Przegląd Politologiczny, 2012, nr 1

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    Rola UNESCO w ochronie dóbr kultury i zasobów przyrodniczych
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Stankiewicz, Wojciech
    The topic is organized in such a way as to allow the circumstances of the establishment of UNESCO, its legal foundations, and the expansion of its activities over the years to be presented. The presentation of successive conventions that have been passed demonstrates how UNESCO’s scope of interests has been expanding to keep up with the changing world. In the analysis of successive activities and programs conducted under the auspices of UNESCO, and the attempts taken to counter the threats for the preservation of cultural and natural assets, the significance of the organization in the area of the protection of world heritage is assessed.
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    Ustrój prawny samorządu rolniczego w Polsce i RFN. Studium porównawcze
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Balcerek, Marta
    Two models of farmers’ institutions have developed in Europe: a) the French model, resulting from the decentralization of public administration and taking the form of agricultural chambers, or corporations under public law, administratively imposing obligatory membership, and b) the Anglo-Saxon model of voluntary agricultural associations with no administrative power. The purpose of this paper is to compare the first model, using the example of the North Rhine-Westphalia Chamber of Agriculture and the Wielkopolska Chamber of Agriculture. The differences are presented in terms of their respective legal structures and the tasks each chamber performs in the state administration of FRG and Poland.
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    Przywództwo oligarchiczne i jego społeczne uwarunkowania w świetle „Partii Politycznych” Roberta Michelsa
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Miński, Radomir
    The paper attempts to present the ideas of Robert Michels, known as the author of the “iron law of oligarchy.” Unfortunately, this disciple and coworker of Max Weber is relatively unpopular in Poland. His fundamental work has not been published in Polish so far, while his thoughts appear to remain both original and topical. According to Michels, the need for organization and leadership comes from the masses, which tend to be passive and require direction. In the opinion of the author of the Political Parties, the mass character of ‘contemporary’ social phenomena makes directly-democratic leadership impossible. Even those institutions that are the most fervent supporters of the idea of such democracy are only an ‘average’ reflection of this ideally-typical system. An average model illustrates to what extent decision- making practices maintain only the appearances of democratic standards whereas the whole system observes an intensifying deficit of direct democracy. Robert Michels discusses the technical and administrative conditions of leadership and its autocratic nature, which is the core of the paper.
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    Komunikacja interkulturowa w biznesie międzynarodowym
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Dudziak, Anna
    Intercultural communication involves verbal and nonverbal messages. The communication process is conducted not only by means of verbal messages but also by other elements that constitute body language. This process becomes significantly more complicated when cultural contexts are also taken into account. A message which is unambiguously understood and interpreted by the representatives of one culture may have quite a different interpretation in other cultures. It is therefore highly important to take cultural context into consideration during business talks. Being ignorant of this aspect can significantly impact the results of negotiations. Are we doomed to failure caused by cultural differentiation, then? Is the cultural aspect of communication an insurmountable barrier? Certainly not. It is obvious in talks with foreigners that one cannot avoid mistakes and misunderstandings resulting from the inaccurate interpretation of words and gestures. During a time of globalization, mergers and takeovers, intercultural communication is unavoidable. Every new intercultural dialogue brings new experiences and reduces the risk of faux pas based on cultural differences.
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    Dyplomacja Francji: ewolucja relacji na osi władzy Elysée–Matignon w układzie koabitacji
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Kuczyńska, Anna
    The paper analyzes the decision-making process with respect to foreign policy and defense in the French Fifth Republic. The author discusses the constitutional rights of the President, Prime Minister and Parliament to emphasize that the notion of the exclusive domain (domaine réservé) of the head of the state has no legal grounds. In particular, she stresses the variations in the practice of exercising power in these terms under two distinct political situations: when the president and government are from the same political option, and when they are not. She notes that given the political homogeneity of the President and the majority in the National Assembly, the President, as the actual head of the unified party, becomes the focal point in the creation and implementation of the policies for ‘his’ France, in particular of the country’s foreign policy. This defies the stipulations of Articles 20 and 21 of the Constitution, by virtue of which the government, headed by the Prime Minister, “determines and conducts the policy of the nation.” The paper devotes considerable space to an analysis of the political influence of cohabitation, i.e. the coexistence of a President of the Republic and a majority in the National Assembly who represent different political orientations. This characterized the political system of France for nine years (1986–1988, 1993–1995, 1997–2002) during the evolution of the actual dependency on the Presidential and Prime Ministerial power axis (or the Elysée–Matignon axis, as these state organs are commonly referred to) in the process of shaping and conducting the international and European policy of the state. The role of the Minister of Foreign Affairs is taken into account regarding the outcome of these changeable relations.
