony, spatial disorder, the blurring of individual and specific features and disruption to the ecological equilibrium. This article aims to present general rules for the optimization of rural landscapes. It discusses the causes and consequences of unfavourable changes within Poland’s rural landscapes which constitute a threat to their sustainable development. The authors attempt to identify the major factors to be considered in taking steps aimed at landscape optimization. Landscape equilibrium may be assessed through the sustainable development dimensions: ethical, ecological, social, economic, technical, political and legal. Landscape optimization consists in maintaining the balance within these dimensions. ItemHydraulic parameters and morphometric variables interactions in bedrock channel(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Biswas, Biswajit; Das, Balai ChandraPresent study is on the interdependent nature of hydraulic parameters and morphometric variables of a bedrock river. In this study, using dumpy level, GPS, satellite images and some mathematical equations a data set on hydraulics and morphometric variables of a bedrock channel, named Bhatajhor, of eastern India was generated. That data set was used to (1) find out impulse-response relations between hydraulic variables (2) find out relations between morphometric variables and (3) find out relations between hydraulic and morphometric variables. Seven equations (5–11) were formulated based on this empirical study to the end. The seven empirical relations, most of which include only two variables, involve channel cross-section dimensions (area, width, mean depth, maximum depth, width/ depth ratio, hydraulic radius), slope and hydraulic variables (velocity, kinetic energy, stream power, Manning’s n factor, Chezy’s C factor and shear stress). Observation shows relatively higher coefficient of determination (R2) between variables like velocity and Manning’s n factor (0.67), velocity and Chezy’s C factor (0.67), slope and τ (0.89), w/d ratio and hydraulic radius (0.53), slope and w/d ratio (0.50). ItemAccuracy of the soil sealing enhancement product for Poland(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Krówczyńska, Małgorzata; Soszyńska, Agnieszka; Pabjanek, Piotr; Wilk, Ewa; Hurbanek, Pavol; Rosina, KonstantinIncreasing urbanization results in constant enlarging of the artificial area closed to water infiltration. In 2006–2008, the Soil Sealing Enhancement (SSE) database was the part of the GMES Fast Track Service on Land Monitoring. The accuracy of the final product set by the authors should reach at least 85%. Orthorectified high resolution aerial photos of Poland were used to develop reference data constituting 20,000 random samples around the country. In each sample, the points were classified into three possible surface classes: natural, artificial and semi-sealed. Comparison of reference data to original project statistics revealed the values of accuracy, commission and omission errors in the SSE dataset. Although, SSE accuracy in Poland fulfils the criteria set by SSE authors with overall accuracy of 99.5%, the individual analysis for each category reveals many weaknesses. Preliminary interpretation of mistakes leads to the conclusion that the spatial resolution of pictures used in the SSE project is insufficient. In several cases, validation proved that omission errors were made in relation to construction sites or recently constructed buildings. It should be stated that the accuracy of SSE product for Poland should be treated as the maximum value of impervious surfaces. ItemGIS-based approach to estimate surface runoff in small catchments: a case study(Wydział Nauk Geograficznych i Geologicznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, 2016) Vojtek, Matej; Vojteková, JanaThe issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM), which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.