ItemPrzykłady karier akademickich kobiet na Uniwersytecie Poznańskim w okresie międzywojennym(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Mazurczak, DorotaThe long-lasting endeavors of the citizens of Wielkopolska to establish a Polish university in Poznañ eventually succeeded in January 1919. The Philosophical Faculty constituted the beginnings of Poznañ University (PU). The Legal and Economic Faculty, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry and Medical Faculty followed soon after. In 1925, the Philosophical Faculty gave rise to two new ones, that of Humanities and the Faculty of Mathematics and Nature. In the first years of PU women were a definite minority of students in all faculties. The situation changed only in the last years preceding the outbreak of the Second World War. The number of female students in the Faculty of Humanities exceeded that of male students in 1936/37 and 1937/38 (427:345 and 387:324 respectively); the proportion of female students was also increasing in the Medical Faculty (233:747 and 228:688) and in the faculty of Mathematics and Nature the number of female students was approaching that of males (265:388 and 238:333), while there were only slightly over 200 females in the Legal and Economic Faculty (in comparison to 1505 and 1347 males). A few women were awarded doctoral degrees. In the time period between the academic years of 1920/21 and 1936/37 (inclusive) 1 woman out of 52 candidates defended a doctoral dissertation in the Legal and Economic Faculty, as did 35 women out of 147 individuals in the Faculty of Humanities, and 1 woman out of 57 candidates in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry. While the awarding of a doctoral degree to a woman was relatively common, receiving a postdoctoral degree (habilitacja) used to be a rare achievement. Granting the status of an independent academic, it was most frequent in female faculty members at the Medical Faculty of PU, where it was achieved by Helena Gajewska, Michalina Stefanowska, Anna Gruszecka, Eugenia Sto³yhwowa and Eugenia Piasecka-Zeylandowa. The status of an independent academic was also awarded to Ludwika Dobrzyñska-Rybicka (Philosophical Faculty) and Mieczys³awa Ruxerówna, Helena Polaczkówna and Bo¿ena Stelmachowska (Faculty of Humanities). Jadwiga Marszewska-Ziemiêcka obtained a postdoctoral degree in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry. Only three of the above obtained their professorships before the outbreak of the Second World War: Helena Gajewska (Full Professor), Ludwika Dobrzyñska-Rybicka and Michalina Stefanowska (Titular Professor). Four of the above women were married: Zeylandowa, Sto³yhwowa, Marszewska-Ziemiêcka and Dobrzyñska-Rybicka, who became a widow early on. The absence of family and household chores was likely to make a commitment to academic work easier; this could also be a price for achieving the status that went beyond the position of a housewife which was commonly assigned to women at the time. ItemSytuacja kobiet na europejskim rynku pracy(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Rewizorski, MarekThe considerations presented in the paper demonstrate that the situation of women in the European labor market has considerably improved over the last decade. This is facilitated, among other things, by the extensive legal instruments stipulated in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and in so-called ‘equality directives’. Yet, despite this extensive and moderately coherent system of legal protection of women in the labor market, they continue to have a weaker position than men. Gender segregation in the European Union is a considerable problem; it is exemplified by women’s limited access to attractive positions and a gender pay gap, i.e. obtaining lower remuneration than men employed in comparable positions. There are also other factors that influence limited women’s activity in professional life. For a long time women have been second to men in terms of education, but the differences in this area have been gradually decreasing in recent times. What continues to be a factor to curb the participation of women in the European labor market is insufficient childcare provisions. It should be pointed out that confronting demography with employment, and requesting that women choose between home and family or work falsifies the problem. This has clearly been noted in the Europe 2020 strategy, which creates a feedback between women’s employment and their traditional role of guardians of home and hearth. This is facilitated by flexible instruments in the labor market, such as contracts typical for a flexecurity model, e.g. non-standard contracts and flexible hour contracts. Their implementation can contribute to maintaining a positive trend that has recently been manifested in an increasing rate of employed women. ItemModele wychowania seksualnego w rodzinach pochodzenia współczesnych kobiet na tle przemian obyczajowych w sferze seksualności(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Churska-Nowak, Karolina; Gulczyńska, Anna; Jankowiak, BarbaraThe paper attempts to present the transformations in sexual morality and their significance for the sexual upbringing of men and women. The results of the research presented herein allow us to analyze the models of sexual upbringing implemented in the families of origin of modern young women. It also verifies whether there are differences between men and women in the realm of sexual upbringing in their families of origin and if there are differences in their sexual functioning within a partnership depending on the model of sexual upbringing in the family of origin. ItemFeminizm amerykański trzeciej fali – zmiana i kontynuacja(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Strand, GrażynaThe history of American women fighting for equal rights