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    Tożsamość peryferyjna. Tożsamość centrystyczna. Lokalne i globalne kłopoty z tożsamością
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Megier, Maja
    Can one talk about identities corresponding to the periphery-center relation, identities that are an individual aspect of a group’s position on the developmental axis, or that position in the global system of power and authority? It appears that this supposition is not without sense or foundation. A peripheral identity is related to a sense of exclusion, marginalization, being undervalued, inferiority complex, backwardness, being ‘worse’, and isolated. This can inspire various resentments, aggression, hatred, a will to win appreciation at any cost, and retaliation. It can also produce stagnation and resignation, or cause mass migration to the actual or apparent center because ‘life goes on somewhere else’ and one should not waste it in the peripheries, doomed to an existence without any prospects of positive change. A centrist identity is primarily the political version of ethnocentrism, most frequently tinted with nationalism. The feeling that we are the center of the world may have nothing in common with the geopolitical, cultural or economic reality. Since we are in the center, by definition we are better off, in any aspect that counts. A centrist identity identifies the group interest with the global interest, and it ignores the interests of the peripheries, which tend to be despised. The tendency to treat other cultures as peripheral towards our own is deeply rooted in common thinking, as well as in cultural anthropology. ‘Centrist patriotism’ can transform into chauvinism and lead to a justification for discrimination of the peripheries in many ways.
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    O schematach ujmowania bliskiej i dalszej przeszłości. W kręgu metodologicznej refleksji historyczno-teoriopolitycznej
    (Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2012) Janowski, Karol B.
    The author considers the manners of discussing the past that result from an analysis of recent publications, celebrations of anniversaries, or conferences, which concern the prerequisites and uniqueness of the political transformation started in 1989. They very frequently bridge the time between the interwar period and the time following the ‘round table,’ implying an ideological and political connection between them, while bypassing the period of the Polish People’s Republic. The perception of the past in this particular manner converges with the ideological and political trends dominating in recent Polish politics. They are exemplified by the following:1. Glorification of the interwar period. This trend officially emerged in 1989 accompanying the political transformations and has since intensified and weakened alternately. On the one hand, it is a manifestation of a kind of schizophrenia, on the other, it signifies a conscious resorting to myths, as well as the manipulation of the past; 2. Disparagement of the period of the Polish People’s Republic, mixing the truth with half-truths and falsehoods. This is done for the benefit of uneducated recipients, whereas among the intelligentsia stereotypes of totalitarianism, communism, and post-communism prevail; 3. Contrasting the period after 1989 with the period of the Polish People’s Republic. As was the case in the ancien régime, there prevails a tendency to disrupt developmental continuity. The Polish People’s Republic is a ‘black hole’ in Polish history. Secondly, in contrast to the historical truth, the 1989 breakthrough appears as an event in which the ancien régime had a minute or no contribution whatsoever; alternatively this is presented as a factor that delayed the ‘true’ overthrow. This manipulation falls inside the scope of activities of the ‘Ministry of Truth’ from Orwell’s 1984. General conclusions. There is a lack of reflection, which remains in contrast to the requirements of objective description and the analysis of political phenomena and processes, an insufficient knowledge of political doctrines, a cognitive laziness, conformism and Fabianism, an intellectual avoidance of more profound analysis, a succumbing to the power of ‘political correctness,’ and a ‘herd instinct’ which epitomizes approaches to discussing both the immediate and distant past referred to in the paper.