dates back to the 18th century, when in Boston, in 1770, they voiced the demand that the status of women be changed. Abigail Adams, Sarah Grimke, Angelina Grimke and Frances Wright are considered to have pioneered American feminism. An organized suffrage movement is assumed to have originated at the convention Elizabeth Stanton organized in Seneca Falls in 1848. This convention passed a Declaration of Sentiments, which criticized the American Declaration of Independence as it excluded women. The most prominent success achieved in this period was the US Congress passing the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution granting women the right to vote. The 1960s saw the second wave of feminism, resulting from disappointment with the hitherto promotion of equality. The second-wave feminists claimed that the legal reforms did not provide women with the changes they expected. As feminists voiced the need to feminize the world, they struggled for social customs to change and gender stereotypes to be abandoned. They criticized the patriarchal model of American society, blaming this model for reducing the social role of women to that of a mother, wife and housewife. They pointed to patriarchal ideology, rather than nature, as the source of the inequality of sexes. The leading representatives of the second wave of feminism were Betty Friedan (who founded the National Organization for Women), Kate Millet (who wrote Sexual Politics), and Shulamith Firestone (the author of The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution). The 1990s came to be called the third wave of feminism, characterized by multiple cultures, ethnic identities, races and religions, thereby becoming a heterogenic movement. The third-wave feminists, Rebecca Walker and Bell Hooks, represented groups of women who had formerly been denied the right to join the movement, for example due to racial discrimination. They believed that there was not one ‘common interest of all women’ but called for leaving no group out in the fight for the equality of women’s rights. They asked that the process of women’s emancipation that began with the first wave embrace and approve of the diversity of the multiethnic American society. ItemParytety i kwoty wyborcze a Konstytucja RP(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Urbaniak, KrzysztofThe issue of intensifying female participation in public life, and particularly in political life, has recently been the subject of lively discussions, in particular in the social sciences. The number of female candidates on the election ballots for representative organs is clearly insuf- ficient in comparison to the size of the female electorate, as well as the abilities, skills and in- tellectual potential women occupy. This problem has also been widely discussed in Poland. As a result of these quite heated disputes and discussions, accompanied by an interesting ex- change of views on the doctrine of electoral law, an instrument to increase female representa- tion on election ballots (a quota system) was introduced into the Polish electoral system. The subject of this paper, however, is not the issue of the grounds or justification for the legal in- struments applied, or an assessment of the activities of the state authorities or the institutions of public life in this respect. Rather, the paper analyzes the legal solutions introduced in Po- land in order to increase the political participation of women from the point of view of their conformity with the regulations of the Constitution of the Polish Republic. For this purpose, the author refers both to the doctrine of constitutional law and the adjudications of the Consti- tutional Tribunal. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the ‘compensatory privilege’, in- troduced in law, is highly questionable in terms of its conformity with the Polish Constitution. In this light an amendment to the Constitution would be recommended, providing a constitu- tional status to the provisions on equality. ItemDroga polskich kobiet do Parlamentu Europejskiego(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Lesiewicz, ElżbietaIn 2004, Polish women took part in the elections to the European Parliament for the first time. It was a long road that led them to take seats there. The beginnings of the Polish women’s movement date back to the 19th century when it was closely connected with the struggle for the independence of Poland. It was then that the stereotype of the Polish Mother emerged, the guardian of the hearth and home, and promoter of patriotism. These, among other things, were the social, cultural and political stereotypes that women seeking to increase their presence in public life needed to face up to. Polish women obtained voting rights rela- tively early on, in 1918. Despite their political rights, they did not participate in the political life of interwar Poland on a larger scale. The women’s organizations that emerged after WWII implemented the ideology that was officially propagated in those times, and strictly followed the policies of the authorities. Significant changes in the women’s movement occurred in the 1980s when authentic women’s initiatives formed around the Solidarity movement. At pres- ent, approximately 300 women’s organizations operate in Poland. Polish accession to the European Union has given Polish women an opportunity to intensify their activities in supra- national politics. Polish women took seats in the European Parliament, although their num- bers thus far have been relatively low. During the 6th parliamentary term, out of 54 Polish Members of the European Parliament, 7 were women. In the EP elections held in 2009, 11 Polish women were elected as MEPs. Regardless of this low level of representation, Polish women are very active and resilient and seriously committed to working in European Parlia- mentary structures. ItemKobiety w polityce aspiracje i praktyka(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Górna-Kubacka, AnnaThe paper discusses the role of women in public life, in particular in the realm of politics. Surveys show that women do well in free market economies, where they rank quite highly in the European Union (35% of employers), whereas their participation in politics is consider- ably smaller. The paper presents the data on women participating in the highest bodies of rep- resentational authorities and local governments, as well as their achievements in the Women’s Parliamentary Group and their struggle to obtain parity on electoral ballots, concluded by winning a 35% quota. ItemRomni wśród Romów. Kobieta w kulturze romskiej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Adamczyk, AnitaThe paper discusses the position of women in Romani society. The author presents the var- ious roles a romni (Romani for woman) plays. She refers to the rules of the moral and ethical code (romanipen) that significantly affects female behavior, determines the relationship be- tween females and males, and assigns women a lower position in society than men. The paper also discusses the ‘impurities’ that constitute a specific weapon Romani women can wield against men. The author observes the changes that are taking place in the world of modern romnis. They are increasingly more educated, professionally active and make independent decisions con- cerning their own future. It should be borne in mind, however, that they continue to live in a closed community that guards its traditions, language and privacy. To change the life of Romani women would mean their leaving this community and abandoning the fundamental principles of Romani life, which is difficult. Romani women do not struggle for these princi- ples to be abandoned completely, thus giving them equal rights. They continue to guard their traditions and hearth and home. ItemWiedźmy i dziwadła, czyli polska droga do parytetu(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Klejdysz, NataliaThe next parliamentary elections in Poland will be held on the basis of the amended elec- toral law. The changes introduced involve a quota system: the ballots are required to provide for at least 35% of women and at least 35% of men. Nearly a hundred years passed from 1918, when Polish women first won voting rights, till the President of Poland signed the so-called parity law. It would not be true, however, to say that this was a century of struggle for the equality of rights of men and women in our country. It was only after 1989 that efficient steps could be taken in this area in Poland. Therefore, the quota system that has been introduced, to be tested in practice soon, is actually the consequence of twenty years of endeavors. The advo- cates of such a solution consider this to be the first step towards electoral parity. Following the solutions that numerous European countries have introduced, public debate in Poland increasingly more often refers to proposals to ‘spread’ the quota system, and then parity, also to other domains, such as management or education. The opening of a serious de- bate on these issues will to a large extent depend on the results of the recent quota changes of the electoral law. ItemPsychologiczne uwarunkowania aktywności politycznej kobiet(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Pająk-Patkowska, BeataWomen continue to be underrepresented in the world of politics, even though the formal barriers limiting their access to this sphere of activity have long been removed. The paper ana- lyzes the issue of political factors in women’s political careers and the reasons for their poor presence in this field of activity. Two feasible hypotheses to explain this state of affairs are presented in the paper: the first one assumes that the world of women does not fit that of poli- tics; the second one assumes women’s insufficient competence and a lack of the personal or cognitive predisposition required in order to play political roles. Both hypotheses are tested against the results of numerous studies, including the author’s own research on sexual stereo- types, stereotypes in the perception of politics and politicians, and research into the differ- ences between women in men in respect of the features and competencies that are significant in the profession of a politician. ItemUdział kobiet w mediach a problematyka stereotypów płci(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Balczyńska-Kosman, AlinaThe role women play in the media can be analyzed in terms of their activity – women as creators of messages, or passivity – women as the recipients of mass messages. The latter as- pect causes most controversy and frequently leads to the creation of sexual stereotypes. The range of male and female images in the mass media is highly diversified and not necessarily objective. While women tend to be increasingly present in the media, and the number of pro- grams they prepare increases, men continue to prevail in the media sector. They hold a definite majority of managerial posts and more frequently act as experts and commentators on social and political events. The Communication of the European Commission for 2006–2010 stresses the role of the media and information campaigns in the elimination of sexual stereo- types. In 2010, the Commission adopted a new five-year strategy to facilitate better use of fe- male potential. It should be the superior objective of a policy of gender equality in the media to broadcast balanced messages free from stereotypes. It is also significant to ensure women a greater participation in decision-making with respect to the mass media, increasing their op- portunities to utilize the media to voice their opinions and facilitating women’s professional promotion in media institutions. These objectives were already embraced in the National Pro- gram in Aid of Women’s Rights that was implemented in Poland from 2003 through 2005. In 2010, the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights and the „Feminoteka” Foundation stressed the issue of women’s discrimination in the Polish mass media. Monitoring of pro- grams demonstrated that the principle of gender equality was not observed. The so-called female press is a significant element of the media market. The issues dis- cussed in this sector usually concentrate on stereotypical female roles in society. Recently, however, a clear diversification of topics handled by the press can be noted and the efforts some periodicals are making in order to break gender stereotypes. Such attempts have been made by two new periodicals addressed mainly at women: „Bluszcz” and „Zadra”. An analy- sis of the content of „Bluszcz” did not evidence the abandonment of the traditional image of women though. A perusal of „Zadra” led to completely different conclusions. This is a femi- nist periodical that mainly discusses the issues of the social and political activity of women. The paper also emphasizes the increasing participation of women in the internet and in the social media. ItemKobiety w programach informacyjnych(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Piontek, DorotaThe stereotypes that concern the roles determined by one’s sex convey the traditional un- derstanding of the place, role and activity of men and women in society. The paper analyzes the leading Polish news programs in respect of female presence. This presence was defined in a two-fold manner: women as the authors of material in news programs and women as partici- pants of the events reported. In the first case, the number and subjects of reports prepared by female reporters was analyzed and the frequency with which they act as anchors of news pro- grams. The second aspect of the research concerned female participants of stories covered in news programs. The analysis in particular concerned the roles which female protagonists of news reports played. A working hypothesis assumed that women in news programs will be presented in their traditional roles as perceived by society. The analysis corroborated this as- sumption. Female reporters more frequently than male reporters covered social topics and the stories of ordinary people, i.e. the realms that are traditionally perceived as female, while fe- male protagonists of the events covered most often played the private roles of mothers, wives or witnesses. The professional roles of women included politicians related to the social sectors (labor and social care, education, health) or press spokeswomen. The conclusion of the paper is that the news programs of the leading TV stations do not show the reality but rather reflect and reinforce the image of which sex should play which roles in the public domain. ItemProblematyka kobieca w prasie lokalnej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Jurga-Wosik, EwaThe analysis of the content of local periodicals makes it possible to indicate two types of women’s issues. One presents both historical as well as modern images of women, while the other discusses women’s issues in relation to political, economic and social phenomena and events. The author of the paper attempts to answer the question of what women have found in- teresting and what they want to read about; whether we are dealing with sexism in the local press; whether publications on women’s issues are more frequently written by men or women; whether there is a set division of positions and competences available to women in the opera- tion of the local press and whether the fact that editors-in-chief are women influences the quality and quantity of women’s topics discussed. The conclusions corroborate the main hypothesis, namely that although there are certain exceptions, the local press largely reinforces a stereo- typical approach to women. ItemMuzy Józefa Ignacego Kraszewskiego i Henryka Sienkiewicza(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kosmanowa, BogumiłaThe paper discusses two prominent figures in Polish literature, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812–1887) and Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846–1916), and the role women played in their lives, influencing their works. In the beginning, the author devotes some attention to the role of ‘muses’ and their inspiration to artists from Antiquity to Romanticism. In the analytical part of her paper, she presents the differences between these two masters of the quill. Kraszewski let excessive emotions take the reins in his private life, as a consequence of which he frequently misplaced his affections, suffering considerable disappointments. Sienkiewicz, although highly susceptible to female charms, was more mature, as is well reflected in his works. His life experience influenced the artistic maturity of his female protagonists. Thus, towards the end of his life, he was able to conclude that love was the highest value. The ‘muses’ of this first Polish Nobel laureate in literature exerted a profound influence on the literary profile of the heroines of his greatest novels. ItemPolitologia wobec feminizmu a feminizm wobec politologii(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kołodziejczak, MałgorzataThe paper discusses the issue of the complex relationship between political science as a branch of academia and modern trends in feminism, understood as a collection of mutually related ideologies. The author emphasizes that both science and ideology are forms of politi- cal practice exercised in the same social and political reality. However, they are fundamen- tally different with respect to the hierarchy of their functions. The ‘clash’ of these two products of human activity produces political science on women and the politological analy- sis of feminism (subjected first and foremost to the scientific function) on the one hand, and various proposals of feminist modifications of political science that produce feministically re- formed political science and gynocentric political science (where the scientific function is subjected to social objectives) on the other. ItemPozycja kobiet na rynku pracy w świetle regulacji Unii Europejskiej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Babiak, JerzyThe position of women on the European labor market continues to be unstable. In order to make the opportunities for both genders equal at the EU level, appropriate regulations have been adopted since its beginnings. The first regulations focused on the issue of discrimination, aiming at a policy of anti-discrimination. The range of regulations in this area has gradually expanded to become an important part of EU policy. Any improvement in the situation is as- sessed in terms of increased competitiveness, innovativeness and economic growth. EU regu- lations and programs to promote gender equality, including those aimed at improving the situation of women on the labor market have now become a significant field of the Commu- nity’s activities. Progress there is already noticeable, although it continues to call for further commitment and cooperation on many levels. ItemSytuacja kobiet na rynku pracy w Polsce(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kacperska, MagdalenaThe situation of women in the labor market in Poland depends on numerous complex mi- cro- and macroeconomic factors. It results from the economic condition of the country and the global economic situation. It is a product of decisions made on a micro level as a result of macro circumstances. When discussing the employment market it should be borne in mind that it is not an ordinary market, such as the market for wellington boots or that of strawber- ries. The ‘product’ here is a human being and an ‘excess’ in the labor market creates a certain unfavorable outcome, namely unemployment. Just as an excess in the supply of wellingtons or strawberries leads to a drop in price, in the labor market it means cuts in salaries or stopping paychecks. That is why one of the tasks of the government is to provide people with the basic opportunity to get a job and earn money. Why then should the state react to the turbulence in the labor market when it does not necessarily have to do so in other markets? The answer is simply that wellingtons and strawberries do not have to provide for themselves and the family. ItemSpecyfika etyk kobiecych w ujęciu Carol Gilligan(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Hordecki, BartoszThe paper discusses the ethical views of Carol Gilligan that emerged to dispute the theory of six stages of moral development developed by Lawrence Kohlberg. In his opinion, women tend to reach the higher stages of his scale less frequently than men do. According to C. Gilligan this does not evidence the moral supremacy of men over women, but the faulty de- sign of the research tool. In her opinion, the Kohlbergian conception was based on an ethics of justice that took into account an exclusively male point of view. Women, whose voice is not heard in the public sphere, adopt a different type of ethics, namely the ethics of caring. C. Gilligan believes that it is necessary to promote this specific type of female ethics in order to overcome male dominance which is harmful both for women and men. Introducing a fe- male ethics will make it possible to refute the ‘double lie’ underlying patriarchal civilization. The lie involves (1) the assumption that male ethics are universal; and (2) female concealment of their own models of moral reasoning. ItemZrównanie wieku emerytalnego w Polsce a kwestie równouprawnienia kobiet i mężczyzn na rynku pracy(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Andruszkiewicz, IwettaThe paper presents the solutions applying to retirement in Poland that combine two sys- tems: the capitalization system and repartition. Trying to answer the question of whether different retirement ages for men and women is discriminatory, the author refers to the adjudi- cation of the Supreme Court and public opinion. The paper also indicates that the practice of giving notice of employment termination to women with permanent employment contracts only because they have acquired the right to retirement benefit violates the Constitution of Poland. ItemNa tronie i obok tronu. O kobietach w życiu publicznym Polski przedrozbiorowej(Wydział Nauk Politycznych i Dziennikarstwa UAM, 2011) Kosman, MarceliThe royal throne was a permanent element of feudal political culture, and the institution of the monarchy, albeit decidedly less significant, has survived until today, playing a primarily symbolic role in the democratic systems in Europe. The subject of the paper looks at the role of Polish rulers’ wives, as the majority of mon- archs started a family, and their offspring later took the throne. This was the case of both great dynasties – the Piasts, from the mid-10th century, i.e. from the baptism of Mieszko I, and the Jagiellons (until 1572). After these dynasties ended, the period of elective kings, who were crowned with their wives, started. Over the years, at the very least, the informal role of the queens was growing. This process paved the way to women’s liberation, and, as of the end of the 18th century, it also encom- passed the families of magnates and affluent gentry. A meaningful statement can be found in the poetry written by Bishop Ignacy Krasicki in the latter half of the same century, when he addressed men saying: “we rule the world, and women rule us”. The paper is only a sketch and promises a more in-depth monographic study.