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    Rola czynnika społecznego w procesie stanowienia planu zagospodarowania przestrzennego gminy
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM, 2012) Barańska, Marzena
    In modern democracies, local residents’ awareness concerning their participation in the decision-making process is becoming increasingly important. The expanding range of instruments provided by existing law enables them to claim their rights not only by means of a system of legal complaints, but to take advantage of the privilege of civil disobedience, and also to become involved in lobbying. This particular aspect of activity has been observed recently, when changes in architectural developments, expansion of motorways, erection of public facilities, and changes of the use of land to serve a different purpose has resulted in the greater public interest sometimes losing priority, at least in the eyes of individual citizens or from the point of view of their interests. Practice is an important factor for citizens to become more and more aware of the opportunities to apply legislative solutions in order to express their approval or disapproval of the changes proposed for a particular location, especially when these concern the immediate neighborhood and are related to residential conditions, development of infrastructure, and investment plans. Experience shows that, as time goes by, we are becoming more involved in the defense of ‘local public interest’. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how local communities and individuals take advantage of the privilege of participating in the process of applying legally sanctioned solutions to the establishment of spatial management plans at the district level and what instruments they use most frequently.
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    Metodologiczne podstawy badania zawartości prasy lokalnej
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM, 2012) Kowalczyk, Ryszard
    The paper contains the author’s considerations on the methodological foundations for the examination of the content of local press. In discussing the content of local press, the author places it in the grid of linguistic as well as politological, sociological and psychological paradigms. He presents the structure of local press content and its criteria, the form of press materials, their topics, division into press genres, the attitude of press materials to reality, and its assessment and evaluation. The paper is concluded with considerations into the territorial aspects of press materials.
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    Polska w GATT/WTO
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM, 2012) Skrzypczyńska, Joanna
    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the position of Poland in the GATT and WTO. Another topic concerns the principles of the Common Commercial Policy of the European Union, including Poland after accession. The first part of the paper presents the position of Poland in the GATT, with particular emphasis on Poland’s specific membership, which followed from its centrally planned economy. The second part of the paper concentrates on the issue of Poland’s functioning within the WTO and Polish postulates in the Development Round (Doha) of the WTO in the context of liberalized trade of agricultural commodities. The effects of excessive imports from China are also analyzed from the point of view of Polish producers of soft fruit and in terms of anti-dumping duties imposed by the EU on such imports.
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    Europa w kryzysie: perspektywy gospodarcze Unii Europejskiej do 2020 roku w kontekście problemów rozwojowych państw grupy PIIGS
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM, 2012) Walkowski, Maciej
    In 2009 the European Union, and in particular the euro zone, slid into a stage of economic recession, on account of the spreading global financial crisis, referred to as ‘2008+.’ Considerable developmental problems are being experienced by the group of countries referred to as PIIGS, particularly by Greece. Due to the tight developmental interdependencies in the European common market, the bankruptcy of Greece could cause a domino effect, i.e. the collapse of other Mediterranean economies, such as Spain or Italy, financial difficulties for Germany and France, and consequently a threat to integration processes throughout Europe. This paper is the first part of the analysis of this issue, where the author analyzes both the causes and effects of the present financial crisis in the euro zone, the first correctional activities undertaken by the EU institutions, and further developmental prospects of the European Union by 2020.
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    Nowe zjawiska w stosunkach handlowo-ekonomicznych Unii Europejskiej z Chińską Republiką Ludową
    (Wydawnictwo Naukowe WNPiD UAM, 2012) Puślecki, Zdzisław W.
    The topic of these considerations concerns the development of trade and economic relations between the European Union and the People’s Republic of China. Their purpose is to indicate new phenomena in these relations. Analysis has shown that mutual economic relations in the first decade of the 21st century expanded considerably on account of common interests. The economic crisis at the turn of the first decade of the 21st century inspired plans to stimulate the economies of both parties, and tighten mutual relations. On both sides there are the conditions and prerequisites to further develop and intensify broad economic cooperation. The Chinese competitive challenge, resulting from its dynamic development, is particularly topical and important for the prospects of the European Union’s global position.
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Biblioteka Